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New Model Army

New Model Army


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At the beginning of the war, Parliament relied on soldiers recruited by large landowners who supported their cause. Oliver Cromwell soon realised that these soldiers would not be good enough to defeat the Cavaliers. He pointed out in a letter to his cousin, John Hampden, about his regiment: "Your troopers are most of them old decayed serving men... the royalists' troopers are gentleman's sons, younger sons, persons of quality. Do you think that the spirits of such base and mean fellows will be ever able to encounter gentleman that have honour, courage and resolution in them? You must get men of a spirit... that is likely to go on as far as a gentleman will go, or else I am sure you will be beaten still." (1)

Cromwell recruited men who shared his "Puritan religious zeal". He also imposed strict discipline. When in April 1643, two troopers tried to desert, he had them whipped in the market place. Men who was heard to swear they would be fined "twelvepence; if he be drunk he is set in the stocks, or worse". Cromwell was careful about who he selected as officers. The Earl of Manchester complained that he did employ "men of estates" but "common men, poor and of mean parentage". He added that they were always very religious men. (2)

Jasper Ridley, the author of The Roundheads (1976) argues: "Cromwell's military genius, combined with his Puritan religious zeal, made him the perfect military leader in a revolutionary war. He was fighting for liberty of conscience and freedom of worship for the extremist Protestant sects, which were threatened by his Church of England and Presbyterian allies as well as by his Cavalier enemies." (3)

Cromwell became convinced that some of the leaders of the Parliamentary Army were not committed to the destruction of the Royalist Army. He was a strong supporter of the Self-Denying Ordinance, where all peers and MP's should be removed from army and navy commands, including, Edward Montagu, the Earl of Manchester, Robert Devereux, the Earl of Essex and Robert Rich, the Earl of Warwick and William Waller. At first, the House of Lords threw out the recommendation but with some changes it was eventually accepted. (4)

In February 1645, the House of Commons decided to form a new army of professional soldiers. This became known as the New Model Army. It was made up of ten cavalry regiments of 600 men each, twelve foot regiments of 1,200 men, and one regiment of 1,000 dragoons. General Thomas Fairfax, was appointed as its commander-in-chief. The new army contained a larger number of ideologically-committed soldiers and officers than any other army that had taken the field so far. Cromwell was quoted as saying: "I would rather have a plain russett-coated captain that know what he fights for, and loves what he knows, than that which you call a gentleman and nothing else." (5)

Oliver Cromwell, as a MP, had to resign his command. However, a few weeks later, General Fairfax, gave him the rank of Lieutenant-General and he took charge of the cavalry. Members of the New Model Army received proper military training and by the time they went into battle they were very well-disciplined. In the past, people became officers because they came from powerful and wealthy families. In the New Model Army men were promoted when they showed themselves to be good soldiers. For the first time it became possible for working-class men to become army officers. Oliver Cromwell thought it was very important that soldiers believed strongly in what they were fighting for. Where possible he recruited men who, like him, held strong Puritan views and the New Model Army went into battle singing psalms, convinced that God was on their side. (6)

The New Model Army took part in its first major battle just outside the village of Naseby in Northamptonshire on 14 June 1645. The battle began when Prince Rupert led a charge against the left wing of the parliamentary cavalry which scattered and Rupert's men then gave chase. While this was going on Cromwell launched an attack on the left wing of the royalist cavalry. This was also successful and the royalists that survived the initial charge fled from the battlefield. While some of Cromwell's cavalry gave chase, the majority were ordered to attack the now unprotected flanks of the infantry. Charles I was waiting with 1,200 men in reserve. Instead of ordering them forward to help his infantry he decided to retreat. Without support from the cavalry, the royalist infantry realised their task was impossible and surrendered. (7)

The battle was a disaster for the king. His infantry had been destroyed and 5,000 of his men, together with 500 officers, had been captured. The Parliamentary forces were also able to capture the Royalist baggage train that contained his complete stock of guns and ammunition. The women of the royalist camp were treated with great cruelty; those from Ireland were killed, while those from England had their faces slashed with daggers. Cromwell said after the battle that "this is none other than the hand of God, and to Him alone belongs the glory". (8)

The officers of this army, as you may read, are such, as knew little of war, than our own unhappy wars had taught them, except some few, so as men could not contribute much to this work: indeed I may say this, they were better Christians than soldiers, and wiser in faith than in fighting, and could believe a victory sooner than contrive it; and yet I think they were as wise in the way of soldiery as the little time and experience they had could make them.

These officers, many of them with their soldiery, were much in prayer and reading scripture, an exercise that soldiers till of late have used bur little, and thus then went on and prospered: men conquer better as they are saints, than soldiers; and in the countries where they came, they left something of God as well as of Caesar behind them, something of piety as well as pay.

They were much in justice upon offenders, that they might be still in some degree of reformation in their military state. Armies are too great bodies to be found in all parts at once.

The army was (what by example and justice) kept in good order, both respectively to itself, and the country: nor was it their pay that pacified them; for had they not had more civility than money, things had not been so fairly managed.

They were many of them differing in opinion, yet not in action nor business; they all agreed to preserve the kingdom; they prospered more in their unity, than uniformity; and whatever their opinions were, yet they plundered none with them, they betrayed none with them, nor disobeyed the state with them, and they were more visibly pious and peaceable in their opinions, than many we call more orthodox.

They were generally constant and conscientious in duties, and by such soberness and strictness conquered much upon the vanity and looseness of the enemy; many of those fought by principle as well as pay, and that made the work go better on, where it was not made so much matter of merchandise as conscience: they were little mutinous or disputing commands; by which peace the war was better ended.

There was much amity and unity amongst the officers, while they were in action, and in the field, and no visible emulations and passions to break their ranks, which made the public fare better. That boat can go but slowly where the oars row several ways; the best expeditions is by things that go one way.

The army was fair in their marches to friends, and merciful in battle and success to enemies, by which they got love from enemies, though more from friends.

This army went on better by two more wheels of treasurers and a committee; the treasurers were men of public spirits to the state and the army, and were usually ready to present some pay upon every success, which was like wine after work, and cheered up the common spirits to more activity.

The committee, which the House of Commons formed, were men wise, provident, active and faithful in providing ammunition, arms, recruits of men, clothes: and that family must needs thrive that hath good stewards.

