19 February 1943

19 February 1943

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19 February 1943



War at Sea

German submarine U-268 sunk with all hands off Nantes

German submarine U-562 sunk with all hands off Benghazi

Manitoba History: February 19, 1942: If Day

This article was published originally in Manitoba History by the Manitoba Historical Society on the above date. We make it available here as a free, public service.

As it does every year, in 1986 the Manitoba Historical Society presented Young Historians awards to students who submitted winning essays in Senior High, Junior High and Elementary categories. In the Senior High category, all three prizes went to students of Dr. A. Levine of St. John&rsquos Ravenscourt School. Neill Adhikari won the Dr. Edward C. Shaw Memorial Award (first prize) for a paper on the T. C. Norris governments. Michael Newman won second prize for an essay on If Day in 1942. Finally, Liping Lin took third prize for &ldquoThe History of the Chinese Community in Manitoba.&rdquo

During World War II, Canadians were certainly supportive of the allied cause, but for many, it was something happening Over There. It was not something directly affecting them. After all there hadn&rsquot been a war in North America for years. &ldquoIf Day&rdquo was designed to change this attitude and give North Americans (most North American newspapers covered the event) and Manitobans in particular, a very personal sample of the Nazi war machine.

&ldquoIf Day.&rdquo Actors wearing Nazi uniforms assault a Winnipeg Free Press newsie prior to ripping his paper to shreds and scattering the pieces on the pavement.
Source: Western Canada Pictorial Index

It was co-ordinated with the Victory Loan Campaign, a campaign (the second) of the federal government to raise $600,000,000 in Victory bonds to fund the war effort. The campaign was opened on 16 February and ran for three weeks, until 9 March. Each province, city, and even some companies had their own prescribed objectives: Manitoba&rsquos was $45 million and Winnipeg&rsquos was $23,569,000. These were not mandatory objectives, but goals. Most, however, over-fulfilled their quotas.

Advertisements for the bonds often carried descriptions of soldiers&rsquo dedication to freedom and democracy, asking if the reader could not at least buy a bond. &ldquoBrave men will not die because I faltered!&rdquo was a common slogan during the campaign. Although the federal government contributed most of the advertising, many private companies placed ads as well.

The idea was to stage a fake Nazi invasion of Manitoba. The &ldquoNazis&rdquo were to occupy and administer the province for the rest of the day. The key was realism. One couldn&rsquot ignore these Nazis any more than real ones.

Participation in the event was excellent. Both the active and reserve forces, as well as numerous volunteer organizations, were involved in making If Day as realistic as possible. Col. D. S. McKay was the commander of the &ldquodefence&rdquo forces. RCAF planes were used as Nazi dive-bombers. Trucks, anti-aircraft guns and other military equipment were used during If Day.

Nazi aircraft came in from the north, first sighted at Norway House. Selkirk was the first to fall prey, but by no means the last. The Nazi war machine was converging on Winnipeg. At 6 a.m., the sirens sounded and troops were stationed along a line five miles from city hall. By seven o&rsquoclock, the Nazis arrived at the first line of defence. Artillery opened fire in East Kildonan, and the fighting began. Forty-five minutes later, the defenders were forced to retreat. They blew up the main bridges, but the Nazis were not to be stopped so easily. They were forced to retreat twice more, the last line but a mile from city hall.

By 9:30, there was nothing left to do, and Winnipeg unconditionally surrendered. Brandon, Flin Flon, Selkirk and many other small towns, comprising most of Manitoba, had also been captured by this time. Manitoba was now a German province.

It was an incredibly realistic invasion, yet, aside from a soldier who sprained his ankle and a Miss Gorin who cut her thumb in her blacked-out apartment, there were no casualties. All of the shells and ammunition were blanks. The bridges were strewn with rubble and declared &ldquoblown up&rdquo. There were some faked casualties, though, giving the ambulances and medical officers some practice.

All of the maneuvers were planned out beforehand: the stands, the retreats, and the troop movements. There were many &ldquowarnings&rdquo in newspapers describing the events to come. There were still some people who had managed to miss the advance publicity and were caught by surprise, but this merely gave them an extra dose of realism, certainly not a disadvantage considering that was the overriding priority on If Day.

The government of the city was taken over by the Nazis, with Erich Von Neuremburg installed as Gauleiter of Winnipeg. He started his rule by arresting most municipal and provincial officials.

Mayor John Queen, Premier Bracken, Lieutenant-Governor McWilliams, the Norwegian minister to the U.S., who was visiting McWilliams at the time, several aldermen and the city clerk were all arrested and imprisoned in Lower Fort Garry, the Nazi internment centre. The Union Jack over the Fort was (of course) replaced with the Swastika. One alderman, Col. Dan McClean, managed to escape by hiding in an empty room. Fortunately, he was later captured—the Nazis might have held the rest of Winnipeg responsible for his escape.

Meanwhile other stormtroopers scoured police headquarters for Chief George Smith. He was on his lunch break and had thus avoided capture. So they went upstairs (there was a store on the second floor of the police station at the time) and confiscated dozens of buffalo coats. It was, after all, the middle of February.

Proclamations and commands were plastered all over telephone poles, announcing Nazi supremacy and new civil rules, such as the following:


1. This territory is now a part of the Greater Reich and under the jurisdiction of Col. Erich Von Neuremburg, Gauleiter of the Fuehrer.

2. No civilians will be permitted on the streets between 9:30 p.m. and daybreak.

3. All public places are out of bounds to civilians, and not more than 8 persons can gather at one time in any place.

4. Every householder must provide billeting for 5 soldiers.

5. All organizations of a military, semi-military or fraternal nature are hereby disbanded and banned. Girl Guide, Boy Scout and similar youth organizations will remain in existence but under direction of the Gauleiter and Storm troops.

6. All owners of motor cars, trucks and buses must register same at Occupation Headquarters where they will be taken over by the Army of Occupation.

7. Each farmer must immediately report all stocks of grain and livestock and no farm produce may be sold except through the office of the Kommandant of supplies in Winnipeg. He may not keep any for his own consumption but must buy it back through the Central Authority in Winnipeg.

8. All national emblems excluding the Swastika must be immediately destroyed.

9. Each inhabitant will be furnished with a ration card, and food and clothing may only be purchased on presentation of this card.

10. The following offences will result in death without trial

a) Attempting to organize resistance against the Army of Occupation

b) Entering or leaving the province without permission.

c) Failure to report all goods possessed when ordered to do so.


published and ordered by the Authority of (signed) Erich Von Neuremburg

In front of the Main library (then on William Ave.), all books relating to liberty, democracy, freedom, or anything else the Nazis didn&rsquot approve of, were burned. They were all old books headed for the incinerator anyway, but that didn&rsquot dampen the effect.

Reichmarks were given out as change, and were to replace the dollar. One group of Nazis burst into the cafeteria at Great-West Life. Employees were kicked out and some jailed, while the Nazis grabbed all the food.

All churches were boarded up, and clergy members arrested or blacklisted. &ldquoServices of worship&rdquo were forbidden and people attempting to enter a church were arrested. Any ethnic, religious, and especially (of course) Jewish organizations were disbanded and all funds and property confiscated.

Nazi troops with Bren gun carriers patrolled Portage Ave. during the course of the day. As a final statement of conquest, the city was renamed &ldquoHimmlerstadt&rdquo.

But the occupation was not confined to Winnipeg. Although they could not afford the grandiose display, many of the smaller towns put on some sort of occupation. Virden was renamed &ldquoVirdenberg.&rdquo Registration was distributed by Gestapo in most towns. In Russell, all cars were redirected to the &ldquoregistration office&rdquo (the Victory Loan purchase HQ) to obtain a vehicle permit. After all, the whole idea was to get people to go there anyway.

&ldquoIf Day.&rdquo Nazis at City Hall arrest Winnipeg Mayor John Queen, Ald. William Scraba, Ald. R. A. Sara, and Ald. Blumberg.
Source: Western Canada Pictorial Index

The Tribune published a special four page supplement on If Day, reflecting its views on what a Nazi controlled press would look like, and some theories of what Nazis might do in a long-term occupation of Manitoba. It was entitled &ldquoDas Winnipeger Lugenblatt.&rdquo

An editorial apologized for the lack of good quality articles and promised to remedy the situation quickly. The Nazis did not have time to bring in &ldquogood&rdquo reporters so they had to use mildly censored articles written by &ldquoaccursed freedom writers.&rdquo [1] These were merely blank columns with titles, a few odd words and a blacked-out picture of the author. The Nazis even left in a blank space entitled &ldquoBible Message.&rdquo [2]

Regular columns were replaced by Nazi &ldquoequivalents.&rdquo A popular society column was replaced by a Nazi version. It described, in bad English, permissable humour: &ldquoExplained it should be that whenever the word (Joke) appears thus in this column from now on, the reader is expected to laugh.&rdquo [3] But the Nazis were not always cruel. They approved for use a &ldquovery popular Canadian joke&rdquo:

Q: &ldquoWho was that lady last night I saw you out with?&rdquo
A: &ldquoThat lady was my wife!&rdquo
(Joke) Ha Ha Ha! [4]

At 6 p.m., the head of the family MUST read this column out loud, while family members laugh three regulation German laughs in unison at each (Joke). Dissidents were to be reported to the Gestapo by other members of the family. Only official jokes from this column may be told and all of them must be memorized. Official &ldquolaughing classes&rdquo were to be set up as soon as possible to better instruct the population in German humour. This was (obviously) one of the less serious proclamations of If Day.

A regular food column was printed, but also in a modified form. It displayed warnings of new rationing limits. Milk was only given to children five years old or youngerש½ cups per week. The Nazis were appalled at the huge amounts of soap available, and immediately reduced this to one tablet per family per month—including detergent.

It also contained a recipe for &ldquoa meat dish approved and recommended by Der Fuehrer: a hamburger made from a cow&rsquos udder.&rdquo [5] None of these rations were actually carried out. They merely served as an example of how trivial the war-time rations and other sacrifices were, compared with what would be enforced in a Nazi state.

Politically, the Nazis had plans for their new prize. All of Canada would surely fall, with so little population for its area. Hitler (as well as Emperor Hirohito and Premier Mussolini) supposedly planned to colonize Canada, exterminate the Canadians and use it as a colony to accommodate excess population in the Axis nations. Although they hadn&rsquot used any of their conquered countries as colonies, the Nazis (the real ones) certainly had exterminated enough people to make this supposed plan quite believable in this situation.

Special lessons were taught in schools on If Day. Most classes were let out at 11:30 so that they could hear &ldquoSwastika over Canada,&rdquo a radio play broadcast by the CBC. At Robert H. Smith School, the principal was arrested and the sole curricular teaching was to be the &ldquoNazi Truth.&rdquo

At the end of If Day, a huge map was erected on the Bank of Montreal building at the corner of Portage and Main. It was divided into 45 sections, one for each million dollars of Manitoba&rsquos objective. For every million dollars actually collected, one Union Jack was placed on the map. When the map was full, Manitoba would have successfully defended itself, and it would be symbolically freed. Anything after that would be an &ldquooffensive drive&rdquo against the Nazis. [6]

Manitoba achieved its quota (of $45 million) on March 3, 12 days after If Day. Winnipeg, much more involved in If Day, was 10% over its objective (of $23,569,000) by 25 February, 6 days after If Day. The day certainly had an impact.

On 4 March, the Lieutenant-Governor congratulated Manitobans on their commitment to the Loan Drive, and encouraged them to pass on to offensive maneuvers (over-fulfill their quota). They certainly did this. Even though the objective was later raised to $60 million, Manitoba&rsquos final total was near $65 million, 45% over the original goal.

The actual occupation lasted only one day. At 5:30 p.m., the participating groups held a parade down Portage Ave., waving signs proclaiming &ldquoIt Must Not Happen Here&rdquo or &ldquoBuy Victory Bonds.&rdquo A banquet was held that evening to round off the event. It was attended by the Mayor, Premier, and many other officials. They had nothing but praise for the day&rsquos efforts. It was judged quite a success. The visiting Norwegian minister to the U.S., De Morgensterne, called If Day a noble, constructive action in the war against the Axis Powers.&rdquo [7] As a military operation, If Day was also judged a complete success. Col. D.S. McKay, the commander of the defensive forces said that the troops got more practice and benefit out of 2½ hours of If Day maneuvers than they would get out of a week&rsquos worth of training. [8]

There was one very un-Nazi aspect of If Day: reporters and cameramen followed them everywhere completely uninhibited. Nearly every major North American newspaper and all the newsreel companies covered the event. It is estimated that 40 million people saw Winnipeg fall prey to the Nazis. [9] Local radio stations broadcast Hitler&rsquos speeches and martial music throughout the day to set the atmosphere. Warnings were given to neighboring U.S. towns, as well as customs officials. Reports of Nazi armies and nothing but Hitler on Canadian radio stations could have created mass hysteria in the U.S.

Vancouver later planned an invasion of its own, borrowing German currency and other materials from Winnipeg. The United States government even wrote, asking for details of organization.

If Day brought home the reality of Nazi occupation. Manitobans got a very bitter taste of nearly every aspect of Nazi brutality. Support this war with a bond purchase or Manitoba might someday go through this for real.

Military History Dispatches

War, the poet Virgil once wrote, is a tale of “arms and the man.” The outcome of battle hinges on numbers, technology, training, and other impersonal factors, not to mention weather and terrain (“arms”). No matter how dire the odds, however, the genius of an individual commander (“the man”) can still triumph.

If ever the German army needed a genius, it was during the winter of 1942–43. The German invasion of the Soviet Union, Operation Barbarossa, had begun in June 1941 as a staggering success, with one Soviet army after another encircled and destroyed. But by December a number of factors—heavy German losses, weather, and stiff Soviet resistance—conspired to halt the German drive outside Moscow. A vast counterattack, spearheaded by winter-hardened troops of the Siberian Reserve, soon had the remnants of Hitler’s armies in full flight from the Soviet capital.

