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Battle of Newburn upon Tyne, 28 August 1640

Battle of Newburn upon Tyne, 28 August 1640


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The English Civil War , Richard Holmes & Peter Young, an early work by one of the country's best known military historians, this is a superb single volume history of the war, from its causes to the last campaigns of the war and on to the end of the protectorate.


Battle of Newburn upon Tyne, 28 August 1640 - History

In 1637, King Charles I and Archbishop Laud Endeavoured to force on Scotland the religious service of the Church of England. They created thirteen bishops in the Church of Scotland, and appointed a service-book to be read by the clergy: but when the Dean of St Giles, at Edinburgh, began to read the new liturgy, such a riot ensued that he and the bishop fled in fear. An order came from the King to enforce the prayers, with the aid of troops if necessary. The stubborn spirit of the Scots was now aroused. In 1638, ninety-five per cent of the nation had signed a document in every parish church, called the ‘National Covenant’, by which they bound themselves to keep their kingdom free from all interference in church matters. After this all Scots were known as ‘Covenanters’ to the English.

Charles marched north in 1639 with an army, and war seemed imminent, but after much talking on both sides, peace was declared, probably more due to their general unpreparedness and Charles’s usual shortage of money. This was known as the ‘Pacification of Berwick’. Afterwards it was obvious to everyone that war would come sooner or later, and both sides took measures accordingly.

The Scots began their preparations and rapidly collected stores, arms and horses. A number of 24 and 42 pounder guns were brought from Holland and the gun and shot forges were put into full operation. Sir Alexander Leslie, who fought as Field Marshal under Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, was given command of the army, while the commander of the artillery was Alexander Hamilton, whose invention of leather guns, did much to win the forthcoming battle.

At Newcastle, Lord Conway was appointed commander of 12, 000 foot and 3,000 horse, who were a very mutinous and discontented body. The rest of the English army lay at York, until the time should come to advance to the North.

The Scots moved first, crossing the river Tweed on 21st August, 1640, when, according to an old custom of the Scottish officers in the German wars, the colonels decided, by throwing dice on a drumhead, who should have the honour of leading the van and treading first on hostile ground. The lot fell to James, Earl of Montrose, the future marquis of gallant but unfortunate memory. All the troops wore the Lowland bonnet with a knot of blue ribbons above the left ear. The old song, ‘All the Blue Bonnets are Bound for the Border’ commemorates this. It has been recorded that it was four in the afternoon when the first regiment crossed the Tweed, but the bells of the English churches were heard chiming midnight before the rear-guard had crossed. The army comprised about 27,000 men, some being armed with bows and arrows, probably the last time they were used in warfare.

They divided the army into three bodies, keeping within sight, about ten miles from each other, during their march through Northumberland. After little opposition they arrived at Eachwick on the evening of the 26th August. It was hot summer weather and the troops soon drank all the wells dry. All the local cattle were commandeered for the army, but were scrupulously paid for.

From there, next day, Leslie sent his drum major and a trumpeter to Newcastle with letters asking for permission to pass through the town. Outside the walls the trumpeter sounded ‘most sweetly thrice’, while the drummer cast out a white flag of silk. Sir Jacob Astley, the Governor, asked him who he was. After being told of their mission Astley, without opening their letters, told them to be gone.

Back at Eachwick, Leslie realized it would be costly, if not impossible to storm Newcastle with its garrison of 15, 000 men: but once across the Tyne he could take the town in the rear, where it was virtually defenceless. Therefore on the evening of the 27th August, 1640, the Scottish army was found encamped upon Heddon Law. Great fires were made in and about their camp, the ground being open moorland with outcrops of coal being plentiful on the spot, so that in the darkness the army seemed to be very large. The Scots invited the country people to come into their camp and made them welcome with expressions of great love, saying that they came to harm no one.

An English regiment had been stationed at Newburn for some time to guard the ford, but on the approach of the Scots, it fell back across the river. A few days before this. Astley had sent out Lloyd, his chief engineer, to make outer defence works at Stella Haugh, and the regiment on the spot began constructing them. There were two separate entrenchments. On a plan of Stella dated 1779, the ground below Hedgefield Church is named the ‘Forts’ and it was near here that a small fortification was placed to guard the two lesser used fords, while a larger entrenchment was constructed opposite the two principal fords further west.