Military Tactics in the Civil War (Answer Commentary)

Women in the Civil War (Answer Commentary)

Portraits of Oliver Cromwell (Answer Commentary)

(1) Oliver Cromwell, letter to John Hampden (October, 1642)

(2) Christopher Hill, God's Englishman: Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (1970) page 63

(3) Jasper Ridley, The Roundheads (1976) page 27

(4) Gerald E. Aylmer, Rebellion or Revolution: England from Civil War to Restoration (1986) page 73

(5) Barry Coward, The Stuart Age: England 1603-1714 (1980) pages 200-221

(6) Diane Purkiss, The English Civil War: A People's History (2007) pages 420-422

(7) Pauline Gregg, Oliver Cromwell (1988) pages 111-112

(8) Peter Ackroyd, The Civil War (2014) page 277


New Model Army - History (The Singles 85-91) (1992)

Artist: New Model Army
Title: History (The Singles 85-91)
Year Of Release: 1992
Label: EMI
Genre: Folk Rock, Post-Punk, New Wave
Quality: Mp3 320 / Flac (tracks)
Total Time: 53:41
Total Size: 132/367 Mb
WebSite: Album Preview

01. No Rest
02. Better Than Them
03. Brave New World
04. 51st State
05. Poison Street
06. White Coats
07. Stupid Questions
08. Vagabonds
09. Green And Grey
10. Get Me Out
11. Purity
12. Space (Live)
13. Far Better Thing
14. Higher Wall

With their roots embedded in the punk era, New Model Army were formed in Bradford, Yorkshire, England, in 1980, and immediately outlined their manifesto by naming themselves after the Sir Thomas Fairfax/Oliver Cromwell revolutionary army. The group was led by Justin "Slade The Leveller" Sullivan (b. 1956, Buckinghamshire, England guitar, vocals), a former platform sweeper and Mars bar production-line worker, with the help of Jason "Moose" Harris (b. 1968 bass, guitar) and Robb Heaton (b. 1962, Cheshire, England, d. 4th November 2004 drums, guitar).

Their brand of punk folk/rock attracted a loyal cult following, much of which shared the band's grievances towards the Tory government policies of the 80s. This was best executed on their debut album, which combined militant themes such as "Spirit Of The Falklands" and "Vengeance" (a vitriolic anthem about getting even with one's trespassers) with the haunting lament for childhood, "A Liberal Education". The group's championing of traditional working-class ethics saw an unexpected boost for a dying art and trade - that of the clog.

New Model Army made their first public appearance at Scamps Disco in Bradford in October 1980. After releasing singles on Abstract Records, enjoying a number 2 UK independent chart hit with "The Price" in 1984, they formed an unlikely alliance with the multinational EMI Records, which saw the band acquire a higher profile and a significantly increased recording budget.

They eventually broke through to a wider audience with "No Rest", which peaked at number 28 on the UK singles chart in 1985 - a position they were never to beat in an impressive run of 12 UK chart singles between 1985 and 1991. With often inflammatory lyrics, the band have never compromised their beliefs for commercial gain.

They ran into trouble with BBC Television's Top Of The Pops show for donning T-shirts with the (albeit laudable) slogan, "Only Stupid Bastards Use Heroin". This attracted some derision from "anarcho-punk" traditionalists Conflict (2), who replied with their own motif: "Only Stupid Bastards Help EMI". They subsequently continued to release high-quality albums, with considerable crossover potential, always maintaining credibility with their original fanbase.

In December 1991 the group left EMI, eventually finding a new home on Epic Records. Their first single for the label revealed few concessions to the mainstream: "Here Comes The War" featured a picture of a charred body, and a pull-out poster instructing the user in how to prepare a nuclear bomb. In 1994, a dance remix of "Vengeance' was released as a protest against the Criminal Justice Bill. After a lengthy absence the band reconvened for 1998's "Strange Brotherhood". New Model Army's short spell with Epic ended as quickly as it started with the band prefering to self publish and go back to their roots. By 2000 their most recent studio album was ready. Named "Eight" it included a now familar, though no less effective, formula and energy.


Biography

The Journey so far.
New Model Army played their first gig in Bradford on October 23rd 1980. Its founding members were Justin Sullivan, Stuart Morrow and Phil Tompkins. The threesome had already been together for a couple of years in a number of Bradford bands with other musicians and singers but in the Autumn of 1980, they decided to form a stripped-down three-piece, their music drawing on a wide collection of influences and fuelled by their passions for Punk Rock and Northern Soul. Within a few months drummer Phil Tomkins had left to be replaced by Rob Waddington. The band slowly built up a local following and created a unique style based on Justin's song-writing and Stuart's virtuosity on lead-bass.

In Summer 1982, whispers about this band reached London and they were invited to perform at a couple of showcases. But in a scene hungry for "the next big thing" (the coming "New Romantics"), NMA's fearsome music and northern style did not win over the Major Record Companies and they returned to Bradford empty-handed. Rob Waddington left to be replaced by Robert Heaton, who had been working as a drum tech and occasional drummer for the band ‘Hawkwind‘. Undeterred by the indifference of the Music Business, NMA began to perform more and more around the country and frequently featured as opening act on a series of all-day concerts at the London Lyceum which heralded many of the "Post-Punk" bands. Although this meant traveling for several hours to play a twenty-five minute set for no money, the band embraced the opportunity and their reputation as a live act grew. A first small-label independent single "Bittersweet" was released in the summer of 1983, followed by "Great Expectations" on Abstract Records that autumn, both played frequently on late night radio by John Peel. Suddenly the band had a "Following", people who would travel to every concert around the country to see them.

Early in 1984, the producer of "The Tube", the most important live music show on TV, had seen NMA in concert and invited them to fill the ‘unknown' slot on the programme. Having originally asked the band to perform their provocative anti-anthem, "Vengeance", the TV Company suddenly got cold feet about the song's lyrics minutes before broadcast and asked the band to change songs. It made no difference. Somehow twenty to thirty followers had managed to get into the TV studio and when NMA began with "Christian Militia" the crowd went wild and an electric atmosphere was transmitted around the country. Suddenly NMA were underground news. Their first mini-album, "Vengeance" knocked "The Smiths" from the top of the Independent Charts and the major record companies, who had rejected them less than two years earlier, were now begging to sign the band.