The Germans tried again in June 1942 with Operation Blue, another great offensive on the southern front, heading toward Stalingrad and the oil fields in the Caucasus Mountains. This, too, came to grief. The Soviets made a gritty stand in the ruins of Stalingrad, then counterattacked north and south of that city, encircling the German 6th Army. By the end of 1942 the entire German front in the south was on the verge of collapse, and Adolf Hitler and his chief of staff, General Kurt Zeitzler, were flailing. At the start of Operation Blue, Hitler had reassured his jittery staff that “the Russian is finished,” but those words now sounded hollow. Far from finished, “the Russian” was on a rampage. A call went out from the Führer’s headquarters to the man fellow officers regarded as the most gifted commander in the entire Wehrmacht. In the east, it was do or die time. It was time for Manstein.

Field Marshal Erich von Manstein was a genius, and happily said so himself. It is not bragging if one can back it up, however, and Manstein could. Born as Erich von Lewinski in 1887, he was adopted as a boy by a childless aunt and uncle. Both his biological and adoptive fathers were Prussian generals, making Manstein the scion of two aristocratic families. During World War I, he served in a variety of staff and field positions, and was wounded. Despite an acerbic manner—the prerogative of many brilliant and ambitious young men—he gained a reputation as one of the army’s sharpest young officers in the years after the war. The opening of World War II expanded that reputation, bringing him fame at home and abroad. Manstein was the brains behind the unorthodox operational plan that destroyed the French army in 1940. He led the lightning drive on Leningrad in 1941. He fought a brilliant campaign in the Crimea in 1942, encircling three Soviet armies at Kerch in May and in June smashing Soviet defenses in front of the great fortress of Sevastopol.

Manstein understood modern mobile operations—particularly the employment of tanks—as well as anyone in the business. He could outthink and outmaneuver opponents with the focus of a chess player, and indeed chess was one of his obsessions. Fellow officers recognized him as a master operator. General Alfred Heusinger of the Operations Section thought that Manstein “could accomplish in a single night what other military leaders would take weeks to do.”

In late 1942, as Hitler and Zeitzler pondered the looming disaster, Manstein seemed their only hope. On November 20, they summoned the general from the Leningrad front and put him in charge of a new formation, Army Group Don. The campaign Manstein would fight would be a lesson in how a genius can impose his will on a battlefield. In the course of this most difficult conflict, Manstein’s improvisation would overcome seemingly impossible obstacles and prove that in war one man really can make a difference. But he would also find himself a prisoner of his strategic situation, reminded that even a brilliant commander has limits.

Manstein and his new army group faced a daunting situation. As 1942 was ending, German forces were scattered across the southern front. One major unit, Army Group B, was strung out on a flat plain along the Don, one of the Soviet Union’s many large rivers. Army Group A stood in the Caucasus mountain region between the Black and Caspian Seas, 500 miles to the south. In the immense steppe between the two armies stood…not much. The German 6th Army had been deployed there, but as the new year dawned, the 6th was trapped inside Stalingrad. Furthermore, contact between Army Groups B and A was nil, and a mass of Soviet armies was now pouring into this vacuum. Manstein’s mission was simple to describe, but less simple to accomplish. He needed to break the Soviet ring around Stalingrad and rescue 6th Army. Then he had to plug the gap between Army Groups B and A, and re-knit the defensive front.

On the map, Army Group Don seemed to fill the hole, but reality fell far short of that. The units in Manstein’s force were wretched, mostly ad hoc Gruppen—groups of varied size, hastily tossed together and named for whichever officer happened to be available to take command. Rather than divisions and corps, Manstein’s order of battle included Group Stahel, Group Stumpffeld, and Group Spang among many others. Their ranks consisted of rear-area supply troops, stragglers, remnants of destroyed formations, and a new breed: Luftwaffe field divisions made up of air force personnel pulled from bases at the rear, given rudimentary infantry training, and hustled to the front to fight on foot. While some of these units bravely defended their positions, too many melted away at their first contact with Soviet tanks.

Given these difficulties, Manstein’s attempt to relieve Stalingrad—Operation Winter Storm—was a long shot from the start. The army was so threadbare that Manstein could assemble only a single corps, the 57th Panzer, for the relief offensive. The corps had two divisions: the 6th Panzer, just transferred from France, and the battered 23rd Panzer, which had seen a great deal of hard fighting and badly needed a refit. Together these two groups, which probably added up to a division and a half, were to launch a 90-mile drive to Stalingrad in the teeth of strong Soviet opposition.

The offensive opened on December 12. Assembling southwest of Stalingrad at the railway town of Kotelnikovo, the two divisions drove straight up the rail line, with 6th Panzer to the left of the tracks and 23rd to the right. Although the assault lacked real surprise and any attempt to maneuver, it penetrated the Soviet defenses on day one. Under the command of one of the army’s most aggressive tankers, General Eberhard Raus, 6th Panzer led the attack and made its presence felt. Its partner, 23rd Panzer, had only 30 tanks to its name and barely kept pace.

The German tempo slowed. By day two, Soviet reinforcements were hammering the attackers’ flanks. The adversaries were locked in tough fighting for individual ridges and villages, with heavy losses all around—the very type of engagement the brittle German force had to avoid. The weather went from good to terrible, German tanks ran out of fuel, and the Soviets resisted fiercely. General Raus and his panzers ground forward, but never came close to penetration and slowed to a halt 35 miles from Stalingrad. On December 23, Manstein canceled Winter Storm and left 6th Army to its fate.

Manstein had failed at Stalingrad. Or had he? Even a genius has needs—men, supplies, and vehicles—and Manstein came up short. He made no obvious mistake in Winter Storm, but in that context an error-free effort hardly mattered. His task was to reopen a supply line, perhaps in concert with a breakout by 6th Army from inside the city, and that did not happen.

Manstein rationalized his failure in a postwar memoir, Lost Victories. The pertinent chapter, “Tragedy of Stalingrad,” likens 6th Army to the legendary 300 Spartans who sacrificed themselves at Thermopylae to give Greece time to organize defenses against the Persians. He justified the sacrifice of 6th Army as a necessary diversion to draw Soviet strength from Army Group Don, buying time while he scrambled to rebuild the shattered front. “The officers and soldiers of this army have built a monument to valor and duty for the German soldier,” Manstein wrote. “It is not made of earth or rock, but it will live for the ages.”

Neither argument—the operational or the poetic—made sense. In the language of Manstein’s beloved chess, 6th Army was not a pawn to be thrown away to gain position. As one German staff officer put it, “An army of 300,000 men is not a machine gun nest or a bunker whose defenders may, under certain circumstances, be sacrificed for the whole.” The loss of 6th Army was a catastrophe, pure and simple. These passages reveal an inglorious side of Manstein, as do his repeated attempts in Lost Victories to cast blame on others—whether Hitler or 6th Army’s commander, General Friedrich Paulus. Convinced of his own genius, however, perhaps Manstein could not have done otherwise.

With Winter Storm’s failure, the campaign entered its second stage. For the moment, the Red Army was ascendant, launching a series of huge offensives west of Stalingrad: In December, Operation Little Saturn smashed the Italian 8th Army. January’s Ostrogozhsk-Rossosh Offensive (named for the towns that were the initial objectives) targeted the Hungarian 2nd Army. Operation Gallop saw Soviet armies hurtling full bore across the Donets River to the south and southwest. And Operation Star, in early February, came close to destroying the German 2nd Army. This collective strategic offensive sought nothing less than to smash all of Germany’s armies on the southern front.

Manstein had minimal ability to resist the Russian onslaught. Essentially managing chaos, he shifted units hither and yon as emergencies arose, and inserted meager reinforcements as they arrived. In his few spare moments, he tried to talk sense into the high command—i.e. Hitler—urging the evacuation of the Caucasus and consolidation of Germany’s weak forces. He met only frustration, as did most officers who tried to get the Führer to approve a retreat. Only after a month of browbeating by the persuasive General Zeitzler did Hitler agree to withdraw Army Group A from the Caucasus.

The late January evacuation of the Caucasus led this sprawling campaign into its third stage. The Soviet offensives were reaching what the great philosopher of war Karl von Clausewitz called a “culmination point,” at which energy flags, friction rises, and the machine stops. Soviet supplies—especially fuel—were running low, Russian tank corps were losing their cutting edge, and men were near exhaustion. It had been an amazing ride for the Red Army: starting at Stalingrad, it had crossed two major rivers and driven 500 miles into the vast open spaces of the southern Soviet Union. In all, it was one of the most successful military campaigns ever. But the ravages were starting to show, and Soviet fighting strength was half what it had been at the offensive’s start.

While the Soviets were wearing down, Manstein’s forces were strengthening. His small groups were coalescing into provisional armies—multi-corps formations commanded, as before, by whoever was available. Provisional Army Hollidt now stood in place of 6th Army, Provisional Army Fretter-Pico occupied the ground where the Italian 8th Army had been, and Provisional Army Lanz was forming a mobile command around Kharkov, the fourth-largest Soviet city. These formations were still short on administrative personnel, artillery, and transport, but months of working together had bred confidence among the ranks. Adding to the German renewal was the arrival of reinforcements from the home front: the II SS Panzer Corps, comprised of three new divisions bursting with fresh manpower, equipment, and self-confidence.

Soviet overstretch, German revival: it was Manstein’s moment, the instant when “arms” yield to “the man.” Sitting on the defensive had eaten at Manstein. (“For me,” he said with considerable understatement, “it went right against the grain.”) He knew the Soviets were not supermen and that his time would come. He welcomed the arrival of II SS Panzer Corps to his army group, but even so, Soviet numbers dwarfed his own.

Manstein had a solution, however. Although German armies had withdrawn from the Caucasus, they were on a line that stretched east toward the city of Rostov. Manstein called that position a balcony because it jutted at right angles from the main defensive position. He drew up a plan to pull back from this forward location and shorten the line—the only way to free troops for a decisive counterattack.

But what sort of counterattack? Ever the chess player, Manstein envisioned a Rochade—the castling move in which a king and a rook exchange places. A player typically uses the maneuver to improve his overall defensive position and protect his king, but also to free his rook, one of the most powerful pieces on the board and one of the few able to carry out deep, mobile strikes. Manstein wanted to transfer the armies from the portion of the balcony on his extreme right—the 1st and 4th Panzer Armies—to his left, wielding them like a massive armored rook. Once redeployed, the two armies would launch a counter blow against Soviet forces driving to the west. It was a typically bold stroke, one Manstein called a backhand blow—a well-timed strike against a committed enemy far from its base and low on supplies.

After Manstein sold Hitler on the idea during a face-to-face meeting on February 6, the pullback from the eastern balcony began, followed by the change in position. In the next few days, 1st Panzer, under General Eberhard von Mackensen, came up into the line on Manstein’s left wing. A week later, 4th Panzer, under General Hermann Hoth, fell in on 1st Panzer’s left. The entire German array, consolidated under Manstein and renamed Army Group South, now faced north—at the Soviet armies hurtling west for the Dnepr river crossings. The stakes were enormous. If the Soviets were the first to reach the Dnepr bridges, they could trap Manstein’s entire force east of the great river. The Germans had lost an army at Stalingrad. Now they were threatened with a super-Stalingrad of the entire German southern wing, and perhaps the end of the war.

The campaign had boiled down into a race. The Soviets were driving west and the Germans were desperately trying to keep pace. For weeks in late February, the situation hung in the balance. Manstein had an advantage, since his forces were falling back onto their supply bases while the Soviets were leaving theirs behind. The Soviets had their own advantage, however. They were far enough north that the ground was still frozen hard. The Germans, over a hundred miles to the south, were motoring on terrain that had started to thaw, and the muddy roads seriously hindered their movement.

The Soviets hit their high-water mark on February 19, when a column of T-34 tanks seized the town of Sinelnikovo, only 30 miles from German headquarters on the Dnepr. Making matters worse for the Germans, Hitler himself had just flown in to consult with Manstein. The news that enemy tanks were an hour away, “without a single formation between us and the enemy,” as Manstein put it, led to a scramble. By noon, Manstein’s staff officers had trundled the Führer onto a plane back to Germany.

The Soviets had no idea how close they had come to Hitler, but their intelligence was reporting massive German troop movements to the west that were choking roads with men, vehicles, and guns, as well as the abandonment of heavy equipment and forward air bases. Soviet commanders, reading these signs to mean that the Germans were making a wild run for the Dnepr crossings, urged their men on with redoubled urgency. The Wehrmacht was in flight, and this was no time to ease up.

Two days later, the Soviets realized how wrong they had been. On February 21, Hoth’s 4th Panzer Army erupted in a counterattack. Two convergent thrusts—one from the south, with 57th Panzer Corps on the left and 47th on the right, and one from the northwest by II SS Panzer Corps—caught the Soviets by surprise from all directions and vaporized them. German casualties in these opening days were minimal. The Soviets, however, lost nearly all their tanks, and many men. And no wonder: at the very moment of the German counterattack, unit after Soviet unit was running out of fuel.

Manstein knew he had drawn blood. After the tensions of the last month, it was his moment of liberation. With two German armies driving north and the Soviets melting away, the time had come to drive the blade in deeper. It must have seemed like 1941, or even 1940. The campaign climaxed when the II SS Panzer Corps slammed into Kharkov and, after three days of gritty street fighting from March 12–14, cleared the city. From Kharkov, German forces hopped less than 50 miles north to Belgorod, taking that city on March 23. By then the entire front had thawed, the muddy season had arrived with a vengeance, and no one was going anywhere.

Manstein was justifiably ecstatic over what he had achieved. “No cold, no snow, no ice, no mud could break your will to win,” he told his troops. Hitler echoed the sentiment, calling Kharkov “a turning point in the fortunes of battle,” and granted extra leave to formations that had fought there.

But there were two sides to the Kharkov campaign. Manstein proved he was a master of war, but at many moments war had clearly mastered him. In the first phase, the attempt to relieve Stalingrad, he had been helpless. He had a single panzer division, a 90-mile drive, and a front that was leaking everywhere. Likewise, in the middle phase—the Soviet lunge west from Stalingrad—Manstein’s makeshift battle groups and hapless Luftwaffe divisions had minimal impact. He had to be patient, biding his time and plugging whatever hole the Soviets had blown in the dike.

As with most campaigns, the time came when an individual could make a difference, and Manstein picked his with skill. He devised a simple but elegant plan, timed his blow perfectly, and executed it ruthlessly. In the end, he achieved the seemingly impossible: he re-established the German front in the south where it had been torn open by the debacle at Stalingrad. Even more remarkable, he restored that front to nearly where it had stood at the start of the 1942 campaign, before Stalingrad. The achievement was almost surreal compared to the disastrous situation that had existed only a few weeks earlier.

