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11:00AM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT receive the Presidential Daily Briefing
11:45AM THE PRESIDENT meets with senior advisors
2:10PM THE PRESIDENT honors the 2013 Stanley Cup Champion Chicago Blackhawks
The East Room
4:15PM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT meet with Secretary of Defense Hagel
6:15PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks at an Organizing for Action event
The St. Regis, Washington, DC
Pooled for TV, Open to Pre-Credentialed Correspondents
7:20PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks and answers questions at an Organizing for Action dinner
The St. Regis, Washington, DC
Mischief Night is an informal holiday on which children and teenagers engage in pranks and vandalism. It is known by a variety of names including Devil's Night, Gate Night, Goosey Night, Moving Night, Cabbage Night and Mat Night. 
|Also called||Devil's Night|
|Observed by||Children, teenagers|
|Date||30 October (sometimes 4 November, 1 May)|
The meaning of Diwali—and its many legends
Diwali is so widely celebrated—it’s an important religious festival for Hindus, but is also observed among Jains, Sikhs, and Buddhists—that it has no single origin story. But while each religion has its own historical narrative behind the holiday, they all ultimately represent the victory of good over evil.
Diwali: Festival of Lights
In Hinduism alone—which is considered the world’s oldest living religion, dating back to the second millennium B.C.—there are several versions of the Diwali story that vary among geographic communities. These, however, are all epic tales of victory won by men who were considered incarnations of the Hindu god Vishnu, regarded as the sustainer of the universe, and whose role it is to restore the balance of good and evil in times of trouble.
In northern India, Diwali commemorates Prince Rama’s triumphant return to the city of Ayodhya after 14 years of exile due to the plotting of his evil stepmother—and after a heroic rescue of his wife Sita, an incarnation of the goddess Lakshmi, who had been kidnapped by the rival king Ravana.
In South India, meanwhile, Diwali honors the victory of Lord Krishna over the demon king Narakasura, who had imprisoned 16,000 women in his palace and meted out harsh punishments to any of his subjects who dared stand up against him. And in western India, the festival celebrates Vishnu’s banishment of King Bali—whose immense power had become a threat to the gods—to the underworld.
Sikhs, Jains, and Buddhists, three minority religions in India, have their own Diwali stories. For Sikhs, whose religion arose in the late 15th century as a movement within Hinduism that is particularly devoted to Vishnu, Diwali commemorates the release of the 17th-century guru Hargobind after 12 years of imprisonment by Mughal emperor Jahangir. Jains, whose ancient religion dates back to the middle of the first century B.C. and also shares many of the beliefs of Hinduism, observe Diwali as the day that Lord Mahavira, the last of the great Jain teachers, reached nirvana. And Buddhists, whose religion emerged in the late 6th century B.C. in what some describe as a reaction to Hinduism, celebrate it as the day the Hindu Emperor Ashoka, who ruled in the third century B.C., converted to Buddhism.
Beyond these stories, Diwali is also a celebration of the Hindu goddess of wealth and good fortune, Lakshmi. In India’s early agrarian society, Diwali coincided with the last harvest before winter—a time to pray for Lakshmi for good fortune. Today, Indian businesses still consider Diwali the first day of the financial new year.
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Proper 28 (33)
Twenty-Third Sunday after Pentecost
November 13, 2022
65:17 For I am about to create new heavens and a new earth the former things shall not be remembered or come to mind.
65:18 But be glad and rejoice forever in what I am creating for I am about to create Jerusalem as a joy, and its people as a delight.
65:19 I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and delight in my people no more shall the sound of weeping be heard in it, or the cry of distress.
65:20 No more shall there be in it an infant that lives but a few days, or an old person who does not live out a lifetime for one who dies at a hundred years will be considered a youth, and one who falls short of a hundred will be considered accursed.
65:21 They shall build houses and inhabit them they shall plant vineyards and eat their fruit.
65:22 They shall not build and another inhabit they shall not plant and another eat for like the days of a tree shall the days of my people be, and my chosen shall long enjoy the work of their hands.
65:23 They shall not labor in vain, or bear children for calamity for they shall be offspring blessed by the LORD-- and their descendants as well.