The autumn of 1984 was a time of political turmoil in Britain. After five years of Mrs Thatcher's right-wing government, which had already fuelled so much of NMA's early fury, a final showdown with the National Union of Mineworkers (the strike that had begun in March and had split the country), entered a critical phase and much of Northern England began to resemble a Police State. NMA's last Independent EP "The Price" also featured "1984" a song written directly about the strike and, with their declared left-wing views, NMA's concerts became increasingly intense.

At the end of the year, NMA signed a contract of "complete artist control" with EMI (which included EMI giving a donation to a miners fund). The move surprised many people but the band were already looking beyond the confines of Britain and considered the deal to be the right one. In the Spring of 1985 the album "No Rest For The Wicked" and the single "No Rest" both reached the national top 40, but this success and now relative financial security had done little to soften NMA's confrontational attitude. They appeared on Top Of The Pops wearing T-shirts with a motif reading "Only Stupid Bastards Use Heroin" (a reaction against the fashionable drug of the time).

Then, halfway through the "No Rest" tour, the day after their hometown gig, Stuart Morrow decided to leave the band for personal reasons. Frantic negotiations were made (by a strange unhappy co-incidence, on the very same day as the Bradford City fire disaster killed 56 people at a football match), but to no avail. As a result, Justin and Robert decided to follow up the success of "No Rest" with an acoustic song from the album "Better Than Them" which had not involved Stuart and accompanied it with three specially recorded acoustic tracks, a move of principle which dumbfounded EMI. By the summer, Stuart had been replaced by 17 year-old Jason 'Moose' Harris, whose first gig was at a benefit for the families of the fire tragedy, and the "No Rest" tour continued. Thatcher's victory over the miners, and by extension over all organised opposition, marked a new political reality. This, coupled with the shock of Stuarts's departure and increasing media hostility, resulted in the band taking an ever more defiant posture, exemplified by a typically fiery performance at the Glastonbury Festival. Then, despite being signed to Capitol Records in North America, all attempts to tour there were prevented when the band were refused visas. Many people, on both sides of the Atlantic, believed that this was for political reasons although this was never possible to prove. Instead, that autumn NMA set out on their first long tour of the European mainland, which unlike many UK acts, they found much to their liking, and later a trip to Japan. The year ended with yet another UK tour in support of a newly recorded EP: "Brave New World", a savage portrait of the Thatcher's Britain and "RIP", an equally furious study of the band's history thus far.

If 1985 had been a traumatic year, then 1986 saw one of the band's many resurrections, with the legendary Glyn Johns agreeing to produce their third album. Though relations between band and producer were often difficult, Justin recalls the sessions as "the biggest musical learning curve of my life". "The Ghost Of Cain" was well received by the critics and audience and many people began to see a band that were capable of developing and changing and adjusting to new realities while still staying true to their own principles this was a band that were now pursuing their own musical agenda, completely unmoved by the whims of the music industry or the expectations of fans. Outside Britain, their name was slowly becoming known and in December of 1986, they finally made a first short tour of America. 1987 was a year of full bloom. In January, Justin and Robert recorded an album with the poet Joolz Denby. Joolz had been the band's first manager and has remained as a driving force and responsible for all of the band's artwork from the beginning to the present day. She had previously made spoken word albums and a series of EPs with Jah Wobble but it was inevitable that she would collaborate with NMA. The album "Hex" was recorded at the very special Sawmills Studio, a unique place in Cornwall, only reachable at high tide by boat. Although the studio is now well known, at that time it was infrequently used and accommodation was in primitive cabins deep in the woods. From this new setting, and freed from the pressures of "being New Model Army", Justin and Robert were able to explore all kinds of ideas and musical avenues that their experience with Glyn Johns had opened up. Later, they both considered "Hex" to have been one of the creative highlights of their musical partnership, with its strong, romantic soundscapes acting as the perfect accompaniment to Joolz' poetry.

Much of the writing of "Hex" had been done using samplers and the use of this new tool continued to take the band in unexpected directions. That summer they recorded the "Whitecoats" EP with its ecological lyric and mystical atmosphere. An interest in mysticism and spirituality had been becoming more and more apparent in Justin's lyrics (though this was no surprise to those who knew of his family's Quaker roots). The same summer, Red Sky Coven was born out of a group of friends who shared these interests and ideas. It included Justin, Joolz, singer-songwriter and storyteller Rev Hammer and musician Brett Selby. Together, the foursome decided to create a performance based on this friendship, a unique show which continues to tour on an occasional basis.

1987 also saw plenty more NMA concerts, including Reading Festival, a gig with David Bowie in front of the Reichstag in Berlin and a show-stopping performance at the Bizarre Festival at Lorelei in Germany. From time to time, the band added their friend Ricky Warwick as a second guitarist and also enlisted Mark Feltham, the legendary harmonica player who had graced "The Ghost Of Cain" and "Hex" to join them. At the very end of the year and the beginning of 1988, they returned to the Sawmills for two more inspired writing sessions, which laid the foundations for "Thunder and Consolation".

The following months, though, were far more difficult, while NMA chose a producer, another music legend - Tom Dowd - and set about recording the album. It was a long drawn-out process and relationships between band members became increasingly strained, only really maintained by the knowledge that they were making something truly special. "Thunder and Consolation" was finally released early in 1989, striking a perfect balance between the band's fascinations with rock, folk and soul music and Justin's lyrical interest in spirituality, politics and family relationships. The album brought critical praise and new levels of commercial success and the band toured Europe and North America, joined by Ed Alleyne Johnson playing electric violin and keyboards and Chris Mclaughlin on guitar. However, despite the success, relationships at the heart of the band had not really mended and even after Jason Harris left that summer, stresses remained.

By autumn Justin and Robert were back in the Sawmills working towards another album and, in the new year, they were joined by a new (and still current) bass player, Nelson, previously of a number of East Anglian cult bands, and a new second guitarist, Adrian Portas from Sheffield. The new musicians brought a stronger atmosphere to the touring band while, in the studio, Justin and Robert continued to explore different musical ideas. Partly self-produced, "Impurity" was finally finished and mixed by Pat Collier in the summer of 1990. Still featuring Ed Alleyne Johnson' violin, the album was more eclectic than "Thunder" but continued to win new fans and the world-wide tour that followed its release lasted the best part of a year, culminating in a rolling Festival in Germany involving David Bowie, Midnight Oil, The Pixies and NMA.