It was Manstein’s greatest victory—but it was tragically incomplete. In driving to Kharkov, Manstein rode his armies hard, propelling them to a long, meandering line along the Donets River—approximately midpoint between the Don, where the Soviet offensive had begun, and the Dnepr, where it had ended. This left the Germans at a forward position of great breadth that they would not be able to hold in the coming year. Manstein recognized this so did Hitler and the staff. The end of the winter campaign found them all deep in thought, mulling ways to keep the initiative for the rest of 1943.

So Manstein’s great victory ended nothing. A mere four months later, in July 1943, the Wehrmacht would launch an outnumbered and ill-advised offensive, Operation Citadel, aimed at a large bulge in the Soviet line around the city of Kursk. For all of Manstein’s genius, he had only delayed disaster, and the victory at Kharkov led inexorably to defeat at Kursk.

The German dominance at Kharkov was a display of personal genius—a virtuoso performance. For a few weeks “the man” made an entire front dance to his tune. But as the war showed repeatedly, even the greatest general must bow to strategic limitations, and the realities of the battlefield always reassert themselves.

TDIH: February 19, 1943, The Battle of Kasserine Pass, a battle of the Tunisia Campaign of World War II, begins. Kasserine Pass is a 3.2 km gap in the Grand Dorsal chain of the Atlas Mountains in central Tunisia. The battle was the first major engagement between American and Axis forces in Africa.

It was also one of most significant tactical defeats in modern US military history. Rommel completely outmaneuvered the US forces. During the battle US forces showed severe operational deficiencies is and inability to understand modern mobile combat paradigms. Had Rommel had more troops at hand, it would have been an absolute disaster. Even so, US casualties were approx 4 times higher than those of Germans, and tank loss was even higher than that.

That being said, what is even more impressive is how quickly and efficiently US command structures drew lessons from this and closed the holes that were uncovered. By the invasion of Sicily, virtually every mistake that had been made in Kasserine Pass had been fixed and properly addressed.

“Rosie The Riveter” 1941-1945

Norman Rockwell’s ‘Rosie The Riveter’ cover for the May 29, 1943 edition of The Saturday Evening Post, was the first visual image to incorporate the ‘Rosie’ name.

After the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor in December 1941 and the full involvement of the U.S. in World War II, the male work force was depleted to fill the ranks of the U.S. military. This came precisely at a time when America’s need for factory output and munitions soared.

The U.S. government, with the help of advertising agencies such as J. Walter Thompson, mounted extensive campaigns to encourage women to join the work force. Magazines and posters played a key role in the effort to recruit women for the wartime workforce.

Saturday Evening Post cover artist, Norman Rockwell, is generally credited with creating one of the popular “Rosie the Riveter” images used to encourage women to become wartime workers.

Rockwell’s “Rosie,” shown at right, appeared on the cover of the May 29th, 1943 edition of The Saturday Evening Post. The Post was then one of the nation’s most popular magazines, with a circulation of about 3 million copies each week. In addition to Rockwell’s Rosie, however, another image would become the more commonly known “Rosie the Riveter” image.

J. Howard Miller's 'We Can Do It!' poster, commissioned by Westinghouse and shown briefly in Feb 1942. Click for copy.

Westinghouse Posters

In 1942, Pittsburgh artist J. Howard Miller was hired by the Westinghouse Company’s War Production Coordinating Committee to create a series of posters to motivate employees for the war effort. One of these posters became the famous “We Can Do It!” image — an image that in later years would also become known by many as “Rosie the Riveter,” though that was not the intended purpose at its creation. In fact, at the time of the poster’s release the name “Rosie” was in no way associated with Miller’s image. The poster — one of 42 produced in Miller’s Westinghouse series — was used exclusively within Westinghouse and not initially seen much beyond several Westinghouse factories in Pennsylvania and the Midwest where it was displayed for two weeks in February 1943. It was only years later, after the Miller poster was rediscovered in 1982 – some 40 years later, in fact – that his rendering began to be associated with “Rosie The Riveter,” and more importantly, women’s liberation and other causes.

In terms of the origin of Miller’s “We Can Do It!” image, there have been some reports that an actual WWII woman worker may have been used as the source and/or inspiration – either from a photograph or as an in-person studio model. A 1942 wire service photo of one WWII female worker at Alameda Naval Air Base in California dressed in bandanna and work clothes has been suggested as a possible source, but one friend of Miller’s has noted that he rarely worked from photographs.

Both images, however — Rockwell’s and Miller’s — were used to help motivate the WWII workforce, but in Miller’s case, perhaps only at Westinghouse factories. But Rockwell’s “Rosie,” in particular, helped encourage female workers to fill WW II production jobs. Sheridan Harvey of the U.S. Library of Congress has noted: “Rosie’s appearance on the Memorial Day cover of the Saturday Evening Post implied that her work might help save soldiers’ lives.” And in later years, up to present times, both of these images – Miller’s and Rockwell’s – have become iconic symbols of women’s rights struggles and are occasionally adapted for other causes and political campaigns as well. But in any case, it was during the World War II years that “Rosie the Riveter” got her start.

“Rosie the Riveter”
Song Lyrics

While other girls attend their fav’rite
cocktail bar
Sipping Martinis, munching caviar
There’s a girl who’s really putting
them to shame
Rosie is her name

All the day long whether rain or shine
She’s a part of the assembly line
She’s making history,
working for victory
Rosie the Riveter
Keeps a sharp lookout for sabotage
Sitting up there on the fuselage
That little frail can do more than a
male will do
Rosie the Riveter

Rosie’s got a boyfriend, Charlie
Charlie, he’s a Marine
Rosie is protecting Charlie
Working overtime on the
riveting machine
When they gave her a production “E”
She was as proud as a girl could be
There’s something true about
Red, white, and blue about
Rosie the Riveter

Everyone stops to admire the scene
Rosie at work on the B-Nineteen
She’s never twittery, nervous or jittery
Rosie the Riveter
What if she’s smeared full of
oil and grease
Doing her bit for the old Lendlease
She keeps the gang around
They love to hang around
Rosie the Riveter

First, The Song

Rosie the Riveter appears to have come first in song, not in art. In 1942, a song titled “Rosie the Riveter” was written by Redd Evans and John Jacob Loeb and was issued by Paramount Music Corporation of New York. The song was released in early 1943 and was played on the radio and broadcast nationally. It was also performed by various artists with popular band leaders of that day.

The song, it turns out, was inspired by a newspaper story about a 19-year old female riveter named Rosalind Palmer who worked at the Vought Aircraft Company in Stratford, Connecticut riveting the bodies of Corsair fighter planes. That Rosie – perhaps the first Rosie – was known as “Roz” by friends, and would become Rosalind P. Walter, a famous and long-time benefactor of PBS and WNET in New York. She was born into a prosperous North Shore Long Island family – her father, Carleton Palmer, was president and then chairman of E.R. Squibb and Sons, a drug company made prosperous by WWII penicillin (now part of Bristol Myers Squibb), and her mother, W. Bushnell, a professor of literature at Long Island University. Rosalind, a prep school student who might have gone off to college at Smith or Vassar, instead heeded the WWII call for female workers. Syndicated newspaper columnist, Igor Cassini, took up her story, writing about Rosalind the riveter in his “Cholly Knickerbocker” column. That story, in turn, inspired the songwriters Evans and Loeb – and since it was syndicated in many newspapers — possibly Rockwell too.

The song, meanwhile, became quite popular, particularly one version recorded by the Four Vagabonds, an African-American group — a version that caught on and rose on the Hit Parade. It seems likely that Saturday Evening Post artist Norman Rockwell heard this song, and possibly was influenced by it, especially since he wrote the name “Rosie” on the lunch box in his painting.

In the Post’s cover illustration, Rockwell’s Rosie is shown on her lunch break, eating a sandwich from her opened lunch pail as her riveting gun rests on her lap. A giant American flag waves behind her. Rosie appears content, gazing off into the distance. However, Rockwell portrays her with some important details, from the lace handkerchief visible in her right hand pocket, to her foot placed smack on the cover of Adolph Hitler’s Mein Kampf at the bottom of the painting. But there was also something else in Rockwell’s Rosie.

The “Isaiah Effect”

In early June 1943, after The Saturday Evening Post cover of Rosie had hit the newsstands and had been widely circulated, the Kansas City Star newspaper ran images of Rockwell’s Rosie alongside of Michelangelo’s Isaiah from his Sistine Chapel ceiling painting. The splash in the Star drew a lot more attention to Rockwell’s Rosie. Followers of Rockwell’s illustrations in those years knew well his penchant for touches of humor and satire.

In more recent years, reviewers of Rockwell’s Rosie have added their interpretations and observations. “Just as Isaiah was called by God to convert the wicked from their sinful ways and trample evildoers under foot,” wrote one Sotheby’s curator in a May 2002 review, “so Rockwell’s Rosie tramples Hitler under her all-American penny loafer.”

Rockwell had used a petite local woman as a model for his Rosie — Mary Doyle (Keefe), then a 19 year-old telephone operator — but he took liberties with her actual proportions to make his Rosie appear as a more powerful, Isaiah-like figure.

“Righteousness is described throughout Isaiah’s prophecy as God’s ‘strong right arm’,” continued the Sotheby’s reviewer, “a characterization that must surely have occurred to [Rockwell] as he portrayed Rosie’s muscular forearms.” Rockwell’s Rosie also has a halo floating just above the pushed-back visor on her head. Rockwell’s “Rosie” was later donated to the U.S. War Loan Drive and briefly went on a public tour. Rockwell had fun with his paintings, using some irreverent humor here and there, but also including the necessary serious messages and patriotic tone.

Rockwell’s Saturday Evening Post Rosie was widely disseminated during the war. In addition to the magazine’s 3 million-plus circulation, Rockwell’s Rosie was also displayed in other publications, including The Art Digest of July 1, 1943. However, Rockwell’s image of Rosie might have enjoyed an even wider circulation had it not been for the actions of the magazine’s publisher, Curtis Publishing. In 1943, Curtis initially used the phrase “Rosie the Riveter” on posters it distributed to news dealers advertising the forthcoming Post issue with Rockwell’s painting on the cover. However, according to author Penny Colman, within a few days, Curtis sent telegrams to the news dealers ordering them to destroy the poster and return a notarized statement attesting to the fact that they had. Curtis issued its retraction because it feared being sued for copyright infringement of the recently released song “Rosie the Riveter.” Rockwell’s painting of Rosie was then donated to the U.S. Treasury Department’s War Loan Drive, and then went on a tour for public display in various cities across the country.

A ‘Wendy-the-Welder’ in 1940s’ shipbuilding at Richmond, CA.

Real Life Rosies

In June 1943, about two weeks after Rockwell’s Saturday Evening Post cover appeared on newsstands, the press picked up the story of a woman worker named Rose Bonavita-Hickey. She and partner Jennie Florio, drilled 900 holes and placed a record 3,345 rivets in a torpedo-bombing Avenger aircraft at the former General Motors Eastern Aircraft Division in North Tarrytown, New York.

Hickey’s feat was recognized with a personal letter from President Roosevelt, and became identified as one of many real-life “Rosie the Riveters.” Other women workers doing riveting — as well as others generally who were filling heavy-industry “men’s” jobs all across the nation – e.g., “Wendy-the-welders,” etc. — also gained media attention during the war years.

WWII-era photo showing Dora Miles and Dorothy Johnson at Douglas Aircraft Co. plant in Long Beach, CA.

“The women worked in pairs. I was the riveter and this big, strong, white girl from a cotton farm in Arkansas worked as the bucker. The riveter used a gun to shoot rivets through the metal and fasten it together. The bucker used a bucking bar on the other side of the metal to smooth out the rivets. Bucking was harder than shooting rivets it required more muscle. Riveting required more skill.”

In early August 1943, Life magazine featured a full cover photograph of a woman steelworker, along with an inside photo-story spread of other “Rosie” steelworkers, some quite dramatic.

The photographs were taken by Margaret Bourke-White, the famous Life photojournalist who was the first female war correspondent and the first woman to be allowed to work in combat zones during World War II.

Life magazine cover photo of August 9, 1943 shows steel-worker Ann Zarik at work with her torch. Click for copy.

Bourke-White had spent much of WWII in the thick of things overseas, but also managed to do domestic stories such as the “Women in Steel” spread, which included at least a dozen photographs displayed in Life’s August 9, 1943 edition. These photos captured women at work in the American steel industry, including some taken at Tubular Alloy Steel Corp. of Gary, Indiana and Carnegie-Illinois Steel Company.

Some of the photos showed the women wielding torches and working on heavy plate and structural steel with sparks flying, with others working amid giant steel caldrons that carried the molten steel. A display of these and other Rosie photographs, culled from the Life magazine archive, can be seen at “The Many Faces of Rosie The Riveter, 1941-1945.”

Need More Women

The government, meanwhile, continued to call for more women in the workforce. They needed women to work in all kinds of jobs, not just those in munitions plants or military-related factory work. By September 1943, the Magazine War Guide was asking magazine publishers to participate in a “Women at Work Cover Promotion.” They wanted publishers and others to push all kinds of employment as vital “war jobs.” Everyday “civilian jobs” were vital, too, not just the factory jobs. The slogan for this promotion was: “The More Women at Work the Sooner We Win.”

Norman Rockwell’s portrayal of American ‘liberty girl’ in her ‘jack-of-all-trades’ mode, capable of doing many kinds of civilian jobs to help the War effort – September 4, 1943, Saturday Evening Post.

Rockwell and The Saturday Evening Post were only part of a much bigger campaign to move women into the workplace. Motion pictures, newspapers, radio, museums, employee publications, and in-store displays were all involved. Some 125 million advertisements were produced as posters and full-page magazine ads.

Fine print reads: ‘Uncle Sam Needs Stenographers. Get Civil Service Information at Your Post Office.’Click for copy.

Some promotional films were produced as well. Hollywood actor Walter Pidgeon, working for the government War Bond effort, made a short film promoting the war effort in which he recruited a real “Rosie the Riveter” worker named Rose Will Monroe whom he met while touring Ford Motor’s Willow Run aircraft factory. The short film was shown in theaters between featured films to encourage viewers to buy War Bonds.

