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Battle of Vesontio, September 58 B.C.

Battle of Vesontio, September 58 B.C.


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Battle of Vesontio, September 58 B.C.

The battle of Vesontio (September 58 B.C.) was the second major victory of Julius Caesar's military career and saw him defeat a large army of Germans led by Ariovistus, a Suebian chief who had crossed the Rhine some years earlier to intervene in a war between Rome's ally's the Aedui and the Sequani. Ariovistus had helped the Sequani win their dispute, but had then settled west of the Rhine, and by 58 B.C. ruled around 120,000 Germans and had taken over two thirds of Sequani territory.

Caesar's initial intervention in Gaul had been to stop the migration of the Helvetii from modern Switzerland to the west coast of France. In June 58 B.C. he won a decisive victory over the Helvetii at Bibracte, and forced them to return to their homeland. Caesar was then approached by a delegation of Gallic leaders who requested Roman aid against Ariovistus and his Germans. Caesar would not have needed much convincing to become involved – fifty years early the Romans had suffered a series of heavy defeats at the hands of the Cimbri and the Teutones, two tribes that had invaded Gaul and northern Italy and destroyed several Roman armies before their final defeat, and since then the Romans had dreaded a second German invasion.

Before moving against Ariovistus Caesar sent two embassies to him, each of which was rebuffed, not the behaviour that the Roman's expected from one of their 'friends'. Caesar then gave one of the first demonstrations of his ability to move quickly, advancing east to capture the Sequani capital of Vesontio (modern Besançon).

The two armies were now within striking distance of each other. The proximity of what was seen as a massive Germanic horde caused a panic in the Roman army, apparently the only time this happened during Caesar's wars in Gaul. Caesar gathered the centurions together and managed to restore order. Early on the next day the Romans left Vesontio on a circuitous route that was designed to bring them out onto open ground after a march of 50 miles. This route is normally believed to have been through the Belfort Gap towards Mulhouse and the Rhine, but if so the Roman's didn't reach very far along the route, for Caesar placed the eventual battle fifty miles away from the Rhine. This vagueness regarding the battle's actual location helps explain while it is normally known as the battle of Vesontio, despite happening seven days march from that town.

On the seventh day after the Romans left Vesontio Caesar was informed that the Germans were only 24 miles away. The rapid Roman advance had clearly unnerved Ariovistus, who now requested a meeting. This took place on an earth mount half way between the two armies, and ended in failure, with both leaders stating their case but neither willing to compromise.

Two days later Ariovistus attempted to arrange a second meeting, but was rebuffed. On the same day the build-up to the battle began, when the Germans moved their camp to a new position six miles from the Romans. On the next day Ariovistus moved past the Roman camp and took up a new position two miles to his west, in an attempt to prevent supplies reaching Caesar from the Sequani and the Aedui. On the following five days Caesar formed up his army in order of battle, but on each day the Germans limited themselves to a number of cavalry skirmishes. On the sixth day Caesar formed up in order of battle again, but this time he marched past the German camp, and while his first two lines remained ready to fight his third line constructed a new camp, 600 paces past the German camp. Ariovistus attempted to use his light troops to prevent this, but they were beaten off by the Romans. Once the camp was complete Caesar left two legions in this small camp while the other four remained in the first camp.

On the following morning Ariovistus once again refused to come out and fight, but in the afternoon he attempted to seize the smaller camp. This attack was repulsed, and the Romans finally discovered why the Germans had refused to fight – Ariovistus was obeying a divination that stated the Germans would not win if they fought before the new moon.

Caesar decided to take advantage of this by attacking the camp before the new moon, forcing the Germans to fight. On the following day he gathered his six legions at the larger camp while the auxiliaries were left to defend the smaller camp.

Caesar drew up his six legions in three lines, with the cavalry in reserve. Caesar took command of the Roman right, facing the weakest part of the German army, clearing hoping to defeat the German left and then turn on their right. Command of the cavalry was given to P. Crassus, the son of Caesar's colleague in the triumvirate. The Romans advanced towards the German camp, eventually coming so close that Ariovistus was forced to deploy his army and prepare for battle.

Ariovistus led a composite army, with contingents from seven different Germanic tribes – the Harudes, Marcomanni, Triboci, Vangiones, Nemetes, Sedusii and Suevi. As the Romans approached their camp each tribe formed up separately, with equal spaces between them. Ariovistus posted the chariots and wagons around the edge of the army, to discourage any potential deserters, and then advanced towards the Romans.

The battle began with a charge by both sides. As a result the gap between the lines closed so quickly that the Romans were unable to throw their javelins. At first the two sides engaged in hand-to-hand fighting, but according the Caesar the Germans soon formed into a phalanx (probably a shield wall), which allowed them to resist the Roman attack.

As Caesar had hoped the Roman right was soon victorious, but on the left the first two lines were hard pressed by the strongest part of the German army. Caesar gave P. Crassus credit for saving the situation by ordering the Roman third line to support their left. This decided the battle. With the Romans victorious along the entire line the Germans turned and fled, not stopping until they reached the Rhine, fifty miles to the east of the battlefield. Ariovistus was amongst the survivors, escaping across the river in a small boat, but his two wives and one of his daughters were amongst the dead and his other daughter was captured. It would be three years before Caesar faced the Germans again.


Timeline of Major Events in the Life of Cleopatra

The very last Egyptian pharaoh was Cleopatra VII (69–30 BCE) also known as Cleopatra Philopater, the famous Cleopatra of the plays by George Bernard Shaw and movies starring Elizabeth Taylor. As a result, what we most recall of this fascinating woman are her love affairs with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony: but she was much more than that.

This timeline of Cleopatra's life begins with her birth in Alexandria as a princess in the Ptolemaic court to her suicide in Alexandria a brief 39 years later.

69: Cleopatra is born in Alexandria, the second of five children to King Ptolemy XII and an unknown woman.

58: Ptolemy Auletes (also known as Ptolemy XII) flees Egypt, and Cleopatra's elder sister Berenike IV takes the throne.

55: Ptolemy XII is restored to the throne by the Romans including Mark Anthony Berenike IV is executed.

51: Ptolemy XII dies, leaving his kingdom to joint rule by his 18-year-old daughter, Cleopatra and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII. By mid-year she removes Ptolemy XII from joint rule and forms a brief alliance with Ptolemy XIV.

50: Ptolemy XIII regains ascendancy with the help of Ptolemy XII's ministers.

49: Gnaeus Pompeius the Younger comes to Alexandria asking for help together the pharaohs send ships and troops.


Timeline: the evolution of ancient empires

Peter Jones highlights the most significant moments in the history of the world’s first great civilisations.

This competition is now closed

Published: August 24, 2020 at 4:58 pm

C3100 BC

King Menes rules over a newly united Egypt, joining the Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Kingdoms at the start of what is now termed the Early Dynastic Period. Menes is credited with founding the capital at Memphis, 15 miles south of the modern city of Cairo.

C2686 BC

The period known as the Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt begins with the founding of the Third Dynasty. A series of great pyramids is built, beginning with Djoser’s step pyramid at Saqqara (c2650 BC), pictured above, followed by the three great pyramids of the Fourth Dynasty at Giza.

C1550 BC

The Theban rulers of Egypt’s 17th Dynasty drive out the Hyksos – a group of people from western Asia – from the Nile delta region, launching the so-called New Kingdom period that lasted till c1070 BC. This new dynasty of pharaohs are buried in deep, rock-cut tombs in the Valley of the Kings on the west bank of the Nile opposite their capital, Thebes (modern-day Luxor).

C1323 BC

The Egyptian boy king Tutankhamun dies, aged around 18, and is buried in the Valley of the Kings in a spectacular golden coffin. Tutankhamun had restored the ancient pantheon of gods after his father, Akhenaten, had installed the sun-disc Aten as the only deity.

559 BC

Cyrus II becomes king of the vassal state of Persia. Conquering the Medes in 550 BC and Babylon in 539 BC, he founds the mighty Persian (Achaemenid) empire, which within a century controls nearly 50 million people – 44 per cent of the world’s population. In 525 BC, his son Cambyses conquers Egypt.

509 BC

The last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, is deposed in a revolt. After further disquiet, two legislative bodies of citizens are established, creating a Roman republic that endures for nearly five centuries.

508 BC

Cleisthenes reforms the constitution of Athens, giving each adult male citizen a say in the government of the city by contributing to decisions made in the Ecclesia (Assembly) – creating the system of democracy (from the Greek demos, meaning ‘people’, and kratos, ‘power’).

490 BC

The 600-strong fleet of the Persian king Darius lands on the Greek coast at Marathon, determined to punish Athens for its role in a revolt in Asia Minor (modern Turkey). Athenian forces led by Miltiades, supported by the city-state of Plataea, attack at pace, taking the Persians by surprise and driving them into the sea. A messenger, Pheidippides, is reputedly dispatched to request help from the Spartans before the battle of Marathon.