65:24 Before they call I will answer, while they are yet speaking I will hear.
65:25 The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, the lion shall eat straw like the ox but the serpent--its food shall be dust! They shall not hurt or destroy on all my holy mountain, says the LORD.
12:1 You will say in that day: I will give thanks to you, O LORD, for though you were angry with me, your anger turned away, and you comforted me.
12:2 Surely God is my salvation I will trust, and will not be afraid, for the LORD GOD is my strength and my might he has become my salvation.
12:3 With joy you will draw water from the wells of salvation.
12:4 And you will say in that day: Give thanks to the LORD, call on his name make known his deeds among the nations proclaim that his name is exalted.
12:5 Sing praises to the LORD, for he has done gloriously let this be known in all the earth.
12:6 Shout aloud and sing for joy, O royal Zion, for great in your midst is the Holy One of Israel.
4:1 See, the day is coming, burning like an oven, when all the arrogant and all evildoers will be stubble the day that comes shall burn them up, says the LORD of hosts, so that it will leave them neither root nor branch.
4:2a But for you who revere my name the sun of righteousness shall rise, with healing in its wings.
98:1 O sing to the LORD a new song, for he has done marvelous things. His right hand and his holy arm have gotten him victory.
98:2 The LORD has made known his victory he has revealed his vindication in the sight of the nations.
98:3 He has remembered his steadfast love and faithfulness to the house of Israel. All the ends of the earth have seen the victory of our God.
98:4 Make a joyful noise to the LORD, all the earth break forth into joyous song and sing praises.
98:5 Sing praises to the LORD with the lyre, with the lyre and the sound of melody.
98:6 With trumpets and the sound of the horn make a joyful noise before the King, the LORD.
98:7 Let the sea roar, and all that fills it the world and those who live in it.
98:8 Let the floods clap their hands let the hills sing together for joy
98:9 at the presence of the LORD, for he is coming to judge the earth. He will judge the world with righteousness, and the peoples with equity.
2 Thessalonians 3:6-13
3:6 Now we command you, beloved, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to keep away from believers who are living in idleness and not according to the tradition that they received from us.
3:7 For you yourselves know how you ought to imitate us we were not idle when we were with you,
3:8 and we did not eat anyone's bread without paying for it but with toil and labor we worked night and day, so that we might not burden any of you.
3:9 This was not because we do not have that right, but in order to give you an example to imitate.
3:10 For even when we were with you, we gave you this command: Anyone unwilling to work should not eat.
3:11 For we hear that some of you are living in idleness, mere busybodies, not doing any work.
3:12 Now such persons we command and exhort in the Lord Jesus Christ to do their work quietly and to earn their own living.
3:13 Brothers and sisters, do not be weary in doing what is right.
21:5 When some were speaking about the temple, how it was adorned with beautiful stones and gifts dedicated to God, he said,
21:6 "As for these things that you see, the days will come when not one stone will be left upon another all will be thrown down."
21:7 They asked him, "Teacher, when will this be, and what will be the sign that this is about to take place?"
21:8 And he said, "Beware that you are not led astray for many will come in my name and say, 'I am he!' and, 'The time is near!' Do not go after them.
21:9 "When you hear of wars and insurrections, do not be terrified for these things must take place first, but the end will not follow immediately."
21:10 Then he said to them, "Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom
21:11 there will be great earthquakes, and in various places famines and plagues and there will be dreadful portents and great signs from heaven.
21:12 "But before all this occurs, they will arrest you and persecute you they will hand you over to synagogues and prisons, and you will be brought before kings and governors because of my name.
21:13 This will give you an opportunity to testify.
21:14 So make up your minds not to prepare your defense in advance
21:15 for I will give you words and a wisdom that none of your opponents will be able to withstand or contradict.
21:16 You will be betrayed even by parents and brothers, by relatives and friends and they will put some of you to death.
21:17 You will be hated by all because of my name.
21:18 But not a hair of your head will perish.
21:19 By your endurance you will gain your souls.
The online Revised Common Lectionary is a project of the Vanderbilt Divinity Library, a division of the Jean and Alexander Heard Libraries.