Unrelated to the War Bond effort, a Hollywood movie called Rosie the Riveter was also made in 1944 it was a B-grade romantic wartime comedy made by Republic studios with Jane Frazee as Rosie Warren who worked in an airplane factory.

Female trainees at Middletown, PA, 1944. The Middletown Air Service Command stockpiled parts and overhauled military airplanes. During WWII, Middletown’s workforce grew from 500 to more than 18,000, nearly half of them women.

Women’s Work

The women who responded to “Rosie’s call” during the 1940s’ war years did all kinds of work. In 1942, the Kaiser shipyards opened in Richmond, California, becoming a major shipbuilding center for the war effort. A woman named Bethena Moore from Derrider, Louisina was one of thousands who came to work there. In Louisiana, she had been a laundry worker. A small woman of 110 pounds, Bethena was one of the workers who would climb down into the bowels of ships — sometimes four stories in depth — on a narrow steel ladder, tethered to a welding machine. She did the welds on the ships’ double-bottoms. “It was dark, scary,” she later recounted to a New York Times reporter in October 2000. “It felt sad, because there was a war on. You knew why you were doing it — the men overseas might not get back. There were lives involved. So the welding had to be perfect.”

Woman working inside the tail of a B-17 aircraft at Boeing production line in Seattle, WA, 1940s.
Women working at the Redstone Arsenal in Alabama, 1940s.
Sante Fe Railroad ad singing the praises of its women workers.

In Michigan, at Ford Motor Co., more than 30 percent of Ford workers in 1943 in the machining and assembly departments were women. Women at Ford plants built jeeps, B-24 aircraft, and tractors. They also became test pilots for the B-24s. And they operated drill presses, welding tools, heavy casting machinery and riveting guns.

The Sante Fe Railroad also used women in war-time jobs. One of the company’s wartime ads explained in part: “…Right now, thousands of Santa Fe women are doing war-vital work to ‘keep-em-rolling’. Many of them are pitching into ‘unglamourous jobs’… greasing engines, operating turntables, wielding a shovel, cleaning roller bearings, working in blacksmith and sheet metal shops. They take pride in their work too!” A small inset box in the ad also read: “Another chapter in the story ‘Working for Victory on the Sante Fe’.”

Marilyn “Rosie” Monroe
June 1945

Marilyn Monroe, before she became a Hollywood star, appeared in a series of airplane factory photos in June 1945 that led to her becoming a model and film star.
Another of David Conover's photos of 19 year-old Norma Jean Dougherty.

Opening The Door

Mexican American women workers on the Southern Pacific Railroad during WW II.

Although many of the jobs held by women during WWII were initially returned to men after the war ended, the workforce would never be the same again. Sybil Lewis, who worked as a Lockheed riveter during those years stated: “You came out to California, put on your pants, and took your lunch pail to a man’s job. This was the beginning of women’s feeling that they could do something more.” Inez Sauer, who worked as a Boeing tool clerk in the war years, put it this way:

“My mother warned me when I took the job that I would never be the same. She said, ‘You will never want to go back to being a housewife.’ At that time I didn’t think it would change a thing. But she was right, it definitely did. . . . at Boeing I found a freedom and an independence that I had never known. After the war I could never go back to playing bridge again, being a club woman . . . when I knew there were things you could use your mind for. The war changed my life completely. I guess you could say, at thirty-one, I finally grew up.”

Women at Douglas aircraft plant during WWII.

Women discovered a new sense of pride, dignity and independence in their work and their lives. Many realized their work was just as valuable as men’s, though for years, and to this day, an earnings disparity still exists. During the war years, however, a number of women workers joined unions, gaining major new benefits from labor representation. Black and Hispanic women also gained entry to major industrial plants, factory and other jobs throughout the country. But the fight for equal rights in the workplace and equal pay for women was just beginning, and would be fought over many years following WWII.

America’s working women were praised during the war, but when the war ended they were encouraged to return to homemaking. Click for poster.

The film’s views contrast with some of the popular legends and mythology surrounding the Rosies of WW II, including the fact that many Rosies were denied opportunities to continue working once the war ended. The film is regarded as one of the best accounts of women working in heavy industry in World War II, and also of home-front life during those years. In the film’s first year, some 1 million viewers saw it, a very high number for a documentary. It has also won various film festival prizes and was dubbed into six languages. In 1996, it was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant”.

Rosie stamp, circa 1999.
‘When America marched off to war, the women marched into the factories,’ says this 1984 movie promo. ‘From then on. nothing was ever the same again.’

Back in the real world, however, thousands of older Rosies who had actually worked in the wartime production frenzy, were getting up in years, and many were recalling their experiences in their wartime jobs. Some were having reunions, while others began communicating with one another. In 1998, the “American Rosie the Riveter Association” was formed in Warm Springs, Georgia and is today headquarterd in Birmingham, Alabama. By 2004 this organization had 1,400-members. In California, meanwhile, something else was afoot: a National Park (follows below the Rockwell sidebar).

Rockwell’s Rosie & Beyond
Rising Value

Over the years, Norman Rockwell’s Rosie the Riveter has generally yielded in popularity to the J. Howard Miller/Westinghouse “We Can Do It!” poster girl. Copyright restrictions on Rockwell’s Rosie in subsequent years meant it was less frequently reproduced. The Miller/Westinghouse poster image, on the other hand, was without such copyright limitations, and over the years, appeared in numerous forms — on coffee mugs, magnets, t-shirts, and mouse pads. Still, Rockwell’s original painting had some interesting travels. …By the 1990s, certainly, Rockwell’s body of work had received serious attention of historians and art critics alike… And in the art world, Rockwell’s Rosie enjoyed a considerable following. In the 1940s, after Rockwell’s painting was donated to the government War Bond effort, it went on public tour, as did other works of art during those years. Items on these tours were sometimes offered as prizes in raffles as a way to increase public interest and contributions for the war effort. Reportedly, at one of those events — believed to have been when the painting was displayed at the Strawbridge & Clothier store in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania — Rockwell’s original Rosie was raffled off and won by a Mrs. P. R. Eichenberg of Mount Lebanon, Pennsylvania. After that, the painting appears to have been acquired by the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. on E. 44th St. in New York city, where it was hung in a display window next to a placard explaining Rosie’s history. Also included in that window display were some riveting hammers identical to the one Rockwell’s painting placed in Rosie’s lap. After its window display, it appears that Rosie was held by Martha Parrish and James Reinish of New York.

“Rockwell’s pictures often honored the American spirit,” wrote Judy Larson and Maureen Hart Hennessey in their 1999 book, Norman Rockwell: Pictures for the American People. “Particularly during times of crisis, Rockwell created images that communicated patriotism and unquestioned allegiance to the United States.”

Others would write that his Rosie the Riveter was a testament to the indomitable strength of the American spirit during one of the nation’s most challenging times. “Rosie’s cool self confidence, sheer physical might, and unwavering support of her country,” said one, “parallel the strength, determination and patriotism of the American people.”

Sometime in the year 2000, the original Rockwell Rosie painting was sold to an anonymous collector for $2 million. By 2002, that collector decided to sell. In the meantime, Rockwell’s Rosie had been part of an all Norman Rockwell exhibition entitled “Norman Rockwell: Pictures for the American People,” which had run at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York from November 1999-February 2002. In 2002, Rockwell’s Rosie was sold at Sotheby’s for $4.95 million. Rockwell’s Rosie had illustrated the exhibit brochure’s back cover as well as interior pages. After the exhibition, it was then featured on the cover of Sotheby’s May 2002 American Paintings auction magazine. The auction was held on May 22, 2002. The bidding on Rockwell’s “Rosie the Riveter” painting began at $1.5 million and proceeded in $100,000 increments until it was sold for $4,959,500. The buyers were a husband-and-wife team — Kelly Elliott owner of the Elliott Yeary Gallery of Aspen, Colorado, and her husband, Jason Elliott, a partner in Ranger Endowments Management of Dallas, Texas.

Isabella Keiser, 7, checks out Rosie’s lunch pail. Photo, Leonardo Carrizo, Columbus Dispatch.

Rosie Memorial & Park

Rosie the Riveter Memorial looking out toward Richmond Marina & San Francisco Bay beyond. This site was formerly Kaiser Shipyard No. 2.
Rosie park poster.

“Preservation is not only for parks and wilderness areas,” said Congressman George Miller at the bill’s signing. “We are also committed to using our resources to preserve historic sites that help tell the story of America’s development, and the Rosie the Riveter Home Front National Historical Park will stand as a lasting tribute to these brave women who played such a crucial role in winning the war.” Today, the park includes a number of exhibits on the “homefront” and “Rosie-the-Riveter” contributions to the WWII-era production that took place in Richmond. Other exhibits for the park are also planned.

View toward Bay from hull sculpture looking down walkway. Engraved pavement sections are visible as well as “image ladders” with period photographs & shipyard memorabilia.

The memorial, which includes a sculpture of part of a ship’s hull under construction, evokes the ship building that went on there, with a granite walkway that stretches the length of a Liberty ship the to the water’s edge. The granite walkway includes etched words from women workers. The site also includes “image ladders” with photographs and memorabilia, and a timeline of events on the home front and individual memories of the period.

On the overlook platform at the memorial, in a prominent location, is the following quote for all to read: “You must tell your children, putting modesty aside, that without us, without women, there would have been no spring in 1945.”

Norman Rockwell with Mary Doyle Keefe, the model for the 1943 'Rosie-the-Riveter' Saturday Evening Post cover.

Additional history on the work of Norman Rockwell can be found at “Rockwell & Race, 1963-1968,” and more on Saturday Evening Post cover art is included at “Falter’s Art, Rising”(John Falter covers, 1940s-1960s) and “U.S. Post Office, 1950s-2011” featuring the work of Stevan Dohanos and other Post illustrators.

Thanks for visiting – and if you like what you find here, please make a donation to help support the research and writing at this website.. Thank you. – Jack Doyle

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Date Posted: 28 February 2009
Last Update: 15 December 2020
Comments to: [email protected]

Article Citation:
Jack Doyle, “Rosie The Riveter, 1941-1945,”, February 28, 2009.

Sources, Links & Additional Information

March 1994 issue of Smithsonian magazine features a story on Rosie the Riveter 'the WWII poster icon.'
WW II worker I.D. badge, Redstone Arsenal.
Penny Colman's book, "Rosie the Riveter: Women Working on the Home Front in World War II,” 128 pp, for ages 10 and up. Click for copy.

Transcript of video presentation by Sheridan Harvey, “Rosie the Riveter: Real Women Workers in World War II,” Library of Congress, Washington., D.C., date of presentation not stated.

“Women’s Work,” Click! The Ongoing Feminist Revo-lution (web exhibit),, 2015.

“Northrop Workers Show 35,000 Visitors How Planes Are Built, Los Angeles Times, December 28, 1942, p. A-1.

Norman Rockwell’s “Rosie The Riveter” illustration appears in, The Kansas City Star, June 6, 1943.

Jeannette Guiterrez, “Naomi Parker Fraley, The Original ‘We Can Do It!’ Gal,” Diary of A (site focused on saving Willow Run bomber plant & more), March 11, 2016.

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“Women in War Jobs – Rosie the Riveter (1942-1945),” Ad

National Park Service Website, Rosie The Riveter / WWII Homefront National Park.

Aerial view of featured sites at Rosie The Riveter National Park.

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James J. Kimble and Lester C. Olson, “Visual Rhetoric Representing Rosie the Riveter: Myth and Miscon-ception in J. Howard Miller’s ‘We Can Do It!’ Poster,” Rhetoric & Public Affairs, Vol. 9, No. 4, Winter 2006, pp. 533-569.

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National Public Radio (NPR), “My Mother’s Story: Dot the Welder,” by Joyce Butler, on Morning Edition by Michael Garofalo senior producer for StoryCorps Sarah Kramer, December 15, 2006.

An excellent collection of “Rosie worker” photographs, culled from the Life magazine archive, is displayed at “The Many Faces of Rosie The Riveter, 1941-1945.”

Margaret Bourke-White, “Women in Steel” (photo-graphs), Life, August 9, 1943.

Carol Vogel, “A Billionaire’s Eye for Art Shapes Her Singular Museum,” New York Times, June 16, 2011.

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Julie Zauzmer, “Rosie The Riveter, 70 Years Later: Women Who Stepped Into Nontraditional Jobs During World War II Remember Their Work With Pride,” Washington Post, Aug. 11, 2014, p. B-1.

Joseph Berger, “Rosalind P. Walter, the First ‘Rosie the Riveter,’ Is Dead at 95,” New York Times, March 5, 2020.

The bombing of Hamburg in 1943

Hamburg was bombed in July 1943. According to JosephGoebbels, Nazi Minister for Propaganda, the bombing of Hamburg was the first time that he thought Nazi Germany might have to call for peace.

The bombing of German cities, spearheaded by ‘BomberHarris’ and the men from Bomber Command, remains a controversial topic and the bombing of Dresden in 1945 is frequently recounted. However, the bombing of Hamburg brought utter destruction to the city and regardless of what happened to the city itself, it did a great deal to hearten people in Britain who had seen London and many other cities attacked and bombed with the resulting casualties.

In 1943, many in Hitler’s Germany still believed that they were going to be victorious in the war – primarily because of the propaganda they were fed and the punishment handed out to those labelled ‘defeatist’.

The ‘1000 Bomber’ raid on Cologne had shown that mass bombing was inaccurate and not totally fruitful in terms of strategic gains. However, Harris, supported at this time by Winston Churchill, still believed that a devastating attack on a symbolic target would push the Nazis into seeking a peace deal. Cologne, Dortmund and Dusseldorf had all been bombed. The most obvious other target of any symbolic importance to the Germans was Hamburg.

The attack on Hamburg was called ‘Operation Gomorrah’. It was a joint British-American venture. Many of the attacks on Germany up to ‘Gomorrah’ had been separate British (at night) and American (at day) attacks. The combination of both bomber forces gave Harris a substantial number of bombers and therefore a substantial number of bombs that could be dropped.

Hamburg was well defended. The Nazis were aware of its historic significance as the major port in the old Hanseatic League. The city was ringed with anti-aircraft defences and there were 1,700 shelters for 230,000 citizens. Radar around the city could pick up enemy bombers when they were 100 miles away.