336 BC

Alexander III inherits Macedon from his father, Philip II, who had plotted to break the power of the Persian empire. Alexander becomes known as ‘the Great’ for his succession of conquests. His army sweeps through the Middle East, Egypt and Asia, as far as India, before his death in 323 BC, creating a vast empire.

241 BC

Rome defeats Carthage at the battle of the Egadi Islands near Sicily, concluding its victory in the first of the Punic Wars and establishing its dominance across the western Mediterranean. Over the following three centuries, Greece, north Africa, Spain, Gaul, Egypt and Britain are subjugated, becoming Roman provinces.

221 BC

Ying Zheng, the king of Qin, completes his conquest of competing states, creating a Chinese state that effectively continues to this day, and takes a new title, Qin Shihuangdi: ‘Divine August Emperor of Qin’ – the First Emperor. After his death in 210 BC, his tomb is guarded by an army of some 8,000 terracotta warriors.

2 September 31 BC

Octavian defeats the forces of Roman general Mark Antony and Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt at the battle of Actium in the waters off Greece, cementing his rule of Rome. Four years later he takes the name Augustus, marking the end of the Republic and the birth of the Roman empire. Egypt becomes a Roman province.

24 August AD 79

Vesuvius, a volcano believed by local residents to be dormant or extinct, erupts with tremendous force, burying the nearby cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum under up to 6 metres (20 feet) of ash, pumice and rock. Pompeii had been a thriving agricultural city, grown prosperous thanks largely to wine produced from the grapes grown in the fertile volcanic soil.

C250 AD

The Maya begin to build huge pyramids, of which some of the later examples include El Castillo at the city of Chichen Itza in Mexico. Other great cities built in Central America include Tikal in Guatemala, Copán in Honduras and Lamanai in Belize.

24 August AD 410

Rome is sacked by the Visigoths under Alaric – the first time the ‘eternal city’ has fallen in nearly 800 years. Though the capital had moved to Ravenna in 402, the attack shocks the western Roman empire after a century of decline. Rome is sacked again in 455, by the Vandals under Geiseric the last western emperor, Romulus Augustulus, is deposed in 476.

This article was originally published in BBC History Magazine’s ‘The Story of the Ancient World’ bookazine


Battle of Vesontio, September 58 B.C. - History

(BB-61. dp. 45 000 t., 1. 887'3" b. 108'2", dr. 37'9", s.
33 k. cpl 2,800 a. 9 16" 20 6" cl. Iowa)

The third Iowa (BB-61) was Iaid down at NewYork. Navy Yard, 27 June 1940, launched 27 August 1942, sponsored by Mrs. Henry A. Wallace, wife of Vice President Wallace, and commissioned 22 February 1943, Gapt. John L. McCrea in command.

On 24 February, lowa put to sea for shakedown in Chesapeake Bay and along the Atlantic coast. She got underway, 27 August for Argentia. Newfoundland to neutralize the threat of German Battleship Tirpitz which was reportedly operating in Norwegian waters.

In the fall, Iowa carried President Franklin D. Roosevelt to Casablanca, French Morocco on the first leg of his journey to the Teheran Conference in November. After the conference she returned the President to the United States.

As Flagship of Battleship Division 7, Iowa departed the United States 2 January 1944 for the Pacific Theatre and her combat debut in the campaign for the Marshalls. From 29 January to 3 February, she supported carrier air strikes made by Rear Admiral Frederick C. Sherman's task group against Kwajelein and Eniwetok Atolls in the Marshall Islands. Her next assignment was to support air strikes against the Japanese Naval base at Truk Caroline Islands. Iowa, in company with other ships was detached from the support group 16 F'ebruary, 19i4 to conduct an anti-shipping sweep around Truk to destroy enemy naval vessels escaping to the north. On 21 February, she was underway with Fast Carrier Task Fo,rce 58 while it conducted the 9rst strikes against Saipan, Tinian, Rota, and Guam in the Marianas.

On 18 March, Iowa flying the flag of Vice Admiral Willis A. Lee, Commander Battleships, Pacific, joined in the bombardment of Mili Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Although struck by two Japanese 4.7'' projectiles during the action, lowa suffered negligible damage. She then rejoined Task Force 5S, 30 March, and supported air strikes against the Palau Islands and Woleai off the Carolines which continued for several days.

From 22 to 28 April 1944, Iowa supported air raids on Hollandia, Aitape, and Wakde Islands to support Army forces on Aitape, Tanahmerah Bay, and Humboldt Bay in New Guinea. She then Joined the Task Force's second strike on Truk, 2D 30 April, and bombarded Japanese facilities on Ponape in the Carolines, 1 May.

In the opening phases of the Marianas campaign, Iowa protected the 9attops during air strikes on the islands of Saipan, Tinian, Guam, Rota, and Pagan, 12 June. Iowa was then detached to bombard enemy installations on Saipan and Tinian, 13-14 June On 19 June, in an en. gagement known as the Battle of the Philippine Sea, Iowa, as part of the battle line of Fast Carrier Task Force 58, helped repel four massive air raids launched by the Japanese Middle Fleet This resulted in the almost complete destruction of Japanese carrier-based aircraft. Iowa then joined in the pursuit of the fleeing enemy Fleet, shooting down one torpedo plane and assisting in splashing another.

Thoroughout July, Iowa remained olf the Marianas supporting air strikes on the Palaus and landings on Guam. After a month's rest, Iowa sortied from Eniwetok as part of the 3d Fleet, and helped support the landings on Peleliu, 17 September. She then protected the carriers during air strikes against the Central Philippines to neutralize enemy air power for the long awaited invasion of the Philippines. On 10 October, Iowa arrived off Okinawa for a series of air strikes on the Ryukyus and Formosa. She then supported air strikes against Luzon, 1S October and continued this vital duty during General MacArthur's landing on Leyte 20 October.

In a last ditch attempt to halt the United States campaign to recapture the Philippines, the Japanese Navy struck back with a three-pronged attack aimed at the destruction of American amphibious forces in Leyte Gulf. Iowa accompanied TF

8 during attacks against the Japanese Central Force as it steamed through the Sibuyan Sea toward San Bernardino Strait. The reported results of these attacks and the apparent retreat of the Japanese Central Force led Admiral Halsey to believe that this force had been ruined as an effective 9ghting group. Iowa, with Task Force 38, steamed after the Japanese Northern Force off Cape Engano, Luzon. On 25 October 1944, when the ships of the Northern Force were almost within range of Iowa's guns, word arrived that the Japanese Central Force was attacking a group of American escort carriers off Samar. This threat to the Amerlcan beachheads forced her to reverse course and steam to support the vulnerable "baby carriers." However, the valiant fight put up by the escort carriers and their screen had already caused the Japaneses to retire and Iowa was denied a surface action. Follovving the Battle for Leyte Gulf, Iowa remained in the waters off the Philippines screening carriers during strifes against Luzon and Formosa She sailed for the West Coast late in December 1944.

Iowa arrived San Francisco, 15 January 1945 for overhaul. She sailed 19 March 1945 for Okinawa arriving 15 April 1945. Commencing 24 April 1945, Iowa sup" ported carrier operations which assured American troops vital air superiority during their struggle for that bitterly contested island. She then supported air strikes offsouthern Kyushu from 25 May to 13 June 1945. Iowa participated in strikes on the Japanese homeland 14-15 July and bombarded Muroran, Hokkaido, destroying steel mills and other targets. The city of Hitachi on Honshu was given the same treatment on the night of 17-18 July 1945. Iowa continued to support fast carrier strikes until the cessation of hostilities, 15 August 1945.

Iowa entered Tokyo Bay with the occupation forces, 29 August 1945. After serving as Admiral William F. Halsey's flagship for the surrender ceremony, 2 September 1945, Iowa departed Tokyo Bay 20 September 1945 for the United States.

Arriving Seattle, NVash., 15 October 1945, Iowa returned to Japanese waters in January 1946 and became flagship of the 5th Fleet. She continued this role until she sailed for the United States 25 March 1946. From that time on until September 1948, Iwoa operated from West Coast ports, on Naval Reserve and at sea training and drills and maneuvers with the Fleet. Iowa decommissioned 24 March 1949. After Communist aggression in Korea necessitated an expansion of the active fleet, Iowa recommissioned 25 August 1951, Captain William R. Smedberg III in command. She operated off the West Coast until March 1952, w hen she sailed for the Far East. On 1 April 1952 Iowa a became the flagship of Vice Admiral Robert T. Briscoe, Commander, 7th Fleet, and departed Yokosuka, Japan to support United Nations Forces ill Korea. From 8 April to 16 October 1962, Iowa was involved in combat operations off the East Coast of Korea. Her primary mission was to aid ground troops, by bombarding enemy targets at SongJin, Hungnam, and Kojo, North Korea. During this time, Admiral Briscoe was relieved as Gommander, 7th Fleet. Vice Admiral J. J.Clark, the new commander, continued to use Iowa as his flagship until 17 October 1952. Iowa departed Yokosuka Japan19 October 1952 for overhaul at Norfolk and training operations in the Caribbean Sea.