Cost of feeding a family of four: $146 to $289 a week
The cost of feeding a family of four a healthy diet can run $146 to $289 a week, according to the latest numbers from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
That's based on preparing all the meals and snacks at home for a couple with two school-aged children. It doesn't include one-dollar deals at fast-food restaurants or splurges at pricey restaurants.
The USDA uses national food intake data and grocery price information to calculate different costs for a healthy diet at home. The latest numbers for a four-member family: a thrifty food plan, $146 a week a low-cost food plan, $191 a week a moderate-cost plan, $239 a liberal plan, $289 a week. Some food waste is built into these costs.
"We constantly hear the claim that you can't eat healthy on a budget, and to us that's a myth because a family can eat a healthy diet with fruits and vegetables that meets the Dietary Guidelines for Americans," says Robert Post, associate executive director of the USDA's Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.
Costs today are up from 10 years ago, when a thrifty-cost food plan for a family of four was $108 a low-cost food plan, $139 moderate-cost plan, $173 a liberal plan, $208 a week.
The price of a moderate-cost healthy plan went up 38% between 2003 and 2013, says Mark Lino, a USDA economist. The cost of food in general went up 32%, he says. During that time period, inflation was about 26%, he says.
But you do have to use "smart shopping strategies" like the ones on www.choosemyplate.gov, Post says.
The thrifty plan is used as the basis of SNAP, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, formerly known as food stamps. Eating a healthy diet on that amount of money means buying the lowest-cost fruits and vegetables such as bananas, apples, carrots, potatoes and greens, says Lino. People who spend the higher amounts on food can buy more expensive fruits and vegetables and even pre-cut and pre-washed ones, he says.
The liberal plan allows for more expensive cuts of meat and types of seafood. It does not allow more desserts such as chocolate cake or cheesecake because it represents a nutritious diet, Lino says. The limit for calories from solid fats and added sugars is the same in all the plans.
Registered dietitians who work with families and dieters say how much people spend on food depends on their income, how much they budget for groceries, where they live and a number of other factors.
It is possible to eat healthfully on $146 a week, but you can't do it without planning, says Bethany Thayer of Detroit, a registered dietitian and spokeswoman for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. You have to shop sales, buy produce in season, purchase store brands and buy canned and frozen vegetables when they are on sale. Buying store brands instead of national brands can save you up to 30%, she says.
To eat cheaply at home you have to make an investment of time to plan meals, grocery shop, cook and prepare the food, says Tami Ross, a nutrition expert in Lexington, Ky., and co-author of Diabetes Meals on $7 a Day — or Less!, written with Patti Geil.
She advises her patients to plan for five evening meals a week and then have a night or two to clear out the refrigerator of leftovers or incorporate what she calls planned-overs.
Planned-overs are taking one main food, such as chicken, and using it several different ways throughout the week. You can serve it as an entree one night and then other nights put it on top of a green salad or incorporate it in soups, wraps, casseroles or chicken salad. That way you aren't eating the exact same thing but you don't waste food, she says. "Throwing food away is like throwing money in the trash can."
Ross also tells patients to think of meat as the side dish, not the centerpiece of their meal, because it's often the most costly part of the meal.
Thayer points out that there are many inexpensive protein choices — beans, eggs, peanut butter and other nut butters, she says. And when it comes to inexpensive whole grains, you can eat store-brand old-fashioned oatmeal for 9 cents a serving, she says.
"People spend a lot of money in the grocery store on their beverages," Thayer says. To save money, your beverages should be tap water and low-fat or fat-free milk, she says.
Elizabeth Ward, a registered dietitian in Boston and author of MyPlate for Moms, says you can save both time and money with simple meals. An omelet with vegetables, whole-grain toast, fruit and milk is a relatively low-cost meal. So is a grilled cheese sandwich on whole-grain bread, green salad and fruit.
Make a list to take to the store to cut costs, but it's OK to deviate from it for sale items that you know you will use.
To avoid waste, take leftovers for lunch the next day, Ward says. "For me, that's the best part of cooking dinner — you get lunch, too."
Thayer adds that people also can eat inexpensively on value meals and fast-food fare, but there's a tradeoff. "Processed food and fast food offer a lot of calories for the dollar but not a lot of nutrients. That's one reason we have people who are overweight but undernourished."