In mid-1991, "Raw Melody Men", a live album from the tour, was put together and released. It was to be NMA's last album for EMI. Unusually, given the history of the music business, the relationship between band and record company had always remained cordial but had now simply grown stale. There were minor dissatisfactions on both sides and, after lengthy negotiations, it was agreed to simply terminate the contract. NMA's own Management Company also imploded at this time and new management was drawn up. The band was not short of new record company offers and eventually chose Epic, for reasons to do with support in the US.

Although Mrs Thatcher had been ousted by her own Party in 1990 (a memorable night coinciding with NMA's first visit to Rome), the Conservative monolith that had ruled the country for so long remained in power and, against all expectations, won a further election in 1992. Outside Britain though, much was changed: there was recession and instability and a so-called "New World Order" in the wake of the collapse of Soviet Communism and the 1st Gulf War. Already the band was embarked upon a very dark album, driven equally by personal traumas, including Justin's near-death electrocution on stage in Switzerland and the changes in the world around them. Produced by Niko Bolas and mixed by Bob Clearmountain, "The Love Of Hopeless Causes" was not what anyone was expecting. Just as folk-rock, pioneered and inspired in part by NMA, became a fashionable and commercial sound, the band made a deliberate move away from it and straight and into guitar-driven rock music.

Replacing Adrian with Dave Blomberg on guitar, they embarked on the album tour and the European section featured their most successful concerts yet. However NMA's relationship with their new record company quickly deteriorated. Worse still, they found themselves caught in corporate dispute between London and New York, which was in no way related to them. By June, the band found themselves on an exhaustive US tour, in which they had invested much of their own money, with no support of any kind from Epic or any other source. The tour featured many outstanding concerts but it was a bittersweet experience. By the end of the summer, it had been agreed that there should be a year off for everyone to rest and consider the future, while the contract with Epic was quickly terminated.

Justin used 1993-4 to produce other artists (a second collaboration with Joolz entitled "Weird Sister", Rev Hammer's "Bishop Of Buffalo" album and also the unusual Berlin combo, The Inchtabokatables), tour with Red Sky Coven and create another way of performing NMA songs - in a duo with new guitarist Dave Blomberg. Together they went back to Justin's first love - small club touring - and eventually released an album of the live show entitled "Big Guitars in Little Europe", an album, which has proved enduringly popular. Robert's main wish was to spend more time at home with his family, which he was now able to do and Nelson formed a new band "Nelson's Column" which toured England. Ed Alleyne Johnson followed up his first solo album "The Purple Electric Violin Concerto" which had been so successful with a second entitled "Ultraviolet".

After the year was up, Justin and Robert tentatively began work on a new project and in December 1994, the band (with Dean White on keyboards replacing Ed Alleyne Johnson) reassembled to play a short series of concerts. However, the next two years were lost while Justin and Robert, plagued by ill health and personal-life distractions tried unsuccessfully to pin down hundreds of new musical ideas into an album. It became increasingly obvious to both of them (and everyone else in and around the band) that they were now on very different musical paths. In 1997, Tommy Tee who had been the band's Tour Manager in the 1980s returned to take control of the band's drifting affairs. He enlisted producer Simon Dawson to help finish the project and by the autumn "Strange Brotherhood" was completed. Unsurprisingly, it's an album full to the brim with different and contrasting musical ideas while the lyrics range from the politics of the British Road Protest movement (in which Sullivan had been actively involved during 1996) to the deeply personal and sometimes unusually obscure. During the mixing, it was agreed that Justin and Robert would go their separate ways after the tour.

Then, suddenly Robert was diagnosed as having a brain tumour, and though the operation to remove it was successful, any prospect of touring was impossible. So he suggested that his place be taken by Michael Dean, a young drummer who had been working as his technician since 1993. Having watched Robert for some years, Michael was immediately comfortable with the role of drummer and with all other aspects of the band. The "Strange Brotherhood" tour began in the spring of 1998 and, happy to be back on the road at last, for the first couple of months, the band embarked on an ambitious programme of doing two sets each night, a 50 minute acoustic set followed by a full 90 minute rock. The tour continued on and off through to the end of the year.

By now Justin and Tommy Tee had restructured New Model Army's set-up to take account of the changes that the Internet was bringing to the whole music industry. This included making sure that the band owned every aspect of their work, and included their own record label (Attack Attack) to be distributed by different companies in different territories. 1999 began with a review of live shows recorded the previous year and their amalgamation into a live double album entitled "New Model Army and Nobody Else". After this Justin (assisted by Michael) began to write new songs for the next album. This was done quickly and easily for the first time since "Thunder", with Justin claiming to be "reborn as a song-writer." To keep up the momentum, it was decided to self-produce and to record the album in the band's own studio. Again this was done quickly with mostly Justin, Michael and Dean at the controls. (Living 250 and 300 miles from Bradford meant that Nelson and Dave were more occasional contributors for purely geographical reasons). The whole process was very much a reaction to the slow progress of "Strange Brotherhood", with the album given the simple name "Eight" to go with its whole stripped-down approach. It was released in the Spring of 2000 and was followed by more touring.

On October 23rd 2000, the band celebrated their 20th anniversary by playing another two set marathon at Rock City in Nottingham and then three months later, further special concerts in London and Koln which featured four completely different sets spread over two nights - a 57 song marathon in each city attended by over 7000 people.

One of the legacies of the lost years of the mid 1990s was a lot of unfinished material and next, Justin, Michael and Dean worked to finish and assemble this into accessible form, a double album "Lost Songs" released in 2002. Another ‘unfinished' project was Justin's long promised solo album and it was at this moment that he decided to pursue it. Meant to take just a few weeks to record and tour, "Navigating By The Stars" became another marathon. Hooking up with film and TV music producer, Ty Unwin, the first week of working coincided with ‘9/11'. Rather than making a political or angry response to unfolding events, the album's purpose was to ‘make something beautiful in an increasingly ugly World'. The album came out in 2003 to surprised and favourable reaction. At first touring alone with Dean (including a long awaited return to America), Justin was then joined by Michael playing percussion and the threesome bought a large mobile home and set off across Europe. The live album "Tales of the Road", released in 2004 captures their unique sound and stripped-down rearrangements of some of NMA's lesser known songs.