Iowa embarked midshipmen for at sea training to Northern Europe, July 19.53, and immediately after took part in Operation "Mariner," a major NATO exercise, serving as flagship of N'iee Admiral E. T, Woolfidge commanding the 2d f1eet. Upon completion of this exercise, until the fall of 1954, lowa operated in the Virginia Capes area. In September 1954, she became the flagship of Rear Admiral R. E. Libby, Commander, BattleshipCruiser Force, lJ.S. Atlantic Fleet.

From January to April 195i3, loua made an extended cruise to the Mediterranean as the first battleship regularly assigned to Commander, 6th Fleet. Iow-a departed Oll a midshiplllan training cruise 1 June 1955 and upon her return, she entered Norfolk for a 4-month overhaul. Follo

ving refit, Io?ca continued intermittent training cruises and operational exercises, until 4 J

nuary 1957 when she departed Norfolk for duty with the 6th Fleet in the AIediterranean. Upon completion of this deployment, Iowa embarked midshipmen for a South American training cruise and joined in the International Naval Review off Hampton Roads, Va., 13 June 1967.

On 3 September 1967, lowa sailed for Scotland for NATO Operation "Strikeback." She returned to Norfolk 28 September 1957 and departed Hampton Roads for the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, 22 October 1967. She decommissioned 24 February 1958 and entered the Atlantic Reserve Fleet at Philadelphia

Iwoa was recommissioned in 1984, with advance electronics and missiles . A explosion occured in the No 2 turret in 1989 killing one officer and 46 enlisted men. The battelship was decommssioned 26 October 1990

Iowa earned nine battle stars for World War II service and two for Korean service.


58th Infantry Regiment

Mustered in: August 27 to November 5, 1861
Mustered out: October 1, 1865

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
Colonel Wladimir Krzyzanowski received authority from the War Department August 20, 1861, to recruit a regiment of infantry, which he named the United States Rifles. Colonel Julian Allen had received authority, July 22, 1861, also from the War Department to recruit a regiment, which was known as the Polish Legion under War Department authority of July 25, 1861, Col. Theodore Lichtenhein recruited the Gallatin Rifles Col. Frederick Gellman the Morgan Rifles, and Col. Andrew Lutz, under authority from the same source, dated July 31, 1861, the Humboldt Yaegers. The latter, the Polish Legion and the Gallatin Rifles, were merged into the Morgan Rifles under Colonel Lutz. October 19, 1861, the 58th Regiment was organized in New York City by the State authorities by the consolidation of the incomplete Morgan and the United States Rifles. Companies A, B, C and D were formed of the corresponding companies, E of Companies E and G, and F of Companies F and H of the Morgan Rifles, and G, H, I and K of Companies A, B, C and D of the United States Rifles, and Wladimir Krzyzanowski was appointed Colonel of the regiment. The companies were mustered in the service of the United States for three years from August 27 to November 5, 1861, and, composed of Danes, Frenchmen, Germans, Italians, Poles and Russians, were recruited principally in New York city. At the expiration of its term, the men entitled thereto were discharged and the regiment retained in the service. June 30, 1865, the 45th Infantry were transferred to it, company to corresponding company.
The regiment left the State November 7, 1861 served in the 3d Brigade, Blenker's Division, Army of the Potomac, from November, 1861 in same brigade and division, Mountain Department, from April, 1862 in 2d Brigade, 3d Division, 1st Corps, Army of Virginia, from June 26, 1862 in same brigade and division, nth Corps, Army of the Potomac, from September 12, 1862 on veteran furlough from January, 1864 at Bridgeport, Ala., in 4th Division, 20th Corps, from March, 1864 in 3d Brigade, defenses of N. & C. R. R., Department of Cumberland, from June, 1864 at Nashville, Tenn., Department of Cumberland, from September, 1865 where it was honorably discharged and mustered out, under Colonel Krzyzanowski, October 1, 1865.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 2 officers, 22 enlisted men of wounds received in action, 2 officers, 6 enlisted men of disease and other causes, 3 officers, 60 enlisted men total, 7 officers, 88 enlisted men aggregate, 95 of whom 10 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
Fifty-Eighth Infantry.&mdashCol., Wladimir Kryzanowski Lieut.-Cols., Frederick Gellman, August Otto, Adolphus Dobke Majs., Theodore Lichtenstein, William Henkel, George N. Harvey, Adolph C. Warberg, Michael Esenbean. This regiment, known as the Morgan Rifles, was composed of the United States Rifles, Polish Legion, Gallatin Rifles, Morgan Rifles and Humboldt Yeagers, and was mustered into the U. S. service at New York city in Nov., 1861, for three years. It left the state for Washington, Nov. 7, 1861 was assigned to the 3d brigade, Blenker's division, Army of the Potomac, stationed near Washington until April, 1862, when it was ordered to join the Mountain Department and reached Gen. Fremont in time to participate in the battle of Cross Keys. On June 26, 1862, the regiment was assigned to the 2nd brigade, 3d division, 1st corps, Army of Virginia, which subsequently became the nth corps, and with it served through Gen. Pope's campaign, being present at Fox's ford, Sulphur springs, Waterloo bridge, Groveton and the second Bull Run, losing in the campaign 57 in killed, wounded and missing. The regiment was not engaged at Fredericksburg, although stationed in the vicinity. Winter quarters were established at Stafford and the regiment was active in the Chancellorsville movement in May, 1863. From there it moved to Gettysburg, was active in the battle, then southward through Boonsboro and Funks-town, and was ordered west on Sept. 24. It arrived at Bridgeport, Ala., early in October, was present at Wauhatchie and in the Chattanooga and Rossville campaigns and in March, 1864, was attached to the 4th division, 20th corps. A large number of the regiment reenlisted in Dec., 1863, received veteran furlough and rejoined the regiment in Tennessee. The veteran regiment completed its service in the Department of the Cumberland, being stationed from June, 1864, to September, 1865, at Nashville, where it was mustered out on Oct. 1, 1865. During its term of service it lost 32 by death from wounds and 95 from other causes.

58th Regiment NY Volunteer Infantry | Flank Markers | Civil War

The NYS Battle Flag Collection includes two flank markers carried by the 58th Regiment NY Volunteer Infantry. Both flags have losses, one more so than…


The First Marathon Runner

Finally, a popular legend that has survived till this day is that it was a messenger, Pheidippides, who ran from Marathon back to Athens to announce the victory over the Persians. Right after he delivered his message, Pheidippides died of exhaustion. Although the story is commonly attributed to Herodotus, it is not actually found in his writings.

Painting of Pheidippides as he gave word of the Greek victory over Persia at the Battle of Marathon to the people of Athens. (Themadchopper / Public Domain )

Herodotus does report that a herald by the name of Philippides was sent by the Athenians to seek aid from the Spartans and the two stories might have been conflated. In any case, the story inspired the creation of the marathon. In 1896, the first modern Olympics was held in Athens and the founder of the International Olympic Committee, Pierre de Coubertin, organized the first official marathon.

This race started from the Marathon Bridge to the Olympic Stadium in Athens, a distance of about 24.85 miles (40 kilometers) and was won by Spiridon Louis, a Greek postal worker, who finished the race in 2 hours 58 minutes. During the 1908 Olympics, which was held in London, the marathon began at the lawn of Windsor Castle and finished in front of the royal box at White City Stadium. The total distance between the two points was 26.2 miles (42.195 kilometers). Although this would become the standard distance for future marathons it was only formally adopted in 1921.

Top image: Greek troops rushing forward at the Battle of Marathon. Source: पाटलिपुत्र / Public Domain .


Contents

Settlement in Ukraine by members of the genus Homo has been documented into distant prehistory. The Neanderthals are associated with the Molodova archaeological sites (43,000–45,000 BC) which include a mammoth bone dwelling. [18] [19] Gravettian settlements dating to 32,000 BC have been unearthed and studied in the Buran-Kaya cave site of the Crimean Mountains. [20] [21]

Around 10,000 years ago the world's longest river [22] emptied glacier melted water through the Don and the Black Sea. From springs in Gobi it flowed along the Yenisei, which was then dammed by northern glaciers. Through the West Siberian Glacial Lake flowed about 10,000 km [23] It was longer than any river known today. [24]

The late Neolithic times the Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture flourished from about 4500–3000 BC. [25] The Copper Age people of the Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture resided in the western part, and the Sredny Stog Culture further east, succeeded by the early Bronze Age Yamna ("Kurgan") culture of the steppes, and by the Catacomb culture in the 3rd millennium BC.

History Edit

During the Iron Age, these were followed by the Dacians as well as nomadic peoples like the Cimmerians (archaeological Novocherkassk culture), Scythians and Sarmatians. The Scythian Kingdom existed here from 750 to 250 BC. [26] Along with ancient Greek colonies founded in the 6th century BC on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea, the colonies of Tyras, Olbia, Hermonassa, continued as Roman and Byzantine cities until the 6th century.