Late on the 27th August, Conway drew out forces from the garrison of Newcastle. The cavalry, 1,500 strong, and 3, 000 infantry marched to Stella, leaving on the way a covering party of foot who encamped in the fields below Whickham Church. This party was to guard against any retreat of the army to Newcastle. On his arrival at Stella, Lord Conway established his headquarters in Stella Hall, while the rest of the army soon completed the two forts on the Haugh. Each fort was garrisoned by four guns and four hundred musketeers. The English troops were not impressed by their defences, for to quote a gloomy soldier’s letter, ‘Their army appeared marching on the hills above the ford when we were drawing into our miserable works in the valley, where we lay so exposed’.

During the night, Leslie had not been idle. His troops were moved to their battle positions, the musketeers being scattered throughout the cottages and hedges of Newburn, while the wooded slopes above the village enabled him to position his batteries without being seen. One battery of heavy guns was situated in front of the church, and another upon the sentinel hill of the village at the east end of Newburn where the sand quarry is now. Scattered among the rushes on the riverbank were dozens of lighter guns, and some were even hoisted to the top of the church tower. These lighter ‘Swedish’ pieces were made of a tin bore, with leather hides strapped around them, and being very light they were easily transportable. They were only good for ten or twelve discharges, but using grape-shot they were murderous at short range. The Scottish baggage train was left under the guard of one regiment at Heddon.

Newburn, a place of note before the Norman Conquest, is the first fordable spot on the Tyne above Newcastle. At the time of the battle the river wound among flat meadows which lay between steep banks for a distance of about half a mile, and which were covered in scrub and gorse bushes. There were four fords here, and a child could cross before the river was dredged. The Newburn Ford, where the bridge is now, was connected to the second one, the Riding Ford. A little further to the east was the Kelso (Kelshy) Ford, a well known ford on the route of the old drove road from Scotland to the south. The Romans are said to have paved the bed of the river here to improve its passage. A quantity of black oak was found there in the last century, evidently belonging to the frame to keep the stones in place. The ford nearest to Stella was named Crummel, an old English name meaning winding or crooked stream: as this was the sharp bend of the river it is self-explanatory. After the visit of Cromwell in later years it was assumed that the name referred to him and so it was generally called the Cromwell Ford.

To the east of the Haughs was Stella Hall, an Elizabethan mansion, the army Headquarters. Some years ago a thatched cottage stood nearby, opposite to the Catholic Church, in which, tradition states, the royalist officers spent the night before the battle. The cottage, which was an inn, was probably used as an officers’ mess. It contained one large room and two smaller ones. We can imagine what a merry night of hard drinking there was the night before the battle, the last carousal many of these gay cavaliers would have on this earth. Later it was given the name ‘Cromwell’s Cottage through it probably having served the same purpose as an officers’ mess during the times when the Protector’s army was encamped on Stella Haughs, on his travels to and from Scotland.

On Wednesday, 26th August, 1640, Lord Conway had sent a messenger to the King, then at York with the rest of the army asking for instructions. The Earl of Strafford prepared a reply to be immediate sent back to him. John Rushworth, the famous author, being newly arrived from London and hearing of the letter, took the opportunity to ride to Newcastle with the messenger. When they arrived there on the morning of Friday, 28th August, they were informed that Conway had gone to the main army near to Newburn. They immediately went there and found the General and the field officers at a council of war in Stella Hall, half a mile distant from the army, and they delivered the letter there accordingly.

The order to Conway were quite sharp and explicit, for he was told that if the Scots tried to cross the Tyne he had to fight them with all means at his disposal. With these direct orders before him, Conway was hardly likely to shirk a battle, but any decision was taken of his hands by events beside the fords. As the council of war was debating the course of action to be taken, Lord George Goring came into the room and said that the Lt. General of the army ‘needed not to have sent order to bid them to fight, whatever came of it, for the enemy had begun the work out of their own hands’.

All through the morning of the 28th, the two armies had watched the other in silence across the river. Just after midday, when the tide was beginning to ebb, Leslie sent a trumpeter across to Conway to assure him that he came without hostile intent, desirous only to approach the King with a petition. He therefore requested that he might pass. Conway replied that he would allow a few to come over with their petition, but he was not empowered to let the whole army across. With this answer the trumpeter returned to Newburn accompanied by the jeers and ribald remarks of the English troops.

Sometime about one o’clock in the afternoon, a Scottish officer, well mounted and wearing a black feather in this hat, came out from one of the thatched cottages in Newburn and rode his horse into the river. While his horse was drinking, an English sentry, perceiving that he seemed to be taking stock of their positions, shot him down with a single musket shot. It was either a tremendous fluke or a jolly good shot by this unknown marksman, considering the inaccuracy of the old smooth bore muskets, but it was the first shot fired in the battle.