In 2004, an exhibition of all Joolz' artwork for the band plus collected memorabilia was assembled for a touring exhibition. Entitled ‘One Family, One Tribe' it has been on display in art galleries in Otley, York, Bradford and Hamm in Germany and there are plans for more future showings. Meanwhile, the band work began work on a new NMA album, at first focused around Michael's increasing creativity as a drummer. "Carnival" was recorded with producer Chris Tsangerides and mixed by Nat Chan. It's lyrical subjects and musical roots were as usual very eclectic but included many people's favourite NMA track, "Fireworks Night", Justin's emotional response to the sudden and unexpected death of Robert that Autumn. "Carnival" was released in September 2005, but when it came to the tour, Dave Blomberg was unable to participate for family reasons and his place was taken by Marshall Gill, a blues guitarist from Ashton Under Lyne.

The Carnival Tour marked another dynamic new beginning for the band, with Nelson sometimes playing as a second drummer, Dean sometimes as third guitarist and Michael and Marshall's energy much in evidence. Such was the sense of momentum and togetherness that for the first time in years, NMA moved quickly on to making another album with major contributions from all members. "High" was written and recorded in five months at the beginning of 2007, produced by old friend (and another production star, Chris Kimsey) and was ‘angrier' than any releases for a while and lyrically very much in tune with current realities.

The "High" tour rolled through 4 continents with the new line up now firmly in tune with itself and Marshall bringing a tougher edge to the band's sound - even managing to re-arrange the classic violin led anthem "Vagabonds" into a guitar led version. This and 16 other songs were released on a new live album, "Fuck Texas, Sing For Us", in November 2008 (the title taken from a chant at the band's New Orleans show that serves as the intro to the album).

The year ended with tours in Scandinavia, Eastern Europe and the customary December run of London, Paris, Amsterdam, and Koln with the band playing a fiery set of recent material. Remarkably, the band’s main 17 song set featured only two pre-2000 songs, as well as brand new material, a sure sign of the band’s forward momentum - and with their ticket sales up everywhere. Then, at Christmas, manager Tommy Tee died suddenly and unexpectedly. This was a major shock to everyone in and around the band, not only because as he ran all aspects of the band's affairs but also as a major part of the NMA family and history since 1982.

It took a while before the band could refocus but by Spring 2009, they were back in the studio working on their eleventh studio album, “Today Is A Good Day”. Mostly written in the wake of the 2008 Wall Street Collapse (an event celebrated in the white-hot opening title track), it was recorded in the band’s own studio in Bradford with Chris Kimsey once more at the controls. Chris wrote “the NMA 'family business' is back in full swing. The boys sound brave & united.” The album was hailed as one of their very best and the album tour began with a month in North America and went on for a further six months ending with a triumphant return to Glastonbury and other Festivals in the summer.

In the Autumn of 2010, the band celebrated their 30th Anniversary with the release of boxsets, books, DVDs and a full set of retrospective material and set out on the curious and challenging schedule. Promising to play a minimum of four songs from each of their 13 albums (including the two B-sides compilations) over two nights, they performed this marathon in different cities on four continents every weekend from September until Christmas. The final weekend in London was recorded and released in full as a five hour DVD.

After such a hectic year, the following months were always going to be relatively quiet, with just a few shows, rather more of the semi-acoustic Justin and Dean duo concerts and a handful of Festivals while the band began thinking about their next project. Consciously looking for something new, after two convincing ‘great rock band recorded live in a studio’ albums, the project was much disrupted. Firstly Nelson decided to finally leave the band for personal family reasons after 22 years of service. This was entirely amicable on both sides and was only revealed some months after everyone in the band knew. Then, days after Nelson's final gig, a fire started in the furniture outlet next door to the band's Bradford base and destroyed their whole studio set-up. No one was injured and the band were even able to salvage some of their touring gear from inside charred flight-cases, but a huge amount of equipment and archive material was destroyed. Rebuilding was quick and within three months the studio was up and running with the band busy working through auditions for a new bassist. After a long process, they chose Ceri Monger, a young multi-instrumentalist from a musical family in Essex. Then, misfortune struck again after Ceri's first gig with the band, with the theft of most of the band's guitars and other items from a van. Despite this (and with generous help from friends and other bands) the band got through a busy Festival season and finally began work on the long-promised and much-awaited new album.

Promising something 'very different' from the last few albums, the band delivered “Between Dog And Wolf”, a rich, musical, multi-layered work with a strong overall atmosphere. It was mixed in his Los Angeles studio by Joe Barresi, best known for work with Tool, Queens Of The Stoneage, Bad Religion and Soundgarden - another in the long list of A-listers eager to work with NMA. The album was released in September 2013 to surprised and glowing reviews and the band’s highest chart positions in twenty years and the accompanying tour, was described as watching ‘a completely reinvented and rejuvenated band’. A special 106 page magazine featuring articles about the band past and present accompanied the release, with an attached flexi-disc of the “March In September” single (an echo of the flexi-disc that accompanied their first release 30 years before).

2014 saw the band continue with this new momentum. A planned release of live tracks from the album tour turned into another full album entitled “Between Wine And Blood” - this time a hybrid - half live but with also six new studio songs recorded in the same way as BDAW and once again mixed by Joe Barresi. The release coincided with the release of “Between Dog and Wolf – The New Model Army Story”, a feature-length documentary film about the band’s history, made over the preceding four years by award-winning BBC/Channel Four director, Matt Reid. The film premiered at festivals in Montreal, London and Thessaloniki and had a series of screenings at cinemas in the UK. Further cinema screenings and a full DVD release followed.

Then, at the end of the year, the band did their accustomed run of Christmas shows in cities across Europe taking ideas they had previously touched upon - playing double sets and adding guest musicians - but took them further. Joining them were old friends Mark Feltham and Ed Alleyne Johnson but also a small string section (Tobias Unterberg and Shir-Ran Yinon from Ensemble Melancholia), a harpist (Ceri’s brother Tom, from Florence And The Machine), and an extra drummer, Andy Woodard from Adam Ant’s band. The shows turned into 170 minute spectaculars, with more than 30 songs drawn from all different eras of their catalogue and often rearranged for the new ensemble. These were recorded for a limited special edition multi CD/DVD release of “Between Wine And Blood – Live”.