November 4, 2013 Day 289 of the Fifth Year - History
The fifth of November,
The Gunpowder treason and plot
I know of no reason
Why the Gunpowder treason
Should ever be forgot!
Guy Fawkes and his companions
Did the scheme contrive,
To blow the King and Parliament
All up alive.
Threescore barrels, laid below,
To prove old England's overthrow.
But, by God's providence, him they catch,
With a dark lantern, lighting a match!
A stick and a stake
For King James's sake!
If you won't give me one,
I'll take two,
The better for me,
And the worse for you.
A rope, a rope, to hang the Pope,
A penn'orth of cheese to choke him,
A pint of beer to wash it down,
And a jolly good fire to burn him.
Holloa, boys! holloa, boys! make the bells ring!
Holloa, boys! holloa boys! God save the King!
Hip, hip, hooor-r-r-ray!
Perhaps most widely known in America from its use in the movie V for Vendetta , versions of the above poem have been wide spread in England for centuries. They celebrate the foiling of (Catholic) Guy Fawkes's attempt to blow up (Protestant controlled) England's House of Parliament on November 5th, 1605. Known variously as Guy Fawkes Day , Gunpowder Treason Day , and Fireworks Night , the November 5th celebrations in some time periods included the burning of the Pope or Guy Fawkes in effigy.
This traditional verse exists in a large number of variations and the above version has been constructed to give a flavor for the major themes that appear in them. Several of the books referenced below cite even earlier sources.
Lines 1-6 are as in Moore and Lloyd (1990 pg. 14). They differ from Chambers (1888 pg. 550) only in the third line ("There is. " instead of "I know of. "). "I know. " but not "I know of. " occurs in Thiselton-Dyer (1876 pg. 413, Northamptonshire).
Lines 7-14 follow the order of the dialect version in Northall (1892, pg. 248, Lowsley). The wording used is from Thistleton-Dyer (1876, pg 413, Northamptonshire) for lines 7-10 and 13-14, and J.C.R (1857) for lines 11-12.
Lines 15-20 are taken from Thiselton-Dyer (1876 pg. 414, Oxfordshire). They differ from Chambers (1888 pg 550) only in line 16 ("Victoria" instead of "King James").
Lines 21-24 are taken from McDowall (1908) except that "roast" in line 24 has been replaced with the "burn" found in Hems (1908) and Thistelton-Dyer (1876, pg. 414, Oxfordshire). Hems differs in line 22 ("A pound. " instead of "A penn'orth"). Thiselton-Dyer differs in line 21 with "A penn'orth of bread to feed the Pope" instead of the hanging, and in line 24 with ". a good old faggot. " instead of ". a jolly good fire. "
Lines 25-27 are taken from Thiselton-Dyer (1876, pg. 413, Northamptonshire), except that "Hollo" in lines 25 and 26 has been replaced by the "Holloa" in McDowall (1908), the last line of "Hurrah" has been replaced by what is found in J.C.R. (1857), and "king" has been capitalized. J.C.R. uses "Holla" instead of "Holloa" and has "make your voice ring" in the line 25 instead of the bells. McDowall has "Queen" instead of "King" in its version of line 26.
While not all eight cited versions contain all five groupings of lines, the "verses" present in each of the eight appear relative to each other in the order used above.
The New Fire Ceremony
At the end of each 52-year cycle, the Aztec priests carried out the New Fire Ceremony, or "binding of the years." The legend of the five suns predicted the end of a calendar cycle, but it was not known which cycle would be the last one. The Aztec people would clean their houses, discarding all household idols, cooking pots, clothing, and mats. During the last five days, fires were extinguished and the people climbed on their roofs to await the fate of the world.
On the last day of the calendar cycle, the priests would climb the Star Mountain, today known in Spanish as Cerro de la Estrella, and watch the rise of the Pleiades to ensure it followed its normal path. A fire drill was placed through the heart of a sacrificial victim if the fire could not be lit, the myth said, the sun would be destroyed forever. The successful fire was then brought to Tenochtitlan to relight hearths throughout the city. According to the Spanish chronicler Bernardo Sahagun, the New Fire ceremony was conducted every 52 years in villages throughout the Aztec world.