Apart from this shot, not a gun had been fired. The water was beginning to get lower and Leslie called up a body of three hundred horses and ordered them to cross the river. The English gunners, at this point, were really on their mettle, and their fire from the forts proved devastating, forcing the Scots to retire. Leslie at once unmasked his batteries, which had so far been unobserved, and poured a hot return fire into the English entrenchments. According to one source, the whole riverbank seemed to be ablaze. For some time (some authorities say for about three hours) the artillery duel was maintained between the guns on both sides of the river. The English gunners were striving to put out of action the Scottish guns firing from Newburn Church Tower. The Scots’ fire badly damaged the larger of the two English forts, the shots plunging into the low-lying position. Colonel Lunsford, who was in command of this fort, restrained his men with great difficulty and kept them at their posts. We must remember that these were raw troops who had not been under fire before. Soon after this, a shot fell into the works, killing about twenty men, some of the officers. Once again, Lunsford had difficulty in restraining the men who were complaining bitterly that they had been on duty all night and that none of the troops at Newcastle had been sent to relieve them, when a second shot dropped into the fort completely demoralizing them. They deserted the work en masse casting away their arms, abandoning the cannon and blowing up the powder in the fort.

Their flight opened up the ford to the Scots. Leslie therefore called up a small body of cavalry and sent them across to reconnoitre the remaining works. At this point, the English cavalry came into action. They had so far remained out of gunshot on Stella Haugh. They were the cream of the English army led by Lord Wilmot, a very capable cavalry commander, whose day was to come in the Civil Wars. As they had passed through the streets of Newcastle on the preceding day, all of these wild spirits were described as having ridden in wild disorder, brandishing their swords, waving their plumed beavers, drinking at every other door to the health of the King, swearing they would fight to the last gasp, and each to exterminate at least a dozen Scots.

In no way discouraged by the flight of their musketeers, whom they taunted as the scum of London, they mad a sortie to recover the cannon and arms which the infantry had abandoned. The approach of the Scottish horse, however, diverted them from that duty, and with a flourish of cavalry trumpets they charged the enemy with such fury that the Scots were forced to retire until their guns, covering the retreat, enabled them to reform and await reinforcements.

Meanwhile at the east end of the position, the remaining earthwork had been knocked out of action. After the fall of the larger earthwork, Leslie had moved his heavy guns to reinforce the battery on the hill to the cast of Newburn. They rapidly completed the demolition of the fort and removed the last resistance of the English artillery.

It was about four in the afternoon, and low tide, when Leslie ordered a general advance. In the final attack, he sent over two regiments consisting altogether of fifteen hundred men. Wilmot set himself to oppose them: closing up in twelve squadrons in a narrow place between two thick hedges they made a furious charge upon the Scottish Life Guards. Despite all their valour, the troopers began to recoil on each other. Being pressed forward by the rear files, they were forced back to the front and a dreadful struggle with sword and pistol ensued. All being gentlemen, no one would yield an inch. Wilmot cut down one or two of the enemy. Sir Henry Vane had his horse wounded under him and drew off with but six or seven of his troop, was taken, and the bearer, Cornet Porter, was killed by a pistol shot, while many Scots were shot, run through, or trodden down beneath the heaving mass of horsemen.

By now ten thousand Scottish infantry were beginning to wade across the Tyne. Most of the English foot now fled without supporting the horse, retreating up Stella Banks to the Old Hexham Road, and from there to Blaydon, Swalwell and Newcastle.

On receiving a flank fire from a thousand musketeers, the English horse gave way, but instead of retreating along the Haugh on the heels of their infantry, they continued along to the west of the Haugh were Wilmot rallied his men together with some infantry stragglers on some wooded high ground. An ambush was laid for the pursuing Scots, but was spoilt by the rashness of some musketeers. There was a short sharp fight in which Wiulmot, Sir John Digby and various other officers were taken prisoner. In Sir John’s life story it was said that he was captured through the death of his gallant horse ‘Sylverside’, who had carried him all day safely through battle. All of the prisoners were well treated by their captors and later released.

Had Leslie desired, the disorganized rout could be been cut to pieces. Stringent orders, however, had been issued to capture, but not to kill the fugitives. So towards nightfall, the broken remnants of the foot, with two rescued guns, reached Newcastle. The horse routed and in disorder, galloped to Durham. That night the whole Scottish army camped in the fields and cottages of Ryton and after giving thanks for their victory they stood to their arms all night.

As the foot retreated through Swalwell and Whickham, they picked up the party who had encamped in the church fields. This force retreated in such haste they did not bother to dismantle their encampment, but fired their tents and departed. This in turn set fire to a seam of coal which is said to have burnt continuously for thirty years. In the building operations, carried on here in recent years, the burnt ashes of this seam have been traced for quite some distance. Old army leather water bottles are supposed to have been found in the Coaly Well itself before it was filled in.