‘Operation Gomorrah’ was scheduled to last for three nights, starting on July 24 th . For the mission, bomber crews were issued with tin foil strips (‘chaff’) coated onto paper which were to be dropped from each bomber. These served to confuse radar crews whose screens were effectively obscured by one mass echo blob and individual bombers could not be identified.

The first attack came in the early hours of Sunday 24 th . In one hour, between 01.00 and 02.00, 2,300 tons of bombs were dropped which included 350,000 incendiary bombs. 15,000 people were killed and many more wounded. In previous bombing raids, the RAF had sent in pathfinder planes to illuminate the target by dropping incendiary bombs. The main bulk of the attack followed on to what was now a burning target. For the attack on Hamburg, the RAF combined the use of high explosive bombs and incendiary bombs, which were dropped together. The result made all but useless any form of fire fighting.

The Americans attacked on Monday 26 th July and sustained heavy losses as a result of Luftwaffe attacks. An American attack on the Tuesday was called off due to poor weather.

The raid was resumed on the Wednesday. The 722 bombers were loaded with an extra 240 tons of incendiary bombs and dropped a total of 2,313 tons of bombs in just 50 minutes. The impact of this attack led to a firestorm with temperatures estimated to have reached 1000 o C. Bomber crews reported smoke reaching 20,000 feet. Winds on the ground reached 120 mph. While not exclusively a wooden city, Hamburg did have many old wooden houses and after a dry summer they easily burned.

“We came out into a thundering, blazing hell. The streets were burning, the trees were burning and the tops of them were bent right down to the street. Burning horses out of the Hertz hauling business ran past us, the air was burning, simply everything was burning.” Henni Klank.

The tarmac on roads melted and anyone who had the chance of escape found they were stuck in the sticky mess that remained.

“Again and again, we saw burning people suddenly start to run and soon after, to fall. There was no way to save them. My wife’s head began to burn. Her hair had caught fire. With the small amount of water I had in a bucket with me I was able to put out her burning hair. At the same time I cooled my hands and face. We wife complained, “I can’t go on. My feet are burned. My hands.” We passed fused masses of people made up of four or five corpses, each probably a family, visible only as a pile of burned substance no larger than a small child. Around us were hundreds of people. All this happened in silence. The terrible heat had dried throats so much that no one could scream.”

30,000 died in this raid. On the Thursday the smoke blotted out the sunlight associated with July. Goebbels called the raids “the greatest crisis of the war.” Hamburg was cordoned off for the remainder of the war such was the unnerving impact the raids had on the Nazi hierarchy.

Did the raids have any value? There can be little doubt that the reported impact of the raids did a great deal to lift morale in Britain. They also clearly had an impact on the Nazi government – Hitler refused to visit the city, possibly not wanting to see what his war had resulted in. Hamburg was the major port of the north and the work done by the port was disrupted.

The bombing of German cities had its supporters – Harris in particular believed that an all-out campaign would have ended the war earlier. Others were less enthusiastic. Bomber Command was the only British military arm in World War Two not to receive a campaign medal – dispute the very high casualties suffered. Harris felt that the Establishment had turned its back on him and he left Britain and retired to South Africa.

19 February 1943 - History

However the Territory was not undefended. It became a huge armed base from which countless long range bomber sorties were flown.

It became a major port for the navy, both for re-supply and repairs, and a major base for the Australian army. Darwin was the home base for the commando units which operated behind the Japanese lines.

On 19 February 1942 war came to Australia for the first time since white settlement.

After the first attack, which had done most of its damage in the town and the harbour, a second wave swept in just before midday and concentrated on the airfield .

But the level of panic among servicemen was deplorable. During the bombing numerous servicemen deserted their posts and took to the road with the civilians. In the town, once the fires had been stopped and the dead and injured attended to, a mood of relief was apparent. Drunken Provost Corps troops took advantage of the swift desertion of the town by looting shops left behind by civilian proprietors.

Step 2: | Judge Condition to Identify Grade

Special Grading Qualities Find 1943 Penny Value

A 1943 penny is unique in the numismatic collectible group of wheat cents. Historic value is high. Technical and aesthetics grading determines value to collectors. A grade defines its state of condition and is used by collectors to help judge its worth.

Handle the coin gently, hold the edges only avoiding touching the surface. Steel alloy is the underlying composition of the coin and reacts to moisture forming rust. Precautions help preserve the future condition of the coin.

Uncirculated Grade: A very distinctive blue-white luster shines from a mint state - uncirculated 1943 cent. These coins are struck from a zinc coated steel alloy. Luster and its texture remain intact to reach the uncirculated grade.

Zinc, the outer coating, is prone to dulling if disturbed. Handling and circulating through commerce easily start the process of metal removal. Highest areas to judge for complete luster are Lincoln's temple, cheek, and jaw. As you tilt the coin under a light confirm no breaks in shine are evident.

Noticeability absent are small spots due to humidity. Zinc exposed to moisture forms a white soft power, zinc oxide. This example was well preserved over time.

Extremely Fine Grade: A light amount of wear visible to high areas places this coin in the Extremely Fine grade.

Lincoln's portrait shows evidence of wear confined to just high points. Curls of hair are flattened but major waves remain separated. His temple, cheek, and jaw are smooth and flat on the highest ridges. No areas of wear form connections to each other.

A natural blue-grey color is displayed by the fields of the coin, highlighting the legends and devices. Absent is any rust. Circulation wear has removed only small portions of the outer zinc coating. Preservation in a dry location has resulted in a collectible grade 1943 steel penny.

Collectible Grade: Qualities of these unique 1943 pennies involve special considerations in condition less than Extremely Fine grade. Wear has removed enough design and metal from the two examples to grade lower than extremely fine on a technical basis.

The penny on the left is worn throughout the hair, face, and coat of Lincoln. Upper surfaces are clearly flattened and smoothed. Noticeable is the major elements remain separated and none are connected due to wear. The second penny is worn to the point design elements are beginning to connect. A distinct merging of Lincoln's hair and forehead is visible.

Both are in the collectible grading range. One is a strong Fine grade and the slightly lower condition example is a pleasing collectible 1943 penny. Importantly in this condition a strong eye appeal is projected by both coins. Darker tones of grey within the fields highlight lighter tones of the devices.

Video | Grading Lincoln Wheat Pennies

Place higher grade coins in individual holders. Small zip lock bags are a good temporary solution. For higher value coins, Grading Lincoln Wheat Pennies expands on the grading process with video, descriptions, and images.


On June 22, 1941, despite the terms of the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939, Nazi Germany launched a massive invasion against the USSR. Aided by its greatly superior air force, the German army raced across the Russian plains, inflicting terrible casualties on the Red Army and the Soviet population. With the assistance of troops from their Axis allies, the Germans conquered vast territory, and by mid-October the great Russian cities of Leningrad and Moscow were under siege. However, the Soviets held on, and the coming of winter forced a pause to the German offensive.

For the 1942 summer offensive, Adolf Hitler ordered the Sixth Army, under General Friedrich von Paulus, to take Stalingrad in the south, an industrial center and obstacle to Nazi control of the precious Caucasian oil wells. In August, the German Sixth Army made advances across the Volga River while the German Fourth Air Fleet reduced Stalingrad to a burning rubble, killing over 40,000 civilians. In early September, General Paulus ordered the first offensives into Stalingrad, estimating that it would take his army about 10 days to capture the city. Thus began one of the most horrific battles of World War II and arguably the most important because it was the turning point in the war between Germany and the USSR.

In their attempt to take Stalingrad, the German Sixth Army faced a bitter Red Army under General Vasily Zhukov employing the ruined city to their advantage, transforming destroyed buildings and rubble into natural defensive fortifications. In a method of fighting the Germans began to call the Rattenkrieg, or “Rat’s War,” the opposing forces broke into squads eight or 10 strong and fought each other for every house and yard of territory. The battle saw rapid advances in street-fighting technology, such as a German machine gun that shot around corners and a light Russian plane that glided silently over German positions at night, dropping lethal bombs without warning. However, both sides lacked necessary food, water, or medical supplies, and tens of thousands perished every week.

Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was determined to liberate the city named after him, and in November he ordered massive reinforcements to the area. On November 19, General Zhukov launched a great Soviet counteroffensive out of the rubble of Stalingrad. German command underestimated the scale of the counterattack, and the Sixth Army was quickly overwhelmed by the offensive, which involved 500,000 Soviet troops, 900 tanks, and 1,400 aircraft. Within three days, the entire German force of more than 200,000 men was encircled.

Italian and Romanian troops at Stalingrad surrendered, but the Germans hung on, receiving limited supplies by air and waiting for reinforcements. Hitler ordered Von Paulus to remain in place and promoted him to field marshal, as no Nazi field marshal had ever surrendered. Starvation and the bitter Russian winter took as many lives as the merciless Soviet troops, and on January 21, 1943, the last of the airports held by the Germans fell to the Soviets, completely cutting the Germans off from supplies. On January 31, Von Paulus surrendered German forces in the southern sector, and on February 2 the remaining German troops surrendered. Only 90,000 German soldiers were still alive, and of these only 5,000 troops would survive the Soviet prisoner-of-war camps and make it back to Germany.

The Battle of Stalingrad turned the tide in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. General Zhukov, who had played such an important role in the victory, later led the Soviet drive on Berlin. On May 1, 1945, he personally accepted the German surrender of Berlin. Von Paulus, meanwhile, agitated against Adolf Hitler among the German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union and in 1946 provided testimony at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. After his release by the Soviets in 1953, he settled in East Germany.

Guide to the Historical Newspaper Collection 1721-1965SC 002

Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University Libraries, Pullman, WA.


"If all the printed sources of history for a certain century or decade had to be destroyed save one, that which could be chosen with the greatest value to posterity would be a file of an important newspaper." (Clarence Saunders Brigham, 1947)

Faced with the rural isolation of the town of Pullman, Washington State College librarians actively sought to build and maintain a newspaper collection that represented historical, national, and international scope. The Historical Newspaper Collection represents only a fraction of the University’s newspaper collection--in general, these items were singled out as a “special collection” because they were determined to have particular historical significance. These items were originally gathered from a wide variety of sources, and acquisition occurred over a period of ninety years. The majority of the collection was obtained though gifts, and through exchanges with other libraries.

Scope and Content

The Historical Newspaper Collection includes approximately 440 titles. The collection contains newspapers that are both domestic and international in scope, with dates ranging from the eighteenth century to the twentieth century. Washington State papers are strongly represented. Titles found in this collection are generally single issues or short interrupted runs.

For researchers interested in newspapers as material objects, the collection includes a wide variety of examples of paper, printing, and occasional evidence of use (such as annotations, stamps, and other markings).


Prior to the transfer of these items to MASC, the "Historical Newspaper File" was treated as a small special collection within the general collections of the WSU Libraries. It was organized in a numerical system by file number, and information about the collection was maintained in a card catalog, which served as the sole means of intellectual access. The collection was referred to by WSU librarians as the "Shoebox Series" because of the boxes in which the catalog cards were stored. This catalog was transferred to MASC along with the newspapers and is included in the collection.

Location Key (MASC Staff Use):

A and B: MASC Basement open shelving (East)

C: MASC Basement open oversized shelving (West)

Stacks: MASC Ground Level book stacks

Administrative Information

Publication Information

Washington State University Libraries Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections © 2016

Restrictions on Access

This collection is open and available for research use.

Restrictions on Use

These newspapers vary widely in physical condition in many cases the paper is fragile and cannot be safely photocopied, but the collection is available for on-site research use.

Acquisition Information

This collection was transferred to MASC from the general collections of the WSU Libraries in 2004.

Processing Information

This collection was processed by Katrina Paxton and Cheryl Gunselman in 2004-2005.

Related Materials

Related Material

Many other newspaper resources, in various formats, are available through the Washington State University Libraries. For example, approximately a quarter of the titles in this collection are also available on microfilm at the Holland/Terrell Library. To explore the general library collections for these resources, use the WSU Libraries' online catalog. The catalog supports various types of searching, including title, keyword, and subject.

Separated Material

Not all of the items from the former collection were selected for inclusion in this Historical Newspaper Collection. Items that had been removed from individual manuscript collections were restored to their context in those collections photocopies and other reproductions were not selected, with the exception of a few reprinted items dates from 1960 onward were excluded. In a few cases, items were generally excluded on the basis of condition, when they were badly damaged and it was not feasible that they could be made sufficiently stable for use.

Names and Subjects

Geographic Name(s)

  • United States -- Newspapers.
  • Washington (State) -- Newspapers.
  • Alaska -- Newspapers.
  • Idaho -- Newspapers.
  • Oregon -- Newspapers.
  • Montana -- Newspapers.
  • England -- Newspapers.
  • Australia -- Newspapers.
  • Washington (State) -- History, Local.


  • Journalism
  • Media and Communication
  • Washington (State)
  • Idaho
  • Oregon
  • Montana

Detailed Description of Collection

Series 1: Pacific Northwest (1851-1965)

Subseries 1.1 Washington Territory (1861-1889)

Big Bend Empire, Waterville, Douglas County, Washington Territory. February 16, 1888 January 2, 1890 September 10, 1903-August 4, 1904 (incomplete).

Centralia Chronicle, Centralia, Washington Territory and Washington State. April 7, 1887-January 16, 1890.

Clarke County Register, Vancouver, Clarke County, Washington Territory. July 5, 1883.

(Note: issue includes article on New York Shop Girls.)

Colton Eagle, Colton, Whitman County, Washington Territory. May 24, 1887 June 8, 1887 July 5, 1888.

The Eye, Snohomish City, Washington Territory. August 9, 1882.

Farmington Register, Farmington, Whitman County, Washington Territory. October 5, 1888.

Lewis County Bee, Chehalis, Washington Territory. June 6, 1884.

Lewis County Nugget, Chehalis, Lewis County, Washington Territory. October 20, 1883 July 14, 1883.

Morning Review, Spokane Falls, Washington Territory. October 31, 1886 (reproduction).

Port Angeles Weekly Tribune, Port Angeles, Washington. April 20, 1882.

Sprague Herald, Sprague, Spokane County, Washington Territory. July 6, 1883 January 16, 1885 January 7, 1887.