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Novavax, Inc., a biotechnology company, focuses on the discovery, development, and commercialization of vaccines to prevent serious infectious diseases and address health needs. The company's vaccine candidates include NVX-CoV2373, a coronavirus vaccine candidate that is in two Phase III trials, one Phase IIb trial, and one Phase I/II trial NanoFlu, a nanoparticle seasonal quadrivalent influenza vaccine candidate that is in Phase 3 clinical trial and ResVax, a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion (F) protein nanoparticle vaccine candidate. It is also developing RSV F vaccine that is in Phase II clinical trial for older adults (60 years and older), as well as that is in Phase I clinical trial for pediatrics. In addition, the company develops vaccine candidates for the protection against middle east respiratory syndrome, as well as that is in preclinical work associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome and ebola virus glycoprotein vaccine candidate, as well as COVID-19 vaccine for variant strain. It has a collaboration agreement with Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited for the development, manufacturing, and commercialization of NVX-CoV2373, a COVID-19 vaccine candidate. Novavax, Inc. was incorporated in 1987 and is headquartered in Gaithersburg, Maryland.
November 4, 2013 Day 289 of the Fifth Year - History
SUBTOPIC: Day of the Dead, or "Dia de los Muertos"
GRADE LEVEL: 4th - 5th grade
Day of the Dead also called "Dia de los Muertos," is a holiday (or festival) which is celebrated in Mexico, Ecuador, Guatemala, and other areas in Central and South America populated with the Latino ethnic background. The Day of the Dead is also celebrated in areas of the United States, such as California, Texas, and many others, in which the Mexican/American heritage exists.
November 2nd is the official date for Day of the Dead, although it is celebrated between October 31st and November 2nd. These dates correspond with the Catholic celebrations of All Saints Day and All Souls Day. This correspondence results from the Catholic Church's efforts to "find similarities between the indigenous and Christian beliefs." This celebration has a complex history that has been transformed through the years. Today the celebration takes place at about the same time ancient corn festivals were celebrated, when food from a plentiful harvest was shared with the deceased. Now certain customs vary within different regions. The best way to describe this holiday is to say it is a time when family members who have died are remembered. In Mexico, this festival is considered to be the most important holiday of the year.
Although this celebration is associated with the dead, it is not portrayed as a morbid or depressing time, but rather a period full of life, happiness, color, food, family, and fun. There is excitement everywhere. In many areas, outdoor markets are displayed in which they sell many symbolic goods, such as special breads, flowers, pottery, baskets, candles, paper puppets, candy skulls, etc. The main symbols of this holiday are skulls and skeletons, which are displayed throughout the cities. Scenes of skeletons hugging, marching, dancing, and laughing are seen in window displays on the streets. Marigolds are another significant symbol for the Day of the Dead festivity, and are known as the "flower of the dead." Their scent is believed to "attract the souls and draw them back."
People celebrate this holiday in their households, as well as in the cemeteries. In their homes, between Oct. 31st and Nov. 2nd (a time called "Todos Santos"), offerings of food and drink are prepared for the dead. "Ofrendas" (offerings) are often set up in the home on an altar displaying portraits, personal goods, clothing, favorite foods, and possessions of the deceased family member. Sometimes they are shown at the gravesites as well. On Nov. 2nd, family members visit the gravesites of their loved ones. They decorate their graves with flowers, enjoy picnics consisting of favorite foods of the deceased, and socially interact with others at the cemetery. This is an important social ritual that the Latino people see as "a way of recognizing the cycle of life and death that is human existence." In certain areas, an all-night candlelight vigil takes place by the graves of the family members. The whole occasion is festive, and everyone talks of the dead as if they were still alive. During this time, people "remember, re-live, and enjoy."
The common foods eaten on this holiday include pan de los muertos ("bread of the dead"), which is flat bread baked in the shape of skulls and crossbones. It is said to be good luck to be the one who bites into the plastic toy skeleton hidden by the baker in each loaf. Candy in the shape of skulls, skeletons, and coffins, and many favorite Mexican dishes (tamales, moles, chiles, enchiladas) are consumed as well.