2015 saw further touring, Festival appearances and work on a new album. Entitled ‘Winter’, this was co-produced with Lee Smith and Jamie Lockhart and released in late summer 2016. Hard-hitting, bleak and very much in keeping with the prevailing atmosphere across the World, it had echoes of the band’s early work while still taking them into new pastures and it received warm reviews and the band’s highest chart positions for 23 years.

In April 2018, the band came up with a new idea that immediately seemed so obvious that they were amazed that, to the best of their knowledge, no band has ever done it before: every band has had the experience of moments when the audience sings the words to favourite songs, so in April 2018, New Model Army did a weekend of just this at the beautiful Round Chapel in Hackney. These “Nights of a Thousand Voices” were not concerts as such, but community singing events for people who came from all over the world for love of the band’s songs, for the love of singing and for the feeling of singing together with others. For those lucky enough to get tickets, it was a totally unique experience. For others it was captured for a double CD and DVD.

And so to 2019, which brings yet another new studio album and concept. “From Here” was mostly written in just two months and recorded in only nine days and has a particular sound and atmosphere. Working again with Lee Smith and Jamie Lockhart, the band were persuaded to leave a lot of the details of the music to the spontaneity of the moment, and to go to what is probably the most beautiful recording studio in the world, Ocean Sound Recordings on the tiny Norwegian island of Giske, and let the place do its magic. The album has a feel that is different to their other albums, but it still contains all the elements that characterise their curiously unidentifiable music – perhaps even more than ever. It will be released on August 23rd and followed by a long tour.

"New Model Army is a remarkable band - as hungry and focused as ever, with a continually regenerating audience and insatiable creative ambition. "


New Model Army - History

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New Model Army – History (The Best Of New Model Army)

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  • Phonographic Copyright ℗ – EMI Records Ltd.
  • Copyright © – EMI Records Ltd.
  • Published By – Intersong Music Ltd.
  • Published By – Ashley Cartwright
  • Marketed By – EMI
  • Distributed By – EMI
  • Pressed By – Mediamotion

Notes

This is a re-packaged version of "History (The Singles 85-91)" from 1992.

All tracks published by Intersong Music Ltd except track 4,
Intersong Music Ltd / Ashely Cartwright.

℗ The copyright in this sound recording is owned by EMI Records Ltd.
℗ 1992 The copyright in this sound recording is owned by EMI Records Ltd.
© 2001 EMI Records Ltd.

This label copy information is the subject of copyright protection. All rights reserved.
© 2001 EMI Records Ltd.


Remington .44-Caliber New Model Army

This U.S. Government-issued Remington New Army revolver was found near Will’s house while
out digging a drainage ditch. The other artifacts all came from the surrounding area as well.

First Lieutenant Theophilus Millhouse was most thoroughly miserable. He had been born and raised in Connecticut where the world was cool and brisk. This August day in Mississippi in 1864 the humidity was so thick you could rip off a chunk of air and gnaw on it.

Millhouse answered to Brigadier General Andrew Jackson Smith. They were pushing south from Holly Springs past Abbeville toward Oxford. The war criminal Nathan Bedford Forrest had been up to mischief and General Smith purposed to teach the rebels a lesson not soon forgotten.

They found the town of Oxford devoid of men of military age. Grant and Sherman had been here two years prior and used the university as a field hospital. Grant had ridden his horse through the front doors of the Lyceum, the administrative building anchoring the University of Mississippi.

This day Lt. Millhouse and his men were in a foul temper. Word had just arrived of a cavalry attack by Forrest’s troops on their base of supply in Memphis. Clearly outwitted, Smith and his men vented their frustrations on the pastoral little Southern town.

At Smith’s behest Millhouse had his rampaging bluecoats fire the courthouse, the square and the surrounding homes. The weeping of the rebel women could be heard above the crackling flames. Once the center of the town was fully involved the Federals retraced their steps north. When marching abreast in the little community of Abbeville near Hurricane Creek a symphony of shots rang out from the adjacent wood line.

A modest contingent of rebel Infantrymen got off several volleys supported by a pair of field pieces before melting into the dank surrounding swamps. When the smoke cleared Lt. Theophilus Millhouse lay in the hot Mississippi ooze, his glassy eyes staring lifelessly toward the blue heavens. His men pressed on for Holly Springs, further driven in their mission to find Forrest.

This old Remington combat pistol is in surprisingly good shape
considering how long it languished in the hot Mississippi soil.

Buried Treasure

A gun buddy named Jeff Houston was running a backhoe improving the drainage of a piece of Mississippi woodland. He took big scallops of earth and set them aside, cumulatively enhancing the local hydrology. One chunk of dirt seemed peculiar. Shutting down his machine he pulled the massive clod apart with his hands until it yielded a bounty.

The pistol was clearly a .44-caliber Remington New Model Army, a common issue handgun among Federal troops during the American Civil War. The brass trigger guard is remarkably well-preserved. The barrel was trying to dissolve but the iron frame fared a bit better. The stocks are completely gone. Despite a cumulative 155 years hidden underground, this heavy Union combat pistol remained in surprisingly good shape.

Jeff cleaned the weapon but left it otherwise untouched as he dug it out of the ground. The gun now occupies the position of honor on the wall of his superb full-service Oxford gun shop titled, appropriately enough, Rebel Arms. When first I saw the gun hanging in the shop I sensed a story in need of telling.

The steel has suffered tremendously but the brass bits look almost new.

The Remington New Model Army

Remington-Beals Model Revolvers were 6-shot percussion pistols produced by Eliphalet Remington and Sons starting in 1861. These heavy .44-caliber handguns were typically, somewhat inaccurately, called 1858 Remingtons after the patent date stamped on the barrels. The Remington competed with the 1851 Colt Navy and cost some 50 cents more per copy, about eight bucks today. The top strap securing the upper portion of the frame made it a much more robust design.

Most of the New Model Army revolvers sported 8" barrels. Trivial differences in hammers, cylinders and loading levers characterized various production runs but all of these guns were mechanically similar. While Jeff’s government-surplus pistol will never again burn powder, Dixie Gun Works will hook you up with a simply splendid facsimile that most certainly will.

This modern replica (above) from Dixie Gun Works is a spot-on reproduction of the 1864-era original.