In the 3rd century AD, the Goths arrived in the lands of Ukraine around 250–375 AD, which they called Oium, corresponding to the archaeological Chernyakhov culture. [27] The Ostrogoths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s. North of the Ostrogothic kingdom was the Kiev culture, flourishing from the 2nd–5th centuries, when it was overrun by the Huns. After they helped defeat the Huns at the battle of Nedao in 454, the Ostrogoths were allowed by Romans to settle in Pannonia.

With the power vacuum created with the end of Hunnic and Gothic rule, Slavic tribes, possibly emerging from the remnants of the Kiev culture, began to expand over much of the territory that is now Ukraine during the 5th century, and beyond to the Balkans from the 6th century.

In the 7th century, the territory of modern Ukraine was the core of the state of the Bulgars (often referred to as Old Great Bulgaria) with its capital city of Phanagoria. At the end of the 7th century, most Bulgar tribes migrated in several directions and the remains of their state were absorbed by the Khazars, a semi-nomadic people from Central Asia. [27]

The Khazars founded the Khazar kingdom in the southeastern part of today's Europe, near the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus. The kingdom included western Kazakhstan, and parts of eastern Ukraine, Azerbaijan, southern Russia, and Crimea. Around 800 AD, the kingdom converted to Judaism.

Antes people Edit

In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes Union was located in the territory of what is now Ukraine. The Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Severians, Polans, Drevlyans, Dulebes, Ulichians, and Tiverians. Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching almost to the Lake Ilmen, led to the emergence of the Ilmen Slavs, Krivichs, and Radimichs, the groups ancestral to the Russians. After an Avar raid in 602 and the collapse of the Antes Union, most of these peoples survived as separate tribes until the beginning of the second millennium. [28]

Kievan Rus Edit

As Hrushevsky states, the city of Kyiv was established during the time when area around the mid- and low-Dnipro was the part of the Khazar state. He derived that information from local legends because no written chronicles from that period are left.

In 882, Kyiv was conquered from the Khazars by the Varangian noble Oleh (Oleg) who started the long period of rule of the Rurikid princes. During this time, several Slavic tribes were native to Ukraine, including the Polans, the Drevlyans, the Severians, the Ulichs, the Tiverians, the White Croats and the Dulebes. Situated on lucrative trade routes, Kyiv among the Polanians quickly prospered as the center of the powerful Slavic state of Kievan Rus.

In 941 AD, the prince of Kiev invaded the Byzantine Empire but was defeated in the Rus'–Byzantine War (941).

In the 11th century, Kievan Rus was, geographically, the largest state in Europe, becoming known in the rest of Europe as Ruthenia (the Latin name for Rus'), especially for western principalities of Rus' after the Mongol invasion. The name "Ukraine", meaning "in-land" or "native-land", [29] usually interpreted as "border-land", first appears in historical documents of the 12th century [30] and then on history maps of the 16th century period. [31]

This term seems to have been synonymous with the land of Rus' propria—the principalities of Kyiv, Chernihiv and Pereiaslav. The term, "Greater Rus'" was used to apply to all the lands of entire Kievan Rus, including those that were not just Slavic, but also Uralic in the north-east portions of the state. Local regional subdivisions of Rus' appeared in the Slavic heartland, including, "Belarus'" (White Russia), "Chorna Rus'" (Black Russia) and "Cherven' Rus'" (Red Russia) in northwestern and western Ukraine.

Christianity Edit

While Christianity had made headway into the territory of Ukraine before the first ecumenical council, the Council of Nicaea (325) (particularly along the Black Sea coast) and, in western Ukraine during the time of empire of Great Moravia, the formal governmental acceptance of Christianity in Rus' occurred in 988. The major promoter of the Christianization of Kievan Rus' was the Grand-Duke, Vladimir the Great (Volodymyr). His Christian interest was midwifed by his grandmother, Princess Olga. Later, an enduring part of the East-Slavic legal tradition was set down by the Kievan ruler, Yaroslav I, who promulgated the Russkaya Pravda (Truth of Rus') which endured through the Lithuanian period of Rus'.

Conflict among the various principalities of Rus', in spite of the efforts of Grand Prince Vladimir Monomakh, led to decline, beginning in the 12th century. In Rus' propria, the Kyiv region, the nascent Rus' principalities of Halych and Volynia extended their rule. In the north, the name of Moscow appeared in the historical record in the principality of Suzdal, which gave rise to the nation of Russia. In the north-west, the principality of Polotsk increasingly asserted the autonomy of Belarus. Kyiv was sacked by Vladimir principality (1169) in the power struggle between princes and later by Cumans and Mongol raiders in the 12th and 13th centuries, respectively. Subsequently, all principalities of present-day Ukraine acknowledged dependence upon the Mongols (1239–1240). In 1240, the Mongols sacked Kyiv, and many people fled to other countries.

Five years after the fall of Kyiv, Papal envoy Giovanni da Pian del Carpine wrote:

"They destroyed cities and castles and killed men and Kiev, which is the greatest Russian city they besieged and when they had besieged it a long while they took it and killed the people of the city. So when we went through that country we found countless human skulls and bones from the dead scattered over the field. Indeed it had been a very great and populous city and now is reduced almost to nothing. In fact there are hardly two hundred houses there now and the people are held in the strictest servitude." [32]

Galicia-Volhynia Edit

A successor state to the Kievan Rus on part of the territory of today's Ukraine was the principality of Galicia-Volhynia. Previously, Vladimir the Great had established the cities of Halych and Ladomir (later Volodimer) as regional capitals. This state was based upon the Dulebe, Tiverian and White Croat tribes.

The state was ruled by the descendants of Yaroslav the Wise and Vladimir Monomakh. For a brief period, the country was ruled by a Hungarian nobleman. Battles with the neighbouring states of Poland and Lithuania also occurred, as well as internecine warfare with the independent Ruthenian principality of Chernihiv to the east. At its greatest extension the territory of Galicia-Volhynia included later Wallachia/Bessarabia, thus reaching the shores of the Black Sea.

During this period (around 1200–1400), each principality was independent of the other for a period. The state of Halych-Volynia eventually became a vassal to the Mongolian Empire, but efforts to gain European support for opposition to the Mongols continued. This period marked the first "King of Rus'" previously, the rulers of Rus' were termed, "Grand Dukes" or "Princes."

14th century Edit

During the 14th century, Poland and Lithuania fought wars against the Mongol invaders, and eventually most of Ukraine passed to the rule of Poland and Lithuania. More particularly, the lands of Volynia in the north and north-west passed to the rule of Lithuanian princes, while the south-west passed to the control of Poland (Galicia). Also the Genoese founded some colonies in Crimean coasts until the Ottoman conquest in the 1470s.

Most of Ukraine bordered parts of Lithuania, and some say that the name, "Ukraine" comes from the local word for "border," although the name "Ukraine" was also used centuries earlier. Lithuania took control of the state of Volynia in northern and northwestern Ukraine, including the region around Kyiv (Rus), and the rulers of Lithuania then adopted the title of ruler of Rus'. Poland took control of the southeastern region. Following the union between Poland and Lithuania, Poles, Germans, Lithuanians and Jews migrated to the region

Lithuania took control of the state of Volynia in northern and northwestern Ukraine, including the region around Kyiv (Rus), and the rulers of Lithuania then adopted the title of ruler of Rus'. Despite this, many Ukrainians (Then known as Ruthenians) were in high positions of power in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, comprising local rulers, gentry, and even the Lithuanian crown itself (See: Algirdas and Dmytro Dedko). During this time, Ukraine and Ukrainians saw relative prosperity and autonomy, with the Duchy functioning more like a joint Lithuanian-Ukrainian state, with freedom to practice Orthodox Christianity, speak Ukrainian (Especially demonstrated by the significantly low linguistic overlap between the Ukrainian and Lithuanian languages), and continue to engage in Ukrainian culture practices, remaining unabated. [33]

Eventually, Poland took control of the southeastern region. Following the union between Poland and Lithuania, Poles, Germans, Lithuanians and Jews migrated to the region, forcing Ukrainians out of positions of power they shared with Lithuanians, with more Ukrainians being forced into Central Ukraine as a result of Polish migration, polonization, and other forms of oppression against Ukraine and Ukrainians, all of which started to fully take form.