This holiday is believed to "welcome the souls of the dead." The souls are said to return each year to enjoy the pleasures that they once had in life. They are thought to return to be with their living relatives for a few brief hours each year in this world, but come as spirits who have returned from another world. A widely held belief is that the souls of the children ("angelitos") return first, and food and gifts appropriate for their age and taste will be set out for them. Everything is in miniature: cups, plates, small breads, etc. The adult dead are said to return on Nov. 1st and they are given the most elaborate foods and drinks the family can afford. It is believed that the candle light, as well as the scents of the marigold flowers and the copal incense, help the returning souls find their way back. Sometimes paths of marigold petals are scattered by the family from the cemetery to the door of the house. The ghosts can find their way by following this yellow path. The ghosts (or spirits) are not usually seen, but their presence is felt.
There are folktales believed and told that say the dead spirits will get revenge on the living if they get poor treatment during these days each year. Leaving nothing (or inferior gifts) on the altar causes the spirits to be angry or sad. These superstitions inspire many people to participate in this holiday celebration for this very reason.
The Day of the Dead can range from an important cultural event, to a religious ceremony emphasizing the actual worship of the dead, to just a unique Mexican holiday symbolized by special foods and candy. In Mexico, the more urban the setting, the less the religious and cultural importance is recognized by the people. The more rural and "Indian" the setting, the greater is the religious importance of the holiday. Therefore, this celebration is usually of greater social importance in southern Mexico than in the northern part of the country.
Today, the Day of the Dead is a cherished, complex holiday celebration where death is seen as life. The common principle for this holiday is "whatever pleased the dead in life they are to have again." It is a holiday when the whole family comes together - both living and dead. This holiday festivity is believed to be a time for the departed to join the living in the celebrations of the "continuum of life."
Carmichael, Elizabeth and Sayer, Choloe. (1992). The Skeleton At The Feast - The Day of the Dead in Mexico . Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.
Dobler, Lavinia. (1962). Customs and Holidays around the World . New York: Fleet Publishing Corp.
Kalish, Richard A. (1980). Death and Dying: Views from Many Cultures . New York: Baywood Publishing Company, Inc.
Linton, Ralph. (1950). Halloween Through Twenty Centuries . New York: Henry Schuman.
Pofahl, Jane. (1996). The Time Traveler Series - Mexico . Grand Rapids, Michigan: Instructional Fair.
Meyerson, Allen R. "Caressing Life on the Day of the Dead," The New York Times , November 4, 1995, p. 9.
Weibel, Michael R. "El Dia De Los Muertos," The Herald Journal , November 10, 1996, p. 21.
(1995) CL Net Folklore/Customs/Traditions Web Page. [On-line]. Available: http://latino.sscnet.ucla.edu/research/folklore.html
Robinson, Barbara Curator, Boeckmann Center. El Dia de los Muertos. [On-line]. Available: http://www-lib.usc.edu/Info/Boeck/Dead/index.html
Memminger, Keith. "Ghostly Remedy." [On-line]. Available: http://18.104.22.168/WWW/hispano/fiesta.html
The Day of the Dead. [On-line]. Available: http://ted.ele.madison.tec.wi.us/ dead.html
Glossary of words for Day of the Dead. [On-line]. Available: http://www-lib.usc. edu/Boeck/Dead/day_dead_glossary.html
(1995) EgoWeb. Felip's Day of Dead Page. [On-line]. Available: http://edb 518ea.edb.utexas.edu/cyberraza/muertos.html
What do Mexicans celebrate on the "Day of the Dead?" [On-line]. Available: http://www.Public.iastate.edu/
Dia de los Muertos. [On-line]. Available: http://star.ucc.nau.edu/FLI/ DDLM/Dia.html
- Students will recognize that certain cultures have celebrations unique to them.
- Students will recognize that a holiday celebrated by one ethnic culture may be honored in many countries as the cultural group disperses among different areas.
- Students will become familiar with a foreign language present in the Latino culture, and will be able to pronounce some words, as well as identify their meanings.
- Students will create their own poems about a cultural celebration.
- Students will participate in a field trip to a cemetery, and recognize the significance of the grounds in relation to a particular cultural celebration (Day of the Dead).