Yet More Civil War Imagery

Dixie Gun Works offers a bewildering array of reproduction rifles and pistols all at reasonable prices. Such guns typically sell for less than their fixed ammunition counterparts and, in the free states at least, ship straight to your door without the hassle of a Federal Firearms License. I built my New Model Army from a kit.

These kits require a modest modicum of mechanical aptitude to complete. The barrel and rammer assembly are polished and blued from the factory. However, the frame and trigger guard are left as rough castings. To finish out the gun, you smooth up the unfinished areas with a sanding drum and wire wheel on a Dremel tool and shape the furniture to fit. I used a fiber-reinforced cutoff wheel sparingly to knock down the major casting flashes and gnarly bits.

You could successfully undertake the whole project with hand tools and elbow grease, but a Dremel tool and bench sander make it much easier. Take your time and the end result is showroom gorgeous.

Once you have the build complete it is time to take the old girl out for a spin. The sights are typically set for 50 to 100 yards so most of these old guns shoot a bit high at 25. The built-in ramrod is effective and easy to use. Clean up everything when you’re done lest the corrosive nature of black powder reduce your spanking new smoke pole to scrap.

First step is to completely disassemble the pistol. Snapping a picture or two on your phone aids in reassembly.

Now Back to 1864 …

My corner of Mississippi is awash in military history. I live about 12 miles from Oxford. Local lore has it when General Smith was approaching, one of my then-neighbors hitched up his wagon and made the day-long trek behind a mule to the Oxford square. He loaded up the land records from the courthouse and relocated them back to his root cellar. Smith’s men subsequently burned the courthouse and surrounding area to the ground.

Despite being unable to carry the booty, drunken federal troops nevertheless ransacked the community. An inebriated Union cavalryman stole a skeleton from a local physician’s office and rode about town with the macabre thing held aloft in a terrifying display. The unbridled orgy of drunken violence earned BG Smith the sobriquet “Whiskey” Smith he carried with him for the rest of his days.

This local man who had secured the land records owned slaves. After the war his slaves killed both him and his wife and fled. Family members who later went through the home securing their possessions found the land records in the basement. This is purportedly the only reason land ownership in Lafayette County, Mississippi, can be traced before the Civil War.

Dixie Gun Works can hook you up with a splendid replica of the
Remington New Model Army. This one started out as a kit.

Ruminations

Right down the road from where I sit comfortably typing these words, Americans slaughtered Americans, each side believing their cause to be righteous and just. Thorny issues of slavery and states’ rights drove the carnage, and a generation was sacrificed to the cause. It is attributable solely to God’s Providence we not only survived but prevailed.

Oxford, Mississippi, is my little corner of heaven. We enjoy a deep, rich history, a storied Southern university, a thriving ammunition plant and the best food and friendliest people you’d ever want to meet. We also have a splendid gun shop called Rebel Arms.

If ever you’re passing through the area, Google Rebel Arms and go say hi to Jeff. The Remington New Model Army he found while out digging a drainage ditch is displayed prominently on the wall. Some 230,000 of these old guns rolled off the line during the Civil War.

Historical records document but a single Federal KIA during this minor skirmish near Hurricane Creek in 1864. Apparently my buddy Jeff found his pistol.*


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Contents

The Remington is a single-action, six-shot, percussion revolver produced by E. Remington & Sons, Ilion, N.Y., based on the Fordyce Beals patent of September 14, 1858 (Patent 21,478). [2] The Remington Army revolver is large-framed revolver in .44 caliber with an 8-inch barrel length. The Remington Navy revolver is slightly smaller framed than the Army and in .36 caliber with a 7.375 inch [Beals Navy 7.5 inch] barrel length. There were three progressive models made: the Remington-Beals Army & Navy (1860–1862), the 1861 Army & Navy (1862–1863), and the New Model Army & Navy (1863–1875). [3] The three models are nearly identical in size and appearance. Subtle but noticeable differences in hammers, loading levers, and cylinders help identify each model. The 1861 Remington actually transitioned into New Model appearance by late 1862, slowly transforming throughout 1862, due to continual improvement suggestions from the U. S. Ordnance Department. [3] [4]

Remington percussion revolvers are very accurate and capable of considerable power with muzzle velocities in the range of 550 to 1286+ feet-per-second, depending upon the charge loaded by the shooter. Combustible cartridge velocities averaged from 700 to 900 feet per second (270 m/s), depending on powder quality, charge and conical bullet weight. Combustibles were usually loaded with a special high performance sporting grade black powder, using the minimum charge required for a specified impact level, usually determined by pine penetration tests. The special powder and minimal charge reduced black powder fouling, allowing revolvers to be fired as much as possible before cleaning was necessary. [5] [6]

Design Edit

The Remington revolver owes its durability to the "topstrap", solid-frame design. The design is stronger and less prone to frame stretching than the Colt revolvers of the same era. The internal lockwork of the Remington is somewhat simpler in construction. While the Colt employs separate screws for the cylinder stop and trigger, those components share the same through-frame screw in the Remington design. [7] A downside in the design of the 1858 is that the barrel and receiver are a single piece, making it more difficult to clean the barrel, as it cannot be removed.

Another innovative feature (first appearing in the 1863 Model production series) was "safety slots" milled between chambers on the cylinder. The milled slot positively secured the hammer between chambers for safe carry by placing the hammer's firing pin where it did not rest on a percussion cap, eliminating the risk of an accidental discharge if the gun was dropped or the hammer struck. Most 19th-century revolver designs lacked such safety features. Early Whitney revolvers, for example, were similar to the Remington but lacked the safety slots. It was possible to lower the Whitney hammer between cylinder chambers for safe carry, but without the Remington milled slot, the Whitney cylinder could possibly slip and rotate, allowing the hammer to strike a loaded, capped chamber and cause an accidental discharge.

The Remington revolver permitted easy cylinder removal, allowing a quick reload with a spare pre-loaded cylinder this being an advantage over other revolver designs of the time. It is, however, unlikely that this was common practice during the period. Spare cylinders were not provided by the Army. [ citation needed ]

Metallic cartridge conversions Edit

In 1868, Remington began offering five-shot metallic cartridge conversions of the revolver in .46 rimfire. Remington paid a royalty fee to Smith & Wesson, owners of the Rollin White patent (#12,648, April 3, 1855) on bored-through revolver cylinders for metallic cartridge use. The Remington Army cartridge-conversions were the first large-caliber cartridge revolvers available, beating even Smith & Wesson's .44 American to market by nearly two years.