In 1490, due to increased oppression of Ukrainians at the hands of the Polish, a series of successful rebellions was led by Ukrainian hero Petro Mukha, joined by other Ukrainians, such as early Cossacks and Hutsuls, in addition to Moldavians (Romanians). Known as Mukha's Rebellion, this series of battles was supported by the Moldavian prince Stephen the Great, and it is one of the earliest known uprisings of Ukrainians against Polish oppression. These rebellions saw the capture of several cities of Pokuttya, and reached as far west as Lviv, but without capturing the latter. [34]

The 15th-century decline of the Golden Horde enabled the foundation of the Crimean Khanate, which occupied present-day Black Sea shores and southern steppes of Ukraine. Until the late 18th century, the Crimean Khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East, [35] exporting about 2 million slaves from Russia and Ukraine over the period 1500–1700. [36] It remained a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire until 1774, when it was finally dissolved by the Russian Empire in 1783.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Edit

After the Union of Lublin in 1569 and the formation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Ukraine fell under Polish administration, becoming part of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. The period immediately following the creation of the Commonwealth saw a huge revitalisation in colonisation efforts. Many new cities and villages were founded. Links between different Ukrainian regions, such as Galicia and Volyn were greatly extended. [37]

New schools spread the ideas of the Renaissance Polish peasants arrived in great numbers and quickly became mixed with the local population during this time, most of Ukrainian nobles became polonised and converted to Catholicism, and while most Ruthenian-speaking peasants remained within the Eastern Orthodox Church, social tension rose.

Ruthenian peasants who fled efforts to force them into serfdom came to be known as Cossacks and earned a reputation for their fierce martial spirit. Some Cossacks were enlisted by the Commonwealth as soldiers to protect the southeastern borders of Commonwealth from Tatars or took part in campaigns abroad (like Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny in the battle of Khotyn 1621). Cossack units were also active in wars between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Tsardom of Russia. Despite the Cossack's military usefulness, the Commonwealth, dominated by its nobility, refused to grant them any significant autonomy, instead attempting to turn most of the Cossack population into serfs. This led to an increasing number of Cossack rebellions aimed at the Commonwealth.

Size and population of the voidoveships in the 16th century [38]
Voivodeship Square kilometers Population (est.)
Galicia 45,000 446,000
Volhynia 42,000 294,000
Podilia 19,000 98,000
Bratslav 35,000 311,000
Kiev 117,000 234,000
Belz (two regions) Kholm 19,000 133,000
Pidliassia 10,000 233,000

Cossack era Edit

The 1648 Ukrainian Cossack (Kozak) rebellion or Khmelnytsky Uprising, which started an era known as the Ruin (in Polish history as The Deluge), undermined the foundations and stability of the Commonwealth. The nascent Cossack state, the Cossack Hetmanate, [39] usually viewed as precursor of Ukraine, [39] found itself in a three-sided military and diplomatic rivalry with the Ottoman Turks, who controlled the Tatars to the south, the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania, and the Tsardom of Muscovy to the East.

The Zaporizhian Host, in order to leave the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, sought a treaty of protection with Russia in 1654. [39] This agreement was known as the Treaty of Pereyaslav. [39] Commonwealth authorities then sought compromise with the Ukrainian Cossack state by signing the Treaty of Hadiach in 1658, but—after thirteen years of incessant warfare—the agreement was later superseded by 1667 Polish–Russian Treaty of Andrusovo, which divided Ukrainian territory between the Commonwealth and Russia. Under Russia, the Cossacks initially retained official autonomy in the Hetmanate. [39] For a time, they also maintained a semi-independent republic in Zaporozhia, and a colony on the Russian frontier in Sloboda Ukraine.

Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary Edit

During subsequent decades, Tsarist rule over central Ukraine gradually replaced 'protection'. Sporadic Cossack uprisings were now aimed at the Russian authorities, but eventually petered out by the late 18th century, following the destruction of entire Cossack hosts. After the Partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793 and 1795, the extreme west of Ukraine fell under the control of the Austrians, with the rest becoming a part of the Russian Empire. As a result of Russo-Turkish Wars the Ottoman Empire's control receded from south-central Ukraine, while the rule of Hungary over the Transcarpathian region continued. Ukrainian writers and intellectuals were inspired by the nationalistic spirit stirring other European peoples existing under other imperial governments and became determined to revive the Ukrainian linguistic and cultural traditions and re-establish a Ukrainian nation-state, a movement that became known as Ukrainophilism.

Russia, fearing separatism, imposed strict limits on attempts to elevate the Ukrainian language and culture, even banning its use and study. The Russophile policies of Russification and Panslavism led to an exodus of a number of Ukrainian intellectuals into Western Ukraine. However, many Ukrainians accepted their fate in the Russian Empire and some were able to achieve a great success there.

The fate of the Ukrainians was far different under the Austrian Empire where they found themselves in the pawn position of the Russian-Austrian power struggle for the Central and Southern Europe. Unlike in Russia, most of the elite that ruled Galicia were of Austrian or Polish descent, with the Ruthenians being almost exclusively kept in peasantry. During the 19th century, Russophilia was a common occurrence among the Slavic population, but the mass exodus of Ukrainian intellectuals escaping from Russian repression in Eastern Ukraine, as well as the intervention of Austrian authorities, caused the movement to be replaced by Ukrainophilia, which would then cross-over into the Russian Empire. With the start of World War I, all those supporting Russia were rounded up by Austrian forces and held in a concentration camp at Talerhof where many died.

17th and 18th-century Ukraine Edit

Ukraine emerges as the concept of a nation, and the Ukrainians as a nationality, with the Ukrainian National Revival in the mid-18th century, in the wake of the peasant revolt of 1768/69 and the eventual partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Galicia fell to the Austrian Empire, and the rest of Ukraine to the Russian Empire.

While right-bank Ukraine belonged to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until late 1793, left-bank Ukraine had been incorporated into Tsardom of Russia in 1667 (under the Treaty of Andrusovo). In 1672, Podolia was occupied by the Turkish Ottoman Empire, while Kyiv and Braclav came under the control of Hetman Petro Doroshenko until 1681, when they were also captured by the Turks but in 1699 the Treaty of Karlowitz returned those lands to the Commonwealth.

Most of Ukraine fell to the Russian Empire under the reign of Catherine the Great in 1793 right-bank Ukraine was annexed by Russia in the Second Partition of Poland. [40]

Ukrainian writers and intellectuals were inspired by the nationalistic spirit stirring other European peoples existing under other imperial governments. Russia, fearing separatism, imposed strict limits on attempts to elevate the Ukrainian language and culture, even banning its use and study. The Russophile policies of Russification and Panslavism led to an exodus of a number some Ukrainian intellectuals into Western Ukraine, while others embraced a Pan-Slavic or Russian identity.

Ukraine and the world wars Edit

Ukraine, which included Crimea, the Kuban, and portions of Don Cossack lands with large Ukrainian populations (along with ethnic Russians, and Jews), tried to break free from Russia after the February 1917 revolution in St. Petersburg. Historian Paul Kubicek states:

Between 1917 and 1920, several entities that aspired to be independent Ukrainian states came into existence. This period, however, was extremely chaotic, characterized by revolution, international and civil war, and lack of strong central authority. Many factions competed for power in the area that is today’s Ukraine, and not all groups desired a separate Ukrainian state. Ultimately, Ukrainian independence was short-lived, as most Ukrainian lands were incorporated into the Soviet Union and the remainder, in western Ukraine, was divided among Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Romania. [41]

Canadian scholar Orest Subtelny provides a context from the long span of European history:

In 1919 total chaos engulfed Ukraine. Indeed, in the modern history of Europe no country experienced such complete anarchy, bitter civil strife, and total collapse of authority as did Ukraine at this time. Six different armies-– those of the Ukrainians, the Bolsheviks, the Whites, the Entente [French], the Poles and the anarchists – operated on its territory. Kyiv changed hands five times in less than a year. Cities and regions were cut off from each other by the numerous fronts. Communications with the outside world broke down almost completely. The starving cities emptied as people moved into the countryside in their search for food. [42]

The Ukrainian War of Independence of 1917 to 1921 produced the Free Territory of Ukraine, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (in 1919 merged from the Ukrainian People's Republic and West Ukrainian People's Republic) which was quickly subsumed in the Soviet Union. Galicia, South Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, and Carpathian Ruthenia were added as a result of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in 1939 and the Soviet victory over Germany in the Second World War, 1939–45.

The Soviet famine of 1932–33, now known as the Holodomor, left millions dead in the Soviet Union, the majority of them Ukrainians not only in Ukraine but also in Kuban and former Don Cossack lands. [43] [44]

The Second World War began in September 1939, when Hitler and Stalin invaded Poland, the Soviet Union taking most of Western Ukraine. Nazi Germany with its allies invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. Some Ukrainians initially regarded the Wehrmacht soldiers as liberators from Soviet rule, while others formed a partisan movement. Some elements of the Ukrainian nationalist underground formed a Ukrainian Insurgent Army that fought both Soviet forces and the Nazi. Others collaborated with the Germans. Some 1.5 million Jews were murdered by the Nazis during their occupation. [45] In Volhynia, Ukrainian fighters committed a massacre against up to 100,000 Polish civilians. [46] Residual small groups of the UPA-partizans acted near the Polish and Soviet border as long as to the 1950s. [47]

After World War II some amendments to the Constitution of the Ukrainian SSR were accepted, which allowed it to act as a separate subject of international law in some cases and to a certain extent, remaining a part of the Soviet Union at the same time. In particular, these amendments allowed the Ukrainian SSR to become one of founding members of the United Nations (UN) together with the Soviet Union and the Byelorussian SSR. This was part of a deal with the United States to ensure a degree of balance in the General Assembly, which, the USSR opined, was unbalanced in favor of the Western Bloc. In its capacity as a member of the UN, the Ukrainian SSR was an elected member of the United Nations Security Council in 1948–1949 and 1984–1985. The Crimean Oblast was transferred from the RSFSR to the Ukrainian SSR in 1954.