- Students will recognize that certain values and beliefs may be shared and reinforced through a celebration.
TIME ALLOTMENT: Approximately 3 or 4 days, completing 2 or 3 activities per day (preferably the week of Halloween).
- pictures and overheads prepared for lesson (can get from The Skeleton At the Feast - look in references)
- salt dough (see Appendix for recipe)
- cooking sheets for dough
- cupcakes for every student (2 with candy skulls or skeletons inside)
- tarp or blanket to sit on at cemetery
- 2 crowns for king and queen
- paints for the salt dough skull sculptures
- materials for classroom altar (portraits, personal possessions, foods, etc.)
- world map
- writing paper
- "La ofrenda" activity sheets (2)
- "Calveras" poem
- "Pan de Muertos" recipe "Ghostly Remedy"
- Glossary of Spanish vocabulary words for Day of the Dead
A . Inquire, Discuss, and Display Altar . Ask students questions such as "Have you ever had a picnic in a cemetery? Have you ever baked a cake for someone who is no longer living? Have you ever remembered the dead with joy instead of sadness?" Discuss the students answers, and explain how these are some events that take place during the Day of the Dead celebration. Present and familiarize the students with the classroom altar, explain its components (make sure it is an ethnic altar, not a religious altar), and how it relates to the holiday celebration.
B . Mini-lecture . Explain when and where the Day of the Dead is celebrated. Show the students on a world map where the areas and countries in which it is honored are located. Be sure to explain to the students that there are areas in the U.S. that celebrate this holiday as well. Share information about this holiday. Check for understanding with questions and review ideas as needed. Ask students to draw a picture resembling something they remember about this holiday.
C . Art Project . Review information about the holiday symbols. Show pictures displaying some of these symbols, and focus on the decorative skulls. Explain to students that they are going to be designing a skull sculpture of their own out of the salt dough provided. Tell them that once their sculpture is molded, they need to be baked in the oven over night, and then they can paint and decorate them the following day. Show them examples of different skulls.
D . Designing and Decorating Skulls . After the skulls have been baked in the oven, display pictures of some elaborate skulls that are seen during the Day of the Dead celebration. Focus on the different colors, shapes, and designs that the skulls have, in order to help the students get ideas for decorating their own skull sculpture. Provide paints and allow them to decorate their sculpture.
E . Spanish Integration . Describe how the Spanish language ties into this celebration. Introduce some Spanish words relating to the Day of the Dead celebration to expand the students' Spanish vocabulary, write them on the board, and have the students practice the pronunciation of each word. Use words such as:
- flores - flowers
- ofrenda - offering
- dulces - candies
- calavera - literally skull or imaginary and satirical obituaries which appear in newspapers or satirical verses
- naranjas - oranges
- calaca - skeleton
- canas - sugar canes
- pan de muertos - Day of the Dead bread
- cultura - culture
- angelitos - young children who have died and are remembered on Day of Dead.
For additional words refer to the " GLOSSARY OF WORDS FOR THE DAY OF THE DEAD" in the appendix . Have students write down the words and the English translations on their paper. Ask students to pair up and practice the pronunciations with each other. Have them quiz one another on the English meanings of each word. To check the students understanding of the new Spanish words, and to practice their math skills, have them complete the activity sheets included in the appendix ( LA OFENDA PAGE 1 AND 2 ). Go over any Spanish words on the activity sheets that the students are not familiar with. Encourage the students to practice the new Spanish vocabulary words at home.
F . Poem Writing . Review the new Spanish vocabulary words. Define the different definitions of "calaveras." Introduce the traditional "CALVERAS" POEM used for the Day of the Dead celebration, and explain what definition is applied to the poem (see appendix for poem). Display the poem on the board or overhead for the students to see. Go over the poem in Spanish and English. Recognize the new Spanish vocabulary words that are included in the poem. Have the class choral read the poem in both Spanish and English. Discuss how there is a rhyming pattern used when read in Spanish, but not in English. Once the students are familiar with this poem, have them write their own poem about the Day of the Dead. An option to consider about the writing topic being the Day of the Dead could be to expand the topic, and allow the students to write their poem about Halloween (considering the idea that the Day of the Dead is a religious holiday in which some students may not feel comfortable writing about). Allow time for the students who want to share their poems with the class to do so. If possible, the teacher can translate a few of the students' poems to Spanish so the students can hear how the rhyming pattern they used in English is not present in Spanish.