The Vancouver Independent, Vancouver, Washington Territory. July 5, 1883.

Walla Walla Daily Union, Walla Walla, Washington Territory. January 10, 1889.

Washington Farmer, North Yakima, Washington Territory. April 4, 1885.

Washington Standard, Olympia, Washington Territory. January 18, 1868 December 28, 1867.

Washington Statesman, Walla Walla, Washington Territory. December 27, 1861.

Weekly Journal and Watchman, Walla Walla, Washington Territory. August 30, 1889.

The Yakima Democrat, North Yakima, Washington Territory. October 3, 1888.

Yakima [Weekly] Record, Yakima City, Yakima County, Washington Territory. July 7, 1883.

The Yakima Republican, Yakima, Yakima County, Washington Territory. November 22, 1882 [1884?] April 11, 1885 December 26, 1885 April 4, 1886 January 3, 1890.

Yakima Signal, Yakima, Yakima County, Washington Territory. January 6, 1883 July 7, 1883 October 4, 1888.

Subseries 1.2: Washington State (1889-1965)

The Agitator, Home (Lakebay P.O.), Washington. November 15, 1910-July 1, 1912.

(Note: Industrial Unionism newspaper.)

The Argus, Seattle, Washington. January 7, 1905-December 29, 1906 (incomplete).

The Benton County Independent, Richland, Washington. October 11, 1940 May 21, 1942 June 11, 1942 June 18, 1942.

Buckley Banner, Buckley, Washington. February 23, 1933-December 27, 1934 (bound).

Calispell Valley Times, Usk, Pend Oreille County, WA, October 18, 1912.

Charleston American, Charleston, Washington. December 28, 1915 January 14, 1916.

Charleston Record, Charleston, Washington. June 16, 1906.

The Cheney Free Press, Cheney, Washington. February 7, 1930.

The Chronicle, Spokane, Washington. June 13, 1898.

The Citizen Journal, Rosalia, Washington. January 4, 1924 January 11, 1924.

Creston News, Creston, Washington. July 12-December 20, 1935 (incomplete).

Daily Chronicle-Examiner, Centralia, Washington. January 8-August 14, 1915.

The Daily Ledger, Tacoma, Washington. February 15, 1914. (

(Note: folder includes clipping "Rare Pictures of Famous Indians." Article includes photo of "Duke of York," chief of the Clallam Tribe mentions Chief Kamiaken and the Indian wars of 1855-1858.)

Discontent: Mother of Progress, Lakebay, Washington. June 8, 1898-April 30, 1902.

(Note: these issues are from the Home Colony, an anarchist commune, in Lake Bay, WA. Article subjects include gender equality, sexuality, free love, animal rights, and labor.)

Douglas County Democrat, Waterville, Washington. November 30, 1894.

Dungeness Beacon, Dungeness, Washington. July 29, 1892.

Farmington Forum, Farmington, Whitman County, Washington. April 15, 1892.

Farmington Independent, Farmington, Washington. November 7, 1913.

The Farmington News, Farmington, Washington. October 23, 1925.

Ferndale Record, Ferndale, Washington. October 10, 1928.

Freemens Labor Journal, Spokane, Washington. January 22, 1897.

The Garfield Enterprise, Garfield, Washington. June 17, 1927 December 30, 1927.

Good Government Educator, Seattle, Washington. October 26, 1946-March 14, 1947 (incomplete).

(Note: includes anti-Communist and early Cold War propaganda.)

Gray's Harbor Gazette, Hoquiam, Washington. March 1, 1900.

(Note: issue includes articles on the black plague in the South Pacific.)

Industrial Army News, Seattle, Washington. April 20, 1894.

The Inland Empire News, Spokane, Washington. June 7, 1951.

The Kettle Falls Pioneer, Kettle Falls, Stevens County, Washington. December 31, 1891.

The KFPY Farmer, Spokane, Washington. April 1945-March 1946 (incomplete).

(Note: one issue highlights the uses of DDT on the farm and in the home.)

The Kway Weekly, Seattle, Washington. March 13, 1924 February 21, 1933 December 17, 1941.

Majblomman (The Swedish Mayflower), Spokane, Washington. May 1, 1923.

Metaline Democrat, Metaline, Washington. October 11, 1913.

Metaline Fall News, Metaline, Washington. April 14, 1911.

Morning Union-Daily Bulletin, Walla Walla, Washington. September 22, 1935.

(Note: issue includes article on Fort Walla Walla.)

The Newport Miner, Newport, Washington. April 18, 1929-November 11, 1965 (incomplete).

The New Time, Spokane, Washington. June 28, 1902-April 1, 1906.

The Oakville Cruiser, Oakville, Washington. September 4-November 20, 1936 (partially bound).

The Pasco Express, Pasco, Washington. July 19, 1906.

Port Orchard Independent, Port Orchard, Washington. March 11, 1905.

Pre-Vue, Spokane, Washington. August 25, 1933-October 20, 1933.

(Note: highlights Spokane's "amusements." Includes many photographs and movie advertisements mentioning well-known actors and films of the 1930s.)

The Producer, Spokane, Washington. August 27, 1921-October 15, 1923 (incomplete, bound).

(Note: agricultural newspaper.)

The Pullman Herald, Pullman, Washington. January 20-December 29, 1911 (incomplete, partially bound), special 50th anniversary edition (1888-1938), 1938 November 4 (3 copies, one bound), and final edition dated 1989 February 4.

The Quincy Quill, Quincy, Washington. August 4, 1905-June 1, 1917 (incomplete).

The Quincy Valley News, Quincy, Washington. April 25, 1947 June 27, 1947 August 29, 1947.

The Ranch, Kent and Seattle, Washington. January 1, 1912-December 15, 1913 (bound).

Republic News Miner, Republic, Washington. April 21, 1916.

The Rosalia Rustler, Rosalia, Washington. February 9, 1893.

The Sentinel, Asotin, Washington. January 3, 1890.

The Snoqualmie Valley Record, Snoqualmie, Washington. September 4, 1924-December 18, 1930 (incomplete, bound).

The Socialist Next the Socialist, Seattle, Washington. October 5, 1895 May 21, 1901-January 22, 1905 (incomplete).

The Socialist World, Seattle, Washington. July 21, 1916-March 23, 1917 (bound).

(Note: subjects include issues of the Monroe Doctrine, Socialist presidential candidates, and birth control.)

The South Tacoma Star, Tacoma, Washington. March 20-April 3, 1931.

The Spokane County Republican, March 15-December 1, 1946.

The Spokane Falls Review, Spokane Falls, Washington. November 12, 1889.

(Note: includes an article about the proclaimation of Washington statehood.) Call number: AN48.57 S745

The Spokane Review, Spokane, Washington.

(Note: includes features and illustrations on Pullman, Washington.)

October 25, 1897-December 20, 1921 (incomplete)

November 1903 December 1903 January 1904.

(Note: includes articles about Native American people, referred to as Whirlwind Medicine Man, Tow-a-Tai chief of the Cayuses, Chief No Shirt and his wife Thunder, Louise Two-Slaps, White Thunder, Show-a-way, Paul Show-a-way chief of the Cayuses, Wishram bell ringers, Umapine, Sampkin, Lewis and Clark Expedition, Whitman Massacre, Daughter of Kamiakin, Bill Woodward, Chief Iron Sail, Spee-des of Wishram tribe, Sacajawea, Pe-tow-ya, Bird Woman, Chief Joseph, Piegan Jack, Yellow Hair chief of the Palouse tribe, P-ha-thal-a-talk also Indian boarding schools.)

The Spokesman Review, Spokane, Washington.

(Note: issues contain photographs of Washington State University campus.)

Golden Anniversary edition. July 22, 1933

Progress Edition. January 26, 1936

Progress Edition. January 16, 1938 (bound)

Progress Edition. January 28, 1940 (bound)

Progress Edition. January 25, 1942 (bound)

Progress Edition. January 31, 1943 (bound)

Progress Edition. January 30, 1944 (bound)

Progress Edition. January 26, 1947 (bound)

Progress Edition. January 21, 1951 (bound)

Progress Edition. January 27, 1952 (bound)

Progress Edition. January 25, 1953 (bound)

Progress Edition. January 31, 1954 (bound)

Progress Edition. January 30, 1955 (bound)

Progress Edition. January 29, 1956 (bound)

Progress Edition. January 27, 1957 (bound)

Progress Edition. January 26, 1958 (bound)

Progress Edition. January 25, 1959 (bound)

Progress Edition. December 30, 1973

The Stage, Tacoma, Washington. October 21, 1892-May 26, 1893 (incomplete).

State Normal School Journal, Cheney, Washington. November 7, 1916-October 12, 1923 (incomplete).

Stevens County Farm News, Addy, Washington. December 7, 1933.

The Sun, Tacoma, Washington. November 7, 1892-August 10, 1899.

Sunday Union-Statesman, Walla Walla, Washington. May 30, 1909 June 30, 1909.

The Sun Democrat, Tacoma, Washington. May 30, 1901-June 26, 1903.

The Sunnyside Times, Sunnyside, Washington. October 19, 1922.

Tacoma Morning Union, Tacoma, Washington. 1895 (Souvenir Edition).

The Tacoma Sun, Tacoma, Washington. October 4, 1924 October 11, 1924 September 13, 1924 October 25, 1924.

The Tacoma Times, Tacoma, Washington. December 4, 1920.

(Note: Evening Pink Final Extra Edition.)

The Times, Pullman, Washington. January 2, 1895.

(Note: editor is identified as13 year old Geo Stitt who claims that he is the "youngest editor in the state.")

Town Talk, Spokane, Washington. June 6, 1941.

Trench and Camp, Camp Lewis, Washington. July 21, 1918 August 11, 1918 December 22, 1918 December 29, 1918 January 5, 1919.

True American Citizen, Tacoma, Washington. September 13, 1895 April 23, 1897.

(Note: includes coverage of public schools and reform schools.)

Union City Tribune, Union City, Washington. June 26, 1890 July 16, 1892.

The Vashon Island News, Burton, Washington. February 7, 1918-December 11, 1919 (bound).

The Waitsburg Times, Waitsburg, Washington. July 16, 1937 May 20, 1937.

Walla Walla Bulletin, Walla Walla, Washington. December 14, 1916 April 23, 1917 April 25, 1917.

(Note: December 1916 issues include articles on Indian dances, wars of 1855-1886, and the story of Coyote.)

The Walla Walla Union, Walla Walla, Washington.

(Note: Centennial Issue includes articles regarding the Whitman Party.)

August 1896 (Pictorial Historical Edition)

November 30, 1900-May 22, 1917 January 25, 1925

The Walla Walla Valley Spectator (supplement), Prescott, Washington. Circa 1920.

Waterville Empire-Press, Waterville, Washington. October 26, 1922 February 26, 1925 August 18 1927, November 24, 1927 September 25, 1930.

Waterville Immigrant, Waterville, Washington. April 20, 1889 December 28, 1889.

The Weekly Olympian, Olympia, Washington. March 20, 1894-December 20, 1906 (incomplete).

The Wenatchee Advance, Wenatchee, Washington. February 16, 1894 November 9, 1901.

Wenatchee Daily World, Wenatchee, Washington. June 26, 1939.

The Whidby Islander, Langley, Washington. October 1900-April 15, 1903.

Women's News, Spokane, Washington. September 3-December 18, 1936.

Yakima Herald, Yakima, Washington.

(Note: March 1, 1953 issue documents the town's history and has numerous historical photos.)

January 9, 1890 March 1, 1953

The Yakima Republic, North Yakima, Washington. November 15, 1901 August 31, 1903.

The Yoghurt Health News: Supplement to the Mount Vernon Argus, Bellingham, Washington. August 9, 1923.

(Note: includes photographs of various forms of electric "treatments" including a life size "bake oven.")

Subseries 1.3: Other Pacific Northwest (1851-1948)

The Alaska Herald, Sitka, Alaska. September 26, 1892 April 24, 1893 March 12, 1894.

Anchorage Daily Times, Anchorage, Alaska. July 3, 1937.

(Note: issue contains a lengthy article about the New Deal colony "Matanuska Colony," which relocated Dust Bowl farmers to rural Alaska.)

Armfor News, Boise, Idaho. December 20, 1934-February 5, 1937 (incomplete).

Benewah County News, St. Maries, Idaho. December 29, 1938.

The Buhl Pioneer, Buhl, Idaho. December 20, 1906 August 23, 1917.

Columbia River Courier, Women's Foreign Missionary Society, Portland, Oregon. May 1926 February 1930.

Cooperative News, Freewater, Oregon. October 4, 1938.

(Note: newspaper is "devoted to the interests of all Cooperative Enterprises and especially Farmers' Organizations.")

The Dalles Optimist, Dalles, Oregon. July 28, 1928 April 20, 1928 Wasco County Special Development issue, 1928.

Grants Pass Courier, Grants Pass, Oregon. April 3, 1935.

(Note: issue includes a brief history of Southern Oregon.)

The Idaho Guardsman, Boise, Idaho. February 1, 1943 March 1, 1943 April 1, 1943 May 1, 1943 December 25, 1943 February 1, 1944 April 15, 1944 June 1, 1944 August 1, 1944 November 1, 1944.

Idaho Tri-weekly Statesman, Boise, Idaho. August 26, 1865 October 26, 1869.

The Latah Journal, Deary, Idaho. July 29, 1937 August 5, 1937 August 12, 1937 August 19, 1937 September 2, 1937 September 9, 1937.

The Lewiston Teller, Lewiston, Idaho. April 10, 1890-March 31, 1892 (incomplete, bound).

Morning Oregonian, Portland, Oregon. June 3-October 20, 1898 (incomplete).

(Note: issues include articles regarding the war in the Philippines.)

The New-Northwest, Deer Lodge, Montana. 1878-1879 (clippings, reproductions).

The North Star, Sitka, Alaska. August 1891.

(Note: issue contains various articles on rituals of indigenous peoples of Alaska.)

Oregon Journal, Portland, Oregon. April 25, 1915.

(Note: folder includes clippings about the death of Marcus Whitman, obituary of McDonough Bainbridge Rees, and details of the survivors of Colonel Steptoe's expedition.)

Oregon Spectator, Oregon City, Oregon. June 15, 1948 July 19, 1948 February 5, 1946 (reproduction).