Independence Edit

With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine became an independent state, formalised with a referendum in December 1991.

On 21 January 1990, over 300,000 Ukrainians [48] organized a human chain for Ukrainian independence between Kyiv and Lviv. Ukraine officially declared itself an independent country on 24 August 1991, when the communist Supreme Soviet (parliament) of Ukraine proclaimed that Ukraine would no longer follow the laws of USSR and only the laws of the Ukrainian SSR, de facto declaring Ukraine's independence from the Soviet Union. On 1 December, voters approved a referendum formalizing independence from the Soviet Union. Over 90% of Ukrainian citizens voted for independence, with majorities in every region, including 56% in Crimea. The Soviet Union formally ceased to exist on 26 December, when the presidents of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia (the founding members of the USSR) met in Białowieża Forest to formally dissolve the Union in accordance with the Soviet Constitution. With this Ukraine's independence was formalized de jure and recognized by the international community.

The presidency (1994–2005) of the 2nd President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma was surrounded by numerous corruption scandals and the lessening of media freedoms including the Cassette Scandal. [49] [50] During Kuchma's presidency, the economy recovered, with GDP growth at around 10% a year in his last years in office. [49]

In 2004, Kuchma announced that he would not run for re-election. Two major candidates emerged in the 2004 presidential election. Viktor Yanukovych, the incumbent Prime Minister, supported by both Kuchma and by the Russian Federation, wanted closer ties with Russia. The main opposition candidate, Viktor Yushchenko, called for Ukraine to turn its attention westward and aim to eventually join the EU. In the runoff election, Yanukovych officially won by a narrow margin, but Yushchenko and his supporters alleged that vote rigging and intimidation cost him many votes, especially in eastern Ukraine. A political crisis erupted after the opposition started massive street protests in Kyiv and other cities ("Orange Revolution"), and the Supreme Court of Ukraine ordered the election results null and void. A second runoff found Viktor Yushchenko the winner. Five days later, Yanukovych resigned from office and his cabinet was dismissed on 5 January 2005.

During the Yushchenko term, relations between Russia and Ukraine often appeared strained as Yushchenko looked towards improved relations with the European Union and less toward Russia. [51] In 2005, a highly publicized dispute over natural gas prices with Russia caused shortages in many European countries that were reliant on Ukraine as a transit country. [52] A compromise was reached in January 2006. [52]

By the time of the presidential election of 2010, Yushchenko and Yulia Tymoshenko — allies during the Orange Revolution — had become bitter enemies. [49] Tymoshenko ran for president against both Yushchenko and Viktor Yanukovych, creating a three-way race. Yushchenko, whose popularity had plummeted, [51] persisted in running, and many pro-Orange voters stayed home. [53] In the second round of the election Yanukovych won the run-off ballot with 48% to Tymoshenko's 45%.

During his presidency (2010–2014) Yanukovych and his Party of Regions were accused of trying to create a "controlled democracy" in Ukraine and of trying to destroy the main opposition party Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko, but both have denied these charges. [54] One frequently cited example of Yankukovych's attempts to centralise power was the 2011 sentencing of Yulia Tymoshenko, which has been condemned by Western governments as potentially being politically motivated. [55]

In November 2013, President Yanukovych did not sign the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement and instead pursued closer ties with Russia. [56] [57] This move sparked protests on the streets of Kyiv and, ultimately, the 2014 Ukrainian revolution. Protesters set up camps in Kyiv's Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square), [58] and in December 2013 and January 2014 protesters started taking over various government buildings, first in Kyiv and, later, in Western Ukraine. [59] Battles between protesters and police resulted in about 80 deaths in February 2014. [60] [61]

Following the violence the Ukrainian parliament on 22 February voted to remove Yanukovych from power (on the grounds that his whereabouts were unknown and he thus could not fulfil his duties), and to free Yulia Tymoshenko from prison. The same day Yanukovych supporter Volodymyr Rybak resigned as speaker of the Parliament, and was replaced by Tymoshenko loyalist Oleksandr Turchynov, who was subsequently installed as interim President. [62] Yanukovych had fled Kyiv, and subsequently gave a press conference in the Russian city of Rostov-on-Don. [63]

In March 2014, the Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation occurred. Though official results of a referendum on reunification with Russia were reported as showing a large majority in favor of the proposition, the vote was organized under Russian military occupation and was denounced by the European Union and the United States as illegal. [64]

The Crimean crisis was followed by pro-Russian unrest in east Ukraine and south Ukraine. [65] In April 2014 Ukrainian separatists self-proclaimed the Donetsk People's Republic and Lugansk People's Republic and held referendums on 11 May 2014 the separatists claimed nearly 90% voted in favor of independence. [66] [65] Later in April 2014, fighting between the Ukrainian army and pro-Ukrainian volunteer battalions on one side, and forces supporting the Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics on the other side, escalated into the War in Donbass. [65] [67] By December 2014 more than 6,400 people had died in this conflict and according to United Nations figures it led to over half a million people becoming internally displaced within Ukraine and two hundred thousand refugees to flee to (mostly) Russia and other neighboring countries. [68] [69] [70] [71] During the same period, political (including adoption of the law on lustration and the law on decommunization) and economic reforms started. [72] On 25 May 2014, Petro Poroshenko was elected president in the first round of the presidential election.

By the second half of 2015 independent observers noted that reforms in Ukraine had considerably slowed down, corruption did not subside, and the economy of Ukraine was still in a deep crisis. [72] [73] [74] [75]

By December 2015, more than 9,100 people had died (largely civilians) in the War in Donbass, according to United Nations figures. [76]

On 21 April 2019, Volodymyr Zelensky was elected president in the second round of the presidential election.

The scholarly study of Ukraine's history emerged from romantic impulses in the late 19th century. The outstanding leaders were Volodymyr Antonovych (1834–1908), based in Kyiv, and his student Mykhailo Hrushevsky (1866–1934). [77] For the first time full-scale scholarly studies based on archival sources, modern research techniques, and modern historical theories became possible. However, the demands of government officials—Tsarist, to a lesser degree Austro-Hungarian and Polish, and later Soviet—made it difficult to disseminate ideas that ran counter to the central government. Therefore, exile schools of historians emerged in central Europe and Canada after 1920. [ citation needed ]

Strikingly different interpretations of the medieval state of Kyivan Rus appear in the four schools of historiography within Ukraine: Russophile, Sovietophile, Eastern Slavic, and Ukrainophile. The Russophile and Sovietophile schools have become marginalized in independent Ukraine, with the Ukrainophile school being dominant in the early 21st century. The Ukrainophile school promotes an identity that is mutually exclusive of Russia. It has come to dominate the nation's educational system, security forces, and national symbols and monuments, although it has been dismissed as nationalist by Western historians. The East Slavic school, an eclectic compromise between Ukrainophiles and Russophilism, has a weaker ideological and symbolic base, although it is preferred by Ukraine's centrist former elites. [78]

Many historians in recent years have sought alternatives to national histories, and Ukrainian history invited approaches that looked beyond a national paradigm. Multiethnic history recognises the numerous peoples in Ukraine transnational history portrays Ukraine as a border zone for various empires and area studies categorises Ukraine as part of East-Central Europe or, less often, as part of Eurasia. Serhii Plokhy argues that looking beyond the country's national history has made possible a richer understanding of Ukraine, its people, and the surrounding regions. [79]

After 1991, historical memory was a powerful tool in the political mobilization and legitimation of the post-Soviet Ukrainian state, as well as the division of selectively used memory along the lines of the political division of Ukrainian society. Ukraine did not experience the restorationist paradigm typical of some other post-Soviet nations, including the Baltic states, although the multifaceted history of independence, the Orthodox Church in Ukraine, Soviet-era repressions, mass famine, and World War II collaboration were used to provide a different constitutive frame for developing Ukrainian nationhood. The politics of identity (which includes the production of history textbooks and the authorization of commemorative practices) has remained fragmented and tailored to reflect the ideological anxieties and concerns of individual regions of Ukraine. [80]

Canadian historiography on Ukraine Edit

In Soviet Ukraine, twentieth-century historians were strictly limited in the range of models and topics they could cover, with Moscow insisting on an official Marxist approach. However émigré Ukrainians in Canada developed an independent scholarship that ignored Marxism, and shared the Western tendencies in historiography. [81] George W. Simpson and Orest Subtelny were leaders promoting Ukrainian studies in Canadian academe. [82] The lack of independence in Ukraine meant that traditional historiographical emphases on diplomacy and politics were handicapped. The flourishing of social history after 1960 opened many new approaches for researchers in Canada Subtelny used the modernization model. Later historiographical trends were quickly adapted to the Ukrainian evidence, with special focus on Ukrainian nationalism. The new cultural history, post-colonial studies, and the "linguistic turn" augmenting, if not replacing social history, allowed for multiple angles of approach. By 1991, historians in Canada had freely explored a wide range of approaches regarding the emergence of a national identity. After independence, a high priority in Canada was assisting in the freeing of Ukrainian scholarship from Soviet-Marxist orthodoxy—which downplayed Ukrainian nationalism and insisted that true Ukrainians were always trying to reunite with Russia. Independence from Moscow meant freedom from an orthodoxy that was never well suited to Ukrainian developments. Scholars in Ukraine welcomed the "national paradigm" that Canadian historians had helped develop. Since 1991, the study of Ukrainian nation-building became an increasingly global and collaborative enterprise, with scholars from Ukraine studying and working in Canada, and with conferences on related topics attracting scholars from around the world. [83]


6. Punic War

Like the Macedonian War, the Punic War was in fact a series of wars: the first, second, and third lasting from 264 BC to 146 BC between Rome and Carthage.