Due to the large volume of these pistols, individual gunsmiths also produced cartridge conversions (from cap and ball versions) in a variety of calibers such as .44-40 and .45 Colt. [1] [8]

Buffalo Bill Cody pistol Edit

William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody used an ivory-handled New Model Army .44, serial number 73,293, from 1863 until 1906, when he gave it to his ranch foreman with a handwritten note which said that, "It never failed me." [7]

In June 2012, the pistol came up for sale at auction and sold for a reported sum of US$239,000. [9] The Heritage Auctions company represented the pistol as "The Most Important William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody Gun Extant". [10] Accompanying the sale of the pistol were personal artifacts of Cody's including seventeen handwritten letters. [9]

The various pistols in this series with pertinent data. [11]

Model Frame Years Mfg'd Caliber(s) Production Barrel Notes
Remington-Beals Army Model Revolver Large 1861-1862 .44 1,900 (estimated) 8 inch octagon
Remington-Beals Navy Model Revolver Medium 1861-1862 .36 14,500 (estimated) 7 1/2 inch octagon
1861 Army Revolver (Old Model Army) Large 1862 .44 6,000 (estimated) 8 inch octagon
1861 Navy Revolver Medium 1862 .36 7,000 (estimated) 7 3/8 inch octagon
New Model Army Revolver Large 1863-1875 [12] .44 132,000 (approximately) 8 inch octagon Used for factory conversions in .46 RF & .44 Remington
New Model Navy Revolver Medium 1863-1875 .36 28,000 (approximately) 7 3/8 inch octagon Used for factory and U.S. Navy conversions to .38 RF & .38 Long Colt
New Model Single Action Belt Revolver Medium 1863-1875 .36 percussion and .38 RF 2,500 - 3,000 (estimated) 6 1/2 inch octagon Factory conversion production started in 1873
Remington-Rider Double Action New Model Belt Revolver Large 1863-1873 .36 percussion and .38 RF 3,000 - 5,000 (estimated) 6 1/2 inch octagon 1863-1865 available with fluted cylinder, conversions had two-piece cylinder
New Model Police Revolver Medium 1865-1873 .36 percussion and .38 RF 25,000 (estimated) 3 1/2, 4 1/2, 5 1/2, 6 1/2 inch octagon Conversions all believed to be rimfire only
New Model Pocket Revolver Small 1865-1873 .31 percussion and .32 RF 25,000 (estimated) 3, 3 1/2, 4, 4 1/2, 5 1/2 Majority produced as conversions or cartridge, 5 round cylinders only with a spur trigger

The Remington-Beals design lives on today in the form of replicas from Italian manufacturers Uberti, Pietta, and Euroarms available in modern steel, and brass frame. The Euroarms and Uberti New Model Army replicas are nearly identical to the originals. These replicas are very popular in civil war reenacting and Cowboy Action Shooting. Several companies produce drop-in "conversion" cylinders for replicas, enabling the firing of low-pressure modern cartridges without altering the revolver's frame. These conversions, of course, being akin to the original Remington cartridge conversions used on the Western frontier of the 1860s and 1870s. The percussion cylinder can be used interchangeably. Due to the value and delicacy of the original revolvers, they are not recommended for modern shooting purposes. [13]


7. Cavalry Discipline

Cromwell at Dunbar.

The cavalry were the elite strike force of all sides in the Civil Wars, and those of the New Model Army were the best of the best.

Cromwell, who commanded the cavalry, was passionate about discipline. While royalist cavalry tended to pursue fleeing enemies to prevent their return, Cromwell ordered his horsemen not to do this. Instead, they were to break an enemy formation, reform and be ready for their next target. This difference was a battle-winning one for Parliament.


New Model Army - History

he New Model Army, one of several parliamentary armies which played an important role in the English Civil Wars, came into existence after the dispersal of Waller's Army and the indecisive second battle of Newbury. Organized by parliament early in 1645, and commanded initially by Sir Thomas Fairfax, it was formed initially from existing armies, but composed solely with a view to military efficiency and competency.

It rapidly became an approximation of a national army, recruited nationally and not from any one locality. Unlike the soldiers who formed almost all previous and contemporary armies, Cromwell's soldiers, as the early Victorian historian Macaulay explains, were "composed of persons superior in station and education to the multitude. These persons, sober, moral, diligent, and accustomed to reflect, had been induced to take up arms, not by the pressure of want, not by love of novelty and license, not by the arts of the recruiting officer, but by religious and political zeal."

This army acquired a reputation for firm discipline, high morale, and promotion by merit and religious and political radicalism as a consequence of its victorious record and the personal influence of Cromwell, who eventually became its leader.

In war this strange force was irresistible. . . . [Cromwell's] troops moved to victory with the precision of machines, while burning with the wildest fanaticlsm of Crusaders. From the time when the army was remodelled, to the time when was disbanded, it never found, either in the British islands or on the Continent, an enemy who could stand its onset. In England, Scotland, Ireland, Flanders, the Puritan warriors, often surrounded by difficulties, sometimes contending against threefold odds, not only never failed to conquer, but never failed to destroy and break in pieces whatever force was opposed to them. They at length came to regard the day of battle as a day of certain triumph, and marched against the most renowned battalions of Europe with disdainful confidence. . . . it was ever the fashion of Cromwell's pikemen to rejoice greatly when they beheld the enemy and the banished Cavaliers felt an emotion of national pride, when they saw a brigade of their countrymen, outnumbered by foes and abandoned by allies, drive before it in headlong rout the finest infantry of Spain, and force a passage into a counterscarp which had just been pronounced impregnable by the ablest of the Marshals of France.

But that which chiefly distinguised the army of Cromwell from other armies was the austere morality and the fear of God which pervaded all ranks."

Although Cromwell's troops never drank and gambled in camp or raped and pillaged their defeated opponents, their ideology led them to destroy church art and attack clergy with whose views they disagreed.

After the Irish campaigns of the late 1640s and the slaughter of the Irish garrisons at Drogheda and Wexford, confiscated the best third of Irish land formerly held by Catholics, and gave it into the hands of his Puritain soldiers, establishing a deep and lasting division between Catholic and Protestant in Irish society.


Watch the video: NEW MODEL ARMY - Live at Sziget 1997 Full show (June 2022).


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