Oregon Statesman, Oregon City, Oregon. May 13, 1851-February 11, 1861 (incomplete).

Pathfinder of Alaska (magazine), Valdez, Alaska. May 1922 April 1924.

Portland Journal of Commerce, Portland, Oregon. August 31, 1889.

Resources of Oregon and Washington, Portland, Oregon. July 1882.

The Sunday Oregonian, Portland, Oregon. January 27, 1935.

The Sunnyside Gazette. Portland, Oregon. February 5, 1938-April 10, 1943 (incomplete, bound).

The Wallace Miner, Wallace, Idaho. December 16, 1937.

(Note: issue includes story about the history of the Coeur d'Alene people.)

The Weekly Oregonian, Portland, Oregon. June 15, 1894.

(Note: covers the Oregon flood of 1894.)

Wrangell Sentinel, Wrangell, Alaska. May 14, 1925 May 21, 1925 May 28, 1925.

(Note: gift of W.P Gray included with papers is a note from Gray describing Wrangell Island.)

Series 2: Colonial America and Early United States (1728-1812)

Subseries 2.1 Colonial America (1728-1775)

Boston Gazette, Boston, Massachusetts. March 12, 1770.

(Note: reproductions, with accounts of the Boston Massacre.)

The Connecticut Gazette, New-London, Connecticut. August 2, 1765-July 9, 1800 (incomplete).

The Connecticut Journal, and New-Haven Post-Boy, (later known as the Connecticut Journal). New Haven, Connecticut. February 12, 1768-May 28, 1822 (incomplete).

The New-England Weekly Journal, Boston, Massachusetts. April 8, 1728.

The New-York Gazette and the Weekly Mercury, October 29, 1770.

(Note: issue includes article on the death of the Reverend George Whitefield.)

Subseries 2.2 Early United States (1776-1812)

The American Mercury, Hartford, Connecticut. April 26, 1790-July 9, 1816 (incomplete, partially bound).

Boston Gazette, Boston, Massachusetts. March 30, 1801- December 22, 1808, March 12, 1770 (incomplete).

The Columbian Centinel, Boston, Massachusetts.

(Note: 1801 issue covers Thomas Jefferson's election and inauguration.)

June 16, 1791-December 28, 1793 (incomplete, partially bound)

January 1-December 3, 1794 (incomplete, partially bound)

January 14, 1795-December 28, 1796 (incomplete, bound)

September 26, 1798-December 6, 1800

January 3, 1801-December 29, 1802 (bound)

April 2, 1802 February 7, 1807 June 7, 1809 June 10, 1809 June 14, 1809 June 17, 1809 June 21, 1809 June 24, 1809 June 28, 1809

The Concord Herald, and Newhampshire Intelligencer, Concord, New Hampshire. January 13, 1790.

Commercial Advertiser, New York, New York. October 2, 1797.

Connecticut Courant, Hartford, Connecticut.

January 9-December 25, 1786 (incomplete, partially bound)

January 14, 1787-December 31, 1789 (incomplete, bound)

January 3-December 12, 1790 (incomplete, bound)

January 14-December 12, 1791 (incomplete, bound)

January 9-December 31, 1792 (incomplete, bound)

September 23-December 16, 1799 (incomplete, bound)

January 5, 1801-December 28, 1803 (incomplete, bound)

February 15, 1804-June 29, 1824 (incomplete, bound)

Supplement to the Courant, Hartford, Connecticut. March 31, 1855.

Connecticut Mirror, Hartford, Connecticut. January 7, 1811-April 3, 1821 (incomplete).

The Daily Advertiser, New York, New York. January 5-March 28, 1789 (incomplete, partially bound).

Gazette of the United States, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

(Note: 1802 issue covers the death of First Lady Martha Washington.)

General Advertiser, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. December 8, 1797.

The Herald a Gazette for the Country, New York, New York. January 21, 1795 January 28, 1795 February 11, 1795 February 28, 1975 March 7, 1795 March 21, 1795 April 11, 1795 April 18, 1795 April 29, 1795 May 13, 1795.

Independent Chronicle, Boston, Massachusetts. February 7-December 23, 1811 (incomplete, bound).

The Independent Ledger, and the American Advertiser, Boston, Massachusetts. November 30, 1778.

Independent Chronicle, and the Universal Advertiser, Boston, Massachusetts.

January 2-December 19, 1777

September 30-December 30, 1790

February 3-December 15, 1791

January 12-December 13, 1792

January 2-December 29, 1794

January 12-December 14, 1795

January 7-December 29, 1796

April 24, 1800 May 18, 1801 October 7, 1802 October 11, 1802 August 25, 1803 May 24, 1804 January 24, 1805 June 17, 1805 September 15, 1806 April 9-10, 1810

The Massachusetts Centinel, Boston. September 17-December 31, 1788 September 12, 1789 (incomplete, partially bound).

Massachusetts Mercury and New-England Palladium, Boston, Massachusetts. January 17, 1797-December 15, 1801.

Massachusetts Spy, or Worcester Gazette, Worcester, Massachusetts. August 22, 1810 March 26, 1817.

(Note: issues document the purchase of Florida, the debate on slavery west of the Mississippi, Alabama becoming a state, and debate regarding admission of Maine into the Union.)

New-England Palladium, Boston, Massachusetts.

(Note: includes account of Lewis and Clark Expedition, July 31, 1801, vol. XLI, no. 2114, p. 1)

July 17, 1804-September 23, 1803 (incomplete)

January 1-December 31, 1802 (incomplete, bound)

Newport Mercury, Newport, Rhode Island.

April 21, 1781 October 27, 1781, October 9, 1784 July 21, 1795 July 21, 1804 May 28, 1814 April 26, 1884 March 28, 1863 November 23, 1867.

August 20, 1853 August 27, 1853 and January 14, 1899.

The New-York Packet, and American Advertiser, Fishkill, New York. January 17, 1782.

The Pennsylvania Packet, and Daily Advertiser. January 6, 1787-April 4, 1788 (incomplete).

The Providence Gazette, Providence, Rhode Island. November 15, 1783-February 14, 1795 November 18, 1797 January 25, 1806 April 24-October 30, 1813 January 31, 1818 January 6, 1820-January 14, 1824 (incomplete).

(Note: 1790s issues include information about the French Revolution 1800s issues include information about slavery.)

Spooner's Vermont Journal, Windsor, Vermont. June 12, 1798-December 6, 1803 (incomplete).

(Note: includes details of the Louisiana Purchase.)

Ulster County Gazette, Kingston, New York. January 4, 1800 (reproductions).

The Visitor, New Haven, Connecticut. September 27, 1803.

Series 3: United States (1813-1887)

The Albion, or British, Colonial and Foreign Weekly Gazette. New York, New York.

(Note: 1837 issue records the death of King William IV and Princess Victoria's ascent to the throne.)

July 29, 1837, August 19, 1837

January 6-December 28, 1844 (incomplete, partially bound)

January 2-December 25, 1847 (incomplete)

January 6-December 29, 1849 (incomplete, partially bound)

January 5-December 28, 1850 (incomplete)

American Temperance Intelligencer, Albany, New York. July 1835 October 1835 November 1836.

Baptist Register, Concord, New Hampshire. March 1835 (incomplete).

Boston Evening Gazette, Boston, Massachusetts. October 30, 1852.

The Boston Patriot, Boston, Massachusetts. January 2-December 25, 1813 (incomplete, bound).

(Note: March 3, 1813 issue includes articles on the War of 1812.)

The Boston Telegraph, Boston, Massachusetts. January 1, 1824.

Brother Jonathan, New York, New York. July 11, 1840 July 4, 1845.

Burritt's Christian Citizen, Worcester, Massachusetts. January 6, 1849-September 7, 1850 (incomplete, bound).

(Note: includes debate on slavery. An index is included at the end of the volume.)

The Charleston Courier, Charleston, South Carolina. July 15, 1854.

Christian Advocate and Journal and Christian Advocate Supplement, New York, New York. April 3, 1835 November 25, 1886.

(Note: topics include Louisa May Alcott, exercise for girls, and the importance of keeping a scrapbook.)

The Christian Intelligencer, New York, New York. January 1, 1851.

Chester Standard, Chester, South Carolina. February 9, 1854.

The Christian Register, Boston, Massachusetts. December 9, 1826 April 7, 1827 September 22, 1827 November 17, 1827 September 26, 1868.

The Cleveland Herald, Cleveland, Ohio. September 20, 1881.

(Note: issue includes coverage of the death of President James Garfield.)

Cleveland Evening Leader, Cleveland, Ohio, April 16, 1865.

(Note: this issue reports on the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.)

Cleveland Morning Leader, Cleveland, Ohio, April 28, 1865.

(Note: includes reporting of events after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.)

Columbian Register, New Haven, Connecticut. July 6, 1813 May 22, 1819 February 10, 1821 May 26, 1821.

The Congretional Observer, Hartford and New Haven, Connecticut. February 12, 1842 February 26, 1842 April 30, 1842.

The Connecticut Journal and Herald, New Haven, Connecticut. February 26, 1859.

The Daily Citizen, Vicksburg, Mississippi. July 2, 1863 (reproduction).

(Note: these issues are facsimile reproductions of the famous “Wallpaper” edition.)

Daily Cleveland Herald, Cleveland, Ohio, April 28, 1865.

(Note: reports the arrival of Abraham Lincoln's funeral train in Cleveland.)

Daily Morning Chronicle, Washington. April 20, 1865.

(Note: issue includes details of President Abraham Lincoln's funeral.)

The Daily Union, Washington, D.C. October 2, 1850.

The Evening Telegram, New York, New York. August 1, 1885 August 5, 1885.

(Note: folder contains clippings regarding the death of President Ulysses S. Grant.)

The Fonda Sentinel, Fonda, New York. March 5, 1847.

Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, New York, New York.

The Friend, Honolulu, Hawaii. January 15, 1845.

(Note: temperance newspaper.)

Hartford Daily Courant, Hartford, Connecticut. January 20, 1852 January 1, 1857 May 7, 1862 May 16, 1862.

Hartford Weekly Journal, Hartford, Connecticut. May 4, 1844.

(Note: includes Henry Clay's announcement of his intention to enter into the Presidential race.)

Harper's Bazar [sic], New York, New York. May 8, 1869-December 23, 1882 March 5, 1881 (incomplete).

Harper's Weekly, New York, New York. April 30, 1859.

Herald of the Times, Newport, Rhode Island. September 15, 1831.

The Home Journal, New York, New York. May 8, 1852-December 1, 1855 (incomplete).

Illinois State Journal, Springfield, Illinois. Centennial Edition. November 8, 1831 (bound).

The Jeffersonian, New York, New York. November 8, 1834-December 31, 1834 (incomplete, partially bound).

Journal and Free Press, North Hampton, Massachusetts. November 27, 1875.

The Log Cabin, New York and Albany, New York.

May 2-November 9, 1840 (bound)

March 3, 1819-February 16, 1820 (incomplete, bound)

Milwaukee American, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. March 4, 1857 April 1, 1857.

Moore's Rural New Yorker, Rochester, New York.

January 1-December 24, 1853 (bound)

January 7-December 30, 1854 (bound)

January 1-December 24, 1859 (bound)

Nashua Gazette and Hillsborough Advertiser, Nashua, New Hampshire. December 5, 1844.

National Anti-Slavery Standard, New York, New York. March 18, 1854-July 18, 1863 (incomplete).

New-Hampshire Courier, Concord, New Hampshire. December 6, 1844.

New Haven Daily Palladium, New Haven, Connecticut. May 6, 1837-June 27, 1877 (incomplete).

New-Haven Chronicle, New Haven, Connecticut. August 16, 1828.

New-Haven Daily Herald, New Haven, Connecticut. August 14, 1844 August 19, 1846.

Newport Advertiser, Newport, Rhode Island. August 22, 1855.

Newport Journal, Newport, Rhode Island. September 12, 1885.

The New-Yorker, New York, New York. March 19, 1836.

New York Evening Post, New York, New York. February 5-7, 1818.

New York Herald, New York, New York. April 15, 1865

(Note: 6 items all are reproductions. These issues cover the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.)

The New York Ledger, New York, New York. January 1, 1859-December 31, 1859 (incomplete, bound).

New York Observer, New York, New York.

(Note: includes several articles about slavery and Indian issues.)

January 2-December 25, 1847 (incomplete, bound)

January 1-December 30, 1848 (incomplete, bound)

January 6-December 22, 1849 (incomplete, bound)

January 5-December 28, 1850 incomplete, bound)

January 2-December 25, 1851 (incomplete, bound)

August 6, 1857 March 18, 1858 March 31, 1859

August 5, 1869 September 19, 1859 October 10, 1895

New York Times, New York, New York. August 6, 1885.

Norfolk Gazette and Publick Ledger, Norfolk, Virginia. June 23, 1813.

The Perfectionist, Putney, Vermont. February 15, 1843-January 15, 1844 (incomplete, bound).

(Note: this newspaper is from the Perfectionist Society, a religious sect directed by Mr. John Noyes, founder and leader of the Oneida community. His Perfectionist Society supported "complex marriage" or "free love.")

The Philanthropist, Cincinnati, Ohio. May 5, 1840.

The Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. November 3, 1858. (Vol. 2, #81)

The Rebel, Chattanooga, Tennessee. August 9, 1862.

(Note: reproduction. Issue includes an address by President Abraham Lincoln regarding treason.)

Recorder and Telegraph, Boston, Massachusetts. May 20, 1825 (fragment).

The Repertory, Boston, Massachusetts. April 20, 1820.

Rhode Island Republican, Newport, Rhode Island. July 13, 1826 January 8, 1829.

Salt Lake Evening Chronicle, Salt Lake City, Utah. March 2, 1885.

Salt Lake Evening Democrat, Salt Lake City, Utah. March 2, 1885.

Saturday Courier, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. March 29, 1834-April 23, 1842 (incomplete).

Scientific American: Architects and Builders Edition, New York, New York. January and August 1887 January-August 1888.

(Note: each issue contains floor plans for new homes.)

The Sun, New York, New York. September 3, 1833.

(Note: reproductions. 2 items, including a reprint produced for the 100th anniversary edition.)