The First Punic War started in 264 BC. The war was hard fought and both sides suffered many casualties. It ended with the signing of a treaty in which Carthage had to pay considerable war indemnities to Rome.
The Second Punic War started in 218 BC and ended in 201 BC. The Carthaginian general, Hannibal, invaded northern Italy and defeated Rome in various battles.

The Third Punic War started in 149 BC and ended in 146 BC. This was the last Punic War which saw the total destruction of the Carthaginian Empire and the Romans emerge as overall victors.


The Conquest of Canaan

On this date, Moses is exactly 120 years old based on his DFC date of birth on the first day of Nisan in 1525 BC. Since Moses died the previous month, this would be a good example showing how the DFC dates in Scripture sometimes function like marks on the ruler of time instead of designating the exact date of an event.

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 154
BR Years from Creation: 2709
BR: Wednesday, March 19 — Nisan 1, 1405 BC
GH: Wednesday, January 7 — Tevet 15, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210091.75

Joshua 2:2-21

Spies Hide in Rahab’s Home in Jericho

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 156
BR Years from Creation: 2709
BR: Friday, March 21 — Nisan 3, 1405 BC
GH: Friday, January 9 — Tevet 17, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210093.75

Joshua 3:2-17

Joshua and Israel Cross the River Jordan

Type of Dated Event: DIS
BR Calendar Day Number: 163
BR Years from Creation: 2709
BR: Friday, March 28 — Nisan 10, 1405 BC
GH: Friday, January 16 — Tevet 24, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210100.75

Joshua 4:1-9

Twelve Memorial Stones Placed at Gilgal

Type of Dated Event: DIS
BR Calendar Day Number: 163
BR Years from Creation: 2709
BR: Friday, March 28 — Nisan 10, 1405 BC
GH: Friday, January 16 — Tevet 24, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210100.75

Joshua 4:10-24

Priests Bring the Ark From the Jordan

Type of Dated Event: DIS
BR Calendar Day Number: 164
BR Years from Creation: 2709
BR: Saturday, March 29 — Nisan 11, 1405 BC
GH: Saturday, January 17 — Tevet 25, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210101.75

Joshua 5:10

Israel Celebrates Passover on Plains of Jericho

Type of Dated Event: Passover
BR Calendar Day Number: 167
BR Years from Creation: 2709
BR: Tuesday, April 1 — Nisan 14, 1405 BC
GH: Tuesday, January 20 — Tevet 28, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210104.75

Joshua 5:11

Israel Eats Fruit of the Land of Canaan

Type of Dated Event: DIS
BR Calendar Day Number: 168
BR Years from Creation: 2709
BR: Wednesday, April 2 — Nisan 15, 1405 BC
GH: Wednesday, January 21 — Tevet 29, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210105.75

Joshua 5:12

Israel No Longer Eats Manna

The manna ceased on the day after they ate the produce of the land.

Type of Dated Event: DIS
BR Calendar Day Number: 169
BR Years from Creation: 2709
BR: Thursday, April 3 — Nisan 16, 1405 BC
GH: Thursday, January 22 — Shevat 1, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210106.75

Joshua 5:13-6:5

Commander of the Lord’s Army Instructs Joshua

On the evening of Friday, April 4−Nisan 17 in 1405 BC, Joshua meets the Commander of the Lord’s Army and is given directions about the battle for Jericho. This date is exactly 40 years from the first day out of Egypt at the start of the Exodus with the Dedication of the Firstborn at Succoth. This event is described in Gen. 12:40-42 (p. 210).

Type of Dated Event: EDIS
BR Calendar Day Number: 170
BR Years from Creation: 2709
BR: Friday, April 4 — Nisan 17, 1405 BC
GH: Friday, January 23 — Shevat 2, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210107.75

Joshua 6:6-10

Joshua Instructs Israel About Battle for Jericho

On the same evening of Nisan 17, Joshua returns to camp and delivers the instructions for the battle of Jericho that would begin the next morning of this same day on the Hebrew calendar. On this same solar date in 30 AD, 1,434 years later, the risen Christ would stand before His disciples on the evening of the Resurrection (John 20:19-23).

Type of Dated Event: EDIS
BR Calendar Day Number: 170
BR Years from Creation: 2709
BR: Friday, April 4 — Nisan 17, 1405 BC
GH: Friday, January 23 — Shevat 2, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210107.75

Joshua 6:15-20

Walls of Jericho Fall on Seventh Day

The walls of Jericho fall on the seventh day of battle.

Type of Dated Event: EDIS
BR Calendar Day Number: 176
BR Years from Creation: 2709
BR: Thursday, April 10 — Nisan 23, 1405 BC
GH: Thursday, January 29 — Shevat 8, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210113.75

Joshua 8:3-29

Israel Attacks and Destroys City of Ai

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 256
BR Years from Creation: 2709
BR: Sunday, June 29 — Tammuz 14, 1405 BC
GH: Sunday, April 19 — Nisan 28, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210193.75

Joshua 10:1-2

Gibeon and Israel’s Treaty Angers King Adoni-Zedek

Gibeon and Israel’s Treaty greatly angers King Adoni-Zedek who is the King of Jerusalem. Jerusalem’s King had heard about the military victories of Israel over the cities of Jericho and Ai. He was greatly afraid of the situation that now existed because of the treaty of Israel with Gibeon.

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 309
BR Years from Creation: 2709
BR: Thursday, August 22 — Elul 8, 1405 BC
GH: Thursday, June 11 — Sivan 22, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210246.75

Joshua 10:12-14

Sun Stands Still Allowing Defeat of Amorites

There has been much speculation in Biblical commentaries to explain this text. Scripture is clear that the sun stood still and the moon stopped. Many claim some form of a solar eclipse that kept the sun’s heat from Israel’s soldiers until they prevailed against the Amorites. Other commentaries claim that the sun appeared to stop. Joshua 10:13 is very clear about what happened: “So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and did not hasten to go down for about a whole day”. American Indians, who would have been on the other side of the earth, talk about the “long night” that occurred at this same time in history. This research concludes that what is probably being described here is a 48-hour Friday with one sunrise and one sunset. This Friday covers two days of time on the Gregorian-Hebrew calendar. The obvious purpose of this miracle is to show God’s power in giving Israel a victory over the Amorites. It is also an answer to Joshua’s public prayer request before all of Israel. In relation to the effect on earth’s calendars, this is one of eight days needed to line up 4,096 Gregorian solar years and the 364-Day calendar (4,110 years) from Day 7 of Creation Week to the birth of Jesus in 5 BC.

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 345
BR Years from Creation: 2709
BR: Friday, September 27 — Tishri 15, 1405 BC
GH: Friday, July 17 — Tammuz 28, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210282.75

Joshua 10:22-26

Joshua Opens Cave and Kills Five Amorite Kings

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 358
BR Years from Creation: 2709
BR: Thursday, October 10 — Tishri 28, 1405 BC
GH: Thursday, July 30 — Tammuz 25, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210295.75

Joshua 10:40-42

Central and Southern Canaan Conquest Completed

After the defeat of Debir by Israel, the complete destruction of everything that breathed had been accomplished in the mountains of central Canaan. Joshua also conquered the land from Kadesh Barnea as far as Gaza. The land of Goshen as far as Gibeon was also defeated. Israel prevailed in battle when God’s strict orders were obeyed.