G . Field Trip . Make arrangements * to allow the students to go on a field trip to a nearby cemetery. At the cemetery, have the students sit in a circle on a blanket or tarp, and review what they have learned about the Day of the Dead celebration and what takes place in cemeteries during this holiday. Talk about pan de muertos ("bread of the dead"), and review the idea about how the person with the plastic skeleton in their piece of bread is said to have good luck. Tell the students that instead of the bread, we are using cupcakes. Explain that everyone gets a cupcake to eat. The girls will pick from one box, the boys from another. One girl and one boy will have a candy skeleton in their cupcake, which means they will receive good luck and are crowned the king and queen for the day. Eat the cupcakes and present the crowns to the king and queen. Take a walk around the grounds of the cemetery, explore the different styles of headstones from the past to the more recent years, figure out how old people were when they passed away, observe the family burial plots, and note the year of the oldest and most recent deaths. Remember to remind students that they must respect the grounds and the families of the "spirits" who reside there. Back in the classroom discuss the students' observations from the cemetery, and share the recipe for "PAN DE MUERTOS" (recipe is in the appendix), so that students may make it at home.
* The procedures for making arrangements are not outlined because they may vary depending on the location of the school (in which this activity is being conducted) in relation to the cemetery, the school policies, parent volunteers, etc.
H . Reflecting, Sharing, and Closure. After all the previous activities have been completed, have the students do a writing activity focusing on the following question: "What did you learn about spirits or ghosts in relation to the Day of the Dead celebration?" Allow the students who want to share their writing with the class to do so. Discuss the students responses. Share the "GHOSTLY REMEDY" (see appendix) with the students.
- Pictures drawn and completed for the mini-lecture will be assessed.
- Completion of the art project will be assessed.
- "La ofrenda" activity sheets will be assessed.
- Poems will be assessed.
- Participation in the discussion about the observations made at the cemetery will be assessed.
- Reflection writing activity will be assessed.
SALT DOUGH RECIPE (taken from Kids Create - Arts and Crafts by Lori Carlson)
- 1 cup flour
- 1 tablespoon salad oil
- 1 cup water
- 1/2 cup salt
- 2 teaspoons cream of tartar
Combine all ingredients in a large saucepan. Use a wooden spoon to stir over medium heat. Stir constantly to prevent sticking. The mixture will be soupy for several minutes and then suddenly it will stick together and can be stirred into a ball. When it thickens, remove from heat and continue stirring. Turn the hot ball out onto a floured surface, and begin kneading as it cools. This recipe makes nice soft dough that can be colored brightly with food colors (if desired). It keeps in the refrigerator or freezer in a covered container. Use it to play around with or to make small objects which can be air-dried until hard. When dry they can be painted and sprayed with an acrylic sealer.
Love and Compatibility for November 29 Zodiac
Lovers born on November 29 are passionate and persistent. They are very pretentious lovers who know exactly what they are looking for. Unfortunately they are not very aware of where they could find that person so they prefer to focus on other aspects of life and expect love to happen. However their love happens notion includes knowing a person thoroughly before they even start dating. So their love is quite a calculated and cerebral love.
A passionate lover prone to jealousy fits when madly in love. They offer everything they have to their loved one and ask for the same. They are sometimes unpredictable and hard to understand in love. Gentle and loving daydreamer now, but when time comes they will prove to be very dedicated to their family and they are likely to sacrifice many of their dreams for their loved one&rsquos sake. They are most compatible with those born on the 2nd, 5th, 9th, 11th, 14th, 18th, 20th, 23rd, 27th and 29th.
November 29 Zodiac people are very attracted to the other fire signs: Aries and Leo as they tend to share the same vision of life. In life, Sagittarius is constantly seeking for a relaxed and entertaining partner and the most suitable to offer them this is the native from Gemini. Sagittarius is thought to be least compatible with Scorpio. As for the rest of compatibilities between the other star signs and Sagittarius, you know what they say, stars predispose but people dispose.