Telegraph, and the Texas Register, San Felipe de Austin, Texas Mexico Territory. November 7, 1853.

(Note: issues document the Texas and Mexico civil war.)

Weekly Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. December 8, 1852.

Windham Herald, Windham, Connecticut. January 6-November 24, 1814 (incomplete).

(Note: subjects include the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte, General Jackson's victory over Creek Indians, and the destruction of Fort Eric.)

The World, New York, New York. August 2 and 9, 1885.

(Note: issue includes coverage of the death of President Ulysses S Grant.)

The Youth's Companion, Boston, Massachusetts. April 19, 1883-April 24, 1884 (incomplete).

Series 4: U.S. (1888-1939)

The Amaroc News, Coblenz, Germany. June 27, 28, 1919 July 30, 1919.

(Note: issues document the end of WWI. This newspaper was printed for the American forces in Europe. Includes handwritten notes in pencil at top of papers: "We get this paper on the day it is printed and it is very good." "Delivered at Camp of Co. D, 1st U.S Engs at outpost in front of Gorgeshausen, Germany, by truck at 6:45 p.m June 28, 1918.")

Appeal to Reason, Girard, Kansas. October 21, 1922.

The Bridgehead-Sentinel, Montabauer, Germany. April 19, 1919-June 24, 1921

(Note: United States armed forces newspaper, First United States Division. Incomplete.)

Chicago Journal, Chicago, Illinois. April 19, 1898 June 7, 1898.

Coming Back (publication location unknown). January 1-September 12, 1919 (incomplete).

The Courier Journal, Louisville, Kentucky. May 28, 1911.

The Double-Six, Garmisch, Germany. November 2-November 30, 1945 (incomplete).

(Note: this newspaper was produced for the United States Armed Forces in Europe.)

Erist Manifesto (publisher and location unknown). Circa 1930.

(Note: underground newspaper.)

The Graphic, Chicago, Illinois. July 25, 1891-May 28, 1892 (incomplete).

Hello G.I.'s in Switzerland, Neuchatel, Switzerland. November 4-7, 1945.

(Note: this newspaper was published for United States Forces on "rest and relaxation" in Switzerland.)

The Honolulu Advertiser, Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii. August 22, 1924.

(Note: headline stories include possible communication from the planet Mars.)

Iapi Oaye (The Word Carrier), Santee, Nebraska. September 1871-May 1939 (incomplete).

(Note: formerly part of Cage 69, Marion B. Dreamer Collection.)

Illustrated Weekly Magazine (Los Angeles Times), Los Angeles, California. December 26, 1906.

The Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles, California. April 30, 1911.

The Miami Gazette, Waynesville, Ohio. March 19, 1936.

Newport Daily News, Newport, Rhode Island. September 10, 1898.

Newport Daily Observer, Newport, Rhode Island. April 10, 1889.

Newport Mercury, Newport, Rhode Island. August 20, 1853 August 27, 1853 January 14, 1899.

New York Daily Times, New York, New York. September 13, 1931.

(Note: 80th anniversary issue.)

The Omaha Daily Bee, Omaha, Nebraska. October 10-15, 1898.

(Note: Peace, Jubilee souvenir issue.)

The Orange Judd Farmer, Chicago, Illinois. December 6, 1890-February 21, 1891 (incomplete).

Red Circle News, Augsburg, Germany. October 6-December 15, 1945 (incomplete).

(Note: this newspaper was produced for United States Forces in Europe.)

Republican Standard, New Bedford, Massachusetts. August 18, 1898.

The San Diego Union, San Diego, California. November 19, 1913 July 23, 1916.

San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco, California. April 22, 1934.

San Francisco Examiner, San Francisco, California. June 24, 1906.

(Note: issue describes San Francisco earthquake and fire.)

Sinasapa Wocekiye Taeyanpaha, Fort Trotten, North Dakota. July 15, 1909 September 15, 1910 October 15, 1911 January-February 1925.

Springfield Republican, Springfield, Massachusetts. August 30, 1895.

Stars and Stripes, Germany. May 8, 1945 January 3, 1946.

(Note: printed for U.S armed forces in Europe).

The Weekly Examiner, San Francisco, California. November 6, 1908.

(Note: includes coverage of the election of William H. Taft.)

The Washington Post, Washington, D.C. January 21, 1936.

(Note: includes the death of King George V, and mine shaft explosion in Colorado.)

Yates County Chronicle, Penn Yan, New York. December 9, 1925.

(Note: includes article on life of Marcus Whitman.)

Series 5: International (1721-1850)

Subseries 5.1: England (1721-1840)

The Antigallican Monitor, and Anti-Corsican Chronicle , England.

(Note: 1817 issues covers the death of Princess Charlotte Augusta and her infant 1818 issues document the death of Queen Charlotte 1812 issue documents the assassination of a British Prime Minister, Spencer Perceval.)

May 17, July 5-19, August 23, 1812

November 9, 1817-July 18, 1819

The Clemsford Chronicle, Clemsford, England. August 15, 1783-December 31, 1784 (incomplete, bound).

The Country Journal: Or, The Craftsman, London, England. June 10, 1727-May 5, 1739 (incomplete, bound).

The Courier, London, England. July 1-December 30, 1820 (incomplete, bound).

The Daily Post, London, England. December 31, 1723.

The Diary or, Woodfall's Register, London, England. March 3, 1790 March 4, 1790.

The English Chronicle Or, Universal Evening Post, London, England. January 1-22, 1789.

The Examiner, London, England. July 23, 1815.

(Note: issue features the surrender of Napoleon Bonaparte.)

The Globe, London, England. November 28, 1808 May 9, 1809 September 16, 1812.

The Grub-Street Journal, London, England. August 6, 1730-October 25, 1733 (incomplete).

Illustrated London News, London, England. August 2, 1856 May 15, 1915 May 29, 1915.

(Note: 1856 issues include two color prints 1915 issues document the sinking of the Lusitania and World War I battles.)

John Bull, London, England. January 13, 1839 January 20, 1839.

Lincoln, Rutland and Stamford Mercury, Lincolnshire, England.

January 24, 1794-December 28, 1798 (incomplete, bound).

1799-1801 (incomplete, bound).

Liverpool Mercury, or Commercial, Literary, and Political Herald, Liverpool, England. October 1, 1819.

The London Chronicle, London, England.

December 31, 1757-July 1, 1758 (incomplete, bound)

July 1-November 28, 1758 (incomplete, bound)

January 19-December 25, 1760 (incomplete, bound)

December 30-June 30, 1761 (incomplete, bound)

June 30-September 26, 1761 (incomplete, bound)

April 14, 1770-April 14, 1817 (incomplete)

The London Evening-Post, London, England.

July 29-December 27, 1755 (incomplete)

August 5, 1756-October 29, 1757 (incomplete, bound)

The London Gazette, London, England. October 1715 September 1863

The London Journal, London, England. May 13, 1721-August 8, 1724 November 6, 1731 (incomplete).

Lloyd's Evening Post, London, England. November 23, 1761-November 1, 1780, (incomplete).

The Manchester Guardian, Manchester, England. July 4, 1934.

Supplement to the Manchester Guardian, Manchester, England. November 22, 1876.

Middlesex Journal Or Chronicle of Liberty, London, England. April 4-December 30, 1769 (incomplete, bound).

Mist's Weekly Journal or Fog's Weekly Journal, London, England. February 10, 1728.

The Morning Chronicle, London, England. December 17, 1792-August 25, 1820 (incomplete, partially bound).

The Morning Herald, London, England. April 1, 1790-September 26, 1798 (incomplete).

Pasquin, London, England. July 5, 1723.

The Penny London Post or, The Morning Advertiser, London, England. January 23 and 25, 1750 (single issue).

The Salisbury and Winchester Journal, Salisbury, England.

(Note: January 1825 issues include coverage of the death of Frederick, Duke of York.)

May 8, 1775-October 11, 1779 (incomplete)

April 3-December 25, 1780 (incomplete, bound)

February 26, 1781-May 16, 1796 (incomplete)

January 30-December 25, 1809 (incomplete, bound)

January 1, 1810-December 30, 1811 (incomplete, partially bound)

January 6-December 28, 1812 (incomplete, bound)

January 6, 1817-December 28, 1818 (incomplete, bound)

January 4, 1819-December 25, 1820 (incomplete, bound)

January 1, 1821-December 30, 1822 (incomplete, bound)

January 7, 1822-December 27, 1824 (incomplete, bound)

January 3, 1825-December 31, 1827 (incomplete, bound)

August 19-December 30, 1833 (incomplete, bound)

The St. James's Evening Post, London, England. August 1-December 22, 1747 (incomplete).

The St. James Chronicle or British Evening-Post, London, England.

July 16-September 15, 1763 (incomplete, bound)

April 3-December 29, 1764 (incomplete, bound)

January 1-December 31, 1765 (incomplete, bound)

January 8-December 22, 1767 (incomplete, bound)

July 12, 1770 December 29, 1770

January 4-December 26, 1772 (incomplete, bound)

June 29-December 30, 1775 (incomplete, bound)

December 30, 1777-December 31, 1778 (incomplete, bound)

The Star, London, England. October 5, 1792-February 2, 1793 (incomplete).

The Sun, London, England.

(Note: includes coverage of death of Queen Charlotte.)

January 1-May 10, 1794 (incomplete, bound).

(Note: front pastedown contains a subscription list for the monument to Lord Nelson.)

January 1-December 31, 1795 (incomplete, bound)

January 23, 1796 September 23, 1796 October 19, 1796

January 31-December 30, 1797 (incomplete, bound)

January 2-June 27, 1799 (incomplete, bound)

July 2-December 30, 1799 (incomplete, bound)

October 29, 1800 November 30, 1805 January 2, 1806 June 25, 1831

The True Briton. London, England. September 27, 1723.

The Weekly Journal or Saturday's Post, London, England. February 25, 1721-January 16, 1725 (incomplete).

The World, London, England. May 29, 1789.

Subseries 5.2: Other International (1763-1939)

The Advertiser, Adelaide, South Australia. September 1, 1936.

(Note: special centenary issue.)

El Alca'zar (The Citadel), Madrid, Spain. July 20-August 26, 1939 (incomplete).

Arriba, Madrid, Spain. July 18, 1939.

The Broadford Courier and Reedy Creek Times, Broadford, Victoria, Australia. April 26, 1901.

Der Bazar, Illustrirte Damen-Zeitung, Berlin, Germany. December 15, 1871-December 14, 1891 (incomplete).

(Note: fashion magazine with many illustrations, including patterns.)

The Calgary Daily Herald, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. February 21, 1914.

(Note: issue includes photographs of the town of Redcliff.)

The China Mail, Hong Kong, China. May 30, 1879.

El Correo Espanol: El Pueblo Vasco (The Spanish Mail: the Basque People), Bilboa, Spain. July 13, 1939.

Diario de Lisboa (Newspaper of Lisboa), Lisboa, Portugal. September 12-14, 1939.

Diario de Manha (Newspaper of Manha), Lisbon, Portugal. September 12, 1939.

Diario de Noticias, Lisboa, Portugal. September 13-15, 1939.

La Gaceta del Norte (The Gazette of the North), Bilboa, Spain. July 13, 1939.

The Gundagai Times, New South Wales, Australia. December 26, 1900.

The Herald, Melbourne, Australia. October 15, 1934.

(Note: special centenary issue.)

The Hindu, Madras, India. April 11, 1901.

Hoja Oficial del Lunes (Official Sheet of Monday), Madrid, Spain. July 17, 24, 31, 1939.

Hoja Oficial de la Provinca de Barcelona (Official Sheet of the Province of Barcelona), Barcelona, Spain. September 4, 1939.

Ideal, Granada, Spain. August 18, 1939.

Informaciones, Madrid, Spain. July 17, 1939 August 22, 1939.

The Japan Herald Mail Summary, Yokohama, Japan. March 21, 1883.

Lavante. Valencia del Cid, Spain. August 17, 1939.

Madrid Diario de la Noche (Madrid Diary of the Night), Madrid, Spain. August 21, 1939.

Le Moniteur Universel. Paris, France.

January 1-December 31, 1831 (incomplete, bound)

January 1-June 30, 1815 (incomplete, bound)

El Noticiero Universal: Diario de la Noche (The Universal Newscaster: Newspaper of the Night), Barcelona, Spain. August 28-September 5, 1939 (incomplete).

The North Queensland Herald, Townsville, Australia. March 18, 1901.

El Pensamiento Navarro, Pamplona, Spain. July 15, 1939.

Pinang Gazette and Straits Chronicle, Penang, Malaya. January 17, 1901.

Polonia, Espana, Tanger, Spanish Morocco. July 8, 1939.

The Public Register: Or, Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Ireland. September 7, 1763-June 4, 1768 (incomplete).

The San Juan News, San Juan, Porto Rico (Puerto Rico).

April 2, 1901-June 30, 1902 (incomplete, bound)

October 1-December 31, 1901 (incomplete, bound)

April 1-June 29, 1902 (incomplete, bound)

July 4-September 30, 1903 (incomplete, partially bound)

July 1-September 26, 1903 (incomplete, bound)

Scottish Daily Express, Glasgow, Scotland. June 1-6, 1953.

(Note: souvenir bound set of six issues from the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II).

Sin wa pao (Daily News), Shanghai, China. May 19, 1901.

Solidaridad Nacional: Diario de la Revolucion Nacional Sindicalista (National Solidarity: Newspaper of the National Union Revolution), Barcelona, Spain. September 2, 1939.

The Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, Australia. March 19, 1923.

Unidad, San Sebastian, Spain. July 11, 1939.

La Vanguardia, Barcelona, Spain. August 29, 1939 September 1-5, 1939.

La Voz de Espana: Por Dios, por Espana y por Franco (The Voice of Spain: For God, for Spain and for Franco). San Sebastian, Spain. July 9-15, 1939 (incomplete).

The Waipawa Mail, Waipawa, Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. April 16, 1901.

Ya (Already), Madrid, Spain. July 21, 1939 August 25, 1939.

Zeitbilder: Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Berlin, Germany. October 29, 1939.

Watch the video: 3nach9 am 19. Februar (June 2022).


  1. Nilmaran

    And it doesn't happen like that))))

  2. Corrado

    What does it plan?

  3. Vudojar

    I fully share her point of view. Great idea, I agree.

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