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 86
BR Years from Creation: 2710
BR: Friday, January 11 — Tevet 22, 1404 BC
GH: Friday, October 30 — Heshvan 7, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210387.75

Joshua 10:43

Israel Returns to Camp at Gilgal for Winter

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 93
BR Years from Creation: 2710
BR: Friday, January 18 — Tevet 29, 1404 BC
GH: Friday, November 6 — Heshvan 14, 1400 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210394.75

Joshua 11:1-5

Northern Canaanite Kings Meet at Lake Merom

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 298
BR Years from Creation: 2710
BR: Sunday, August 11 — Av 27, 1404 BC
GH: Sunday, May 30 — Nisan 10, 1399 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210599.75

Joshua 11:6

Joshua Gets Instructions for Northern Canaanite Battle

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 305
BR Years from Creation: 2710
BR: Sunday, August 18 — Elul 4, 1404 BC
GH: Sunday, June 6 — Nisan 17, 1399 BC
Julian Day Number: 1210606.75

Joshua 11:3, 12

Joshua Defeats Kings of Jebusites and Hivites

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 29
BR Years from Creation: 2714
BR: Thursday, November 14 — Heshvan 25, 1401 BC
GH: Thursday, August 29 — Elul 12, 1396 BC
Julian Day Number: 1211786.75

Joshua 11:16-23

Canaan Rests From War After Almost Five Years

These verses give a summary of the victories of the northern campaign in Canaan. All of the cities in the mountain country and the land of Goshen to the northern plains came under the control of Israel as a result of military conquest. Only the Hivites of Gibeon made peace without a battle.

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 61
BR Years from Creation: 2714
BR: Monday, December 16 — Kislev 27, 1401 BC
GH: Monday, September 30 — Tishri 15, 1396 BC
Julian Day Number: 1211818.75

Joshua 13:8-14

Joshua Divides Land East of the Jordon River

This is the estimated DFC date in Biblical history when Joshua begins dividing the land of Canaan among the Tribes of Israel. This research assumes that the battle for Canaan to this point took about five years. Other commentaries use seven or more years. Joshua 11:18 simply says, “Joshua made war for a long time with all those kings”. The specific amount of time is not mentioned. CD#179 is the DFC and EDFC date for events happening between 1401 BC and 1397 BC.

Type of Dated Event: EDFC
BR Calendar Day Number: 179
BR Years from Creation: 2714
BR: Sunday, April 13 — Nisan 26, 1400 BC
GH: Sunday, January 26 — Shevat 5, 1395 BC
Julian Day Number: 1211936.75

Joshua 13:15-23

Canaan Land Given to Tribe of Reuben

This is the estimated date in Biblical history when Joshua begins dividing the land of Canaan east of the Jordon River given to the Tribe of Reuben.

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 209
BR Years from Creation: 2714
BR: Tuesday, May 13 — Iyar 26, 1400 BC
GH: Tuesday, February 25 — Adar 5, 1395 BC
Julian Day Number: 1211966.75

Joshua 14:6-14

Caleb Inherits Hebron at 85 While In Gilgal

This is the estimated date in Biblical history when Joshua gives Hebron to Caleb while in Gilgal. This land is west of the Jordon River. This event happens when Caleb is eighty-five years old. Caleb and Joshua were the only people over sixty years old allowed to enter Canaan at the end of the Exodus.

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 27
BR Years from Creation: 2715
BR: Tuesday, November 12 — Heshvan 23, 1400 BC
GH: Tuesday, August 26 — Elul 9, 1395 BC
Julian Day Number: 1212148.75

Joshua 15:1-63

Canaan Land Given to Tribe of Judah

This is the estimated date in Biblical history when Joshua divides land in Canaan west of the Jordon River giving the inheritance to the Tribe of Judah.

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 58
BR Years from Creation: 2715
BR: Friday, December 13 — Kislev 24, 1400 BC
GH: Friday, September 26 — Tishri 11, 1395 BC
Julian Day Number: 1212179.75

Joshua 19:51

End of Dividing Canaan by Joshua and Eleazar

Joshua and Eleazar finish dividing the land of Canaan among the tribes of Israel. Joshua received the city of Timnath Serah in the mountains of Ephraim. CD#179 is the DFC and EDFC date for events happening between the years 1401 BC and 1397 BC.

Type of Dated Event: EDFC
BR Calendar Day Number: 179
BR Years from Creation: 2717
BR: Sunday, April 13 — Nisan 26, 1397 BC
GH: Sunday, January 22 — Shevat 1, 1392 BC
Julian Day Number: 1213028.75

Joshua 23:1-31

Joshua Gives Farewell Address at Shechem

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 134
BR Years from Creation: 2718
BR: Thursday, February 29 — Adar 11, 1396 BC
GH: Thursday, December 7 — Kislev 15, 1392 BC
Julian Day Number: 1213347.75

Joshua 24:32

Bones of Joseph Are Buried at Shechem

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 141
BR Years from Creation: 2718
BR: Thursday, March 6 — Adar 18, 1396 BC
GH: Thursday, December 14 — Kislev 22, 1392 BC
Julian Day Number: 1213354.75

Joshua 24:1-27

Joshua Makes Covenant With Israel at Shechem

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 148
BR Years from Creation: 2718
BR: Thursday, March 13 — Adar 25, 1396 BC
GH: Thursday, December 21 — Kislev 28, 1392 BC
Julian Day Number: 1213361.75

Joshua 24:28

Joshua Lets Tribes Depart to Own Inheritance

CD#180 is the DFC and EDFC date for events between 1396 BC and 1392 BC.

Type of Dated Event: EDFC
BR Calendar Day Number: 180
BR Years from Creation: 2718
BR: Monday, April 14 — Nisan 27, 1396 BC
GH: Monday, January 22 — Shevat 1, 1391 BC
Julian Day Number: 1213393.75

Joshua 15:16-17 Judges 1:13

Othniel Receives Caleb’s Daughter Achsah as His Wife

Type of Dated Event: EST
BR Calendar Day Number: 69
BR Years from Creation: 2719
BR: Tuesday, December 24 — Tevet 5, 1396 BC
GH: Tuesday, October 2 — Tishri 17, 1391 BC
Julian Day Number: 1213646.75

Judges 2:1-5

Angel of the Lord Rebukes Israel’s Disobedience

CD#180 is the DFC and EDFC date for events happening between the years 1396 BC and 1392 BC.

Type of Dated Event: EDFC
BR Calendar Day Number: 180
BR Years from Creation: 2722
BR: Monday, April 14 — Nisan 27, 1392 BC
GH: Monday, January 17 — Tevet 25, 1387 BC
Julian Day Number: 1214849.75

Joshua 24:29-31 Judges 2:7-10

The Death of Joshua at 110 Years

The death of Joshua, which is soon followed by the death of Eleazar, son of Aaron, is the transitional beginning of the period of the Judges of Israel. CD#185 is the DFC and EDFC date for events happening between 1371 BC and 1367 BC.

Type of Dated Event: EDFC
BR Calendar Day Number: 185
BR Years from Creation: 2747
BR: Saturday, April 19 — Iyar 2, 1367 BC
GH: Saturday, December 22 — Kislev 30, 1363 BC
Julian Day Number: 1223954.75

Transition From Conquest of Canaanto the Period of the Judges

During the conquest of Canaan, Israel was obedient to God and protected in battle. During the period of the Judges, Israel went through repeating cycles of idolatry of pagan gods, military defeat, repentance and restoration from a Judge. A Judge was a deliverer raised up by God for a specific period of time. This process is explained in Chapter 2 of the Book of Judges and the introduction to this Book in the MacArthur Study Bible. The MacArthur Study Bible also has a great chart of the period of the Judges on page 339.

Dating the events of the conquest of Canaan and the period of the Judges proved to be as much of a challenge as dating the reigns of the Kings of Israel. It is relatively easy to date the start of the conquest of Canaan at the end of the Exodus in 1405 BC when Joshua crossed the Jordon River on Nisan 10 of that year, according to Joshua 3:2-17 (See pages 266-267). It is also clear when the period of the Judges is over and King Saul begins his reign in June of 1050 BC on the 364-Day calendar. This year is calculated to be just under eighty-five years from the start of the building of the Jerusalem Temple on Sunday, May 18−Sivan 2 in 965 BC, according to 1 Kings 6:1 and 2 Chronicles 3:2 (See page 383).

To put it simply, the start of the conquest of Canaan and the end of the period of the Judges can be accurately dated in years. The periods of oppression by foreign Kings and deliverance by Israel’s Judges are dated years between these two events. Different Tribes of Israel were oppressed by different enemies and had their own Tribal Judge in a particular inherited area of Canaan. Jephthah’s warning to the King of Ammon in Judges 1:23-28 serves as an anchor point in the period of the Judges. This event happens 300 years after Israel defeats King Sihon at a battle at Heshbon Falls in 1406 BC, as recorded in Numbers 21:23-31, Deut. 1:4, and 2:30-35 (See page 248). The previous periods of oppression and deliverance back to the death of Joshua can be calculated from this point.


Riots of 1968

Discontent exploded in May 1968 as the latest in a series of rallies by radical students turned violent and was broken up by the Police. Violence spread, barricades went up and a commune was declared. Other students joined the movement, as did striking workers, and soon radicals in other cities followed. The movement lost ground as leaders became afraid of causing too extreme a rebellion, and the threat of military support, coupled with some employment concessions and de Gaulle’s decision to hold an election, helped bring events to a close. Gaullists dominated the election results, but France had been shocked at how quickly events had occurred.


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