At midnight after the battle Lord Conway decided to retreat from Newcastle to Durham, the retirement taking place at five in the morning of Saturday 29th August, 1640.

The parsons of Ryton and Whickham rifled their own houses and fled. At Whickham, the parson left only a few playbooks and doubtful pamphlets in his house with one old cloak. An old woman was the only living Christian left in the town.

The Scots immediately occupied Newcastle, but they left a detachment at Stella, both as a guard and a detail to clean up the battlefield, gathering up the arms thrown away by the English troops. The next task was to bury the dead. Casualties were not heavy considering that about twenty-five thousand men had been involved. Most of the English dead were scattered around the earthworks: according to the Scots there were about sixty of them, but the Scots tended to play down the amount of casualties in line with their policies. Their own dead must have been much greater, as an attacking force usually suffer approximately three times more casualties than the defence: about three hundred dead from both sides would be a reasonable estimate.

The dead were carried across the river and buried on the site of Leslie’s eastern battery. In the closing years of the last century the site was worked as a sand quarry by a firm named Kirton, and from the start the bones of the battle dead were turned up in large quantities from just under the turf. Among the bones of humans were also the bones of the old warriors’ horses. Cannon and musket balls were also found, many of these being carried away by the villagers as mementoes. Bourn mentions a cannon ball which was found embedded in a beam at Newburn in 1893. Another cannon ball is on display inside Stella Power Station after having been dredged out of the Tyne some years ago. Unfortunately, Newburn Parish Registers do not commence until 1658, so that there is no record there of the dead. The only mention in the Ryton Registers of the Scottish army is in October, 1641, when the death of an illegitimate son of Jane Kirkhouse and a Scottish soldier is recorded.

The Scots continued to occupy the North for a year, and during this time the Bishopric had to pay them £350 per day. Before this heavy tax the people fled, so that not one house in ten was occupied and when the Scots withdrew their forces in 1641, the Bishopric was saddled with the payment of £25,000.


Jon's Military History Page

The Scottish army, some 20,000 strong, were led by Sir Alexander Leslie an experienced commander, with a core of equally experienced professional officers. The Scots deployed in the closes of Newburn village on the north bank of the Tyne. The village sits higher than the meadows on the flood-plain on the south bank, and crucially the Church sits higher still. Leslie was quick to sieze the advantage, mounting several light weight 'leather' cannon on the top of Newburn church tower. Other artillery pieces were placed in the undergrowth along the river bank.
On the eve of the battle the English were dug into earthwork defences with 12/8 cannon sited about 100m from the river, close to the two adjacent fords. The English cavalry initially shelterd in a wooded ridge to the rear. But the infantry were cruelly exposed on the flat meadow with only the hastily erected low earthworks to shield them.
At first the Scottish forces could not cross the river due both to the presence of the sconces and the fact that the tide was in. In the early morning the Scots opened fire. The relatively small numbers of English troops deployed in the sconces suffered heavy casualties from the Scottish artillery on the north bank. But the damage from the cannon on the church tower was devastating. As one of the officers later reported: ‘we lay so exposed to their battery, that their great shot was bowled in amongst our men, to their great loss and such confusion as made them quit their works’. The English broke and abandoned the artillery and fled. Now the tide had also gone out the Scottish cavalry were able to cross the fords and engaged with the English horse, already disadvantaged by the cannon fire, which was now turned upon them. They too were soon driven back, fleeing to the south with the rest of the army. On the rising ground some of the English infantry were rallied to make a stand, for now they were in safer, enclosed ground with good cover. But they failed to effectively exploit this advantage and soon the whole army was routed by the advancing Scottish.

It was the only battle of the Second Bishops’ War, but of great political significance. Two days after the battle the city of Newcastle was surrendered to the Scots. Charles was obliged to recall Parliament, which refused to fund his war against the Scots, but further parliamentary demands led ultimately to the Civil War.

The battle of Newburn Ford information board which is situated down by the bridge on the english side of the river Tyne. Best is to park in Newburn and walk across the bridge.

Possible area of the English guns, left of Newburn Bridge looking back towards Ryton near the battle information board.

Ryton Willows from the English Centre looking back towards Ryton.

Ryton Willows area to the centre left of the English positions roughly the area where the Scottish crossed the Tyne.

Another photo of Ryton Haugh right of the English positons

/> Ryton Haugh floodplain looking Eastwards. Right of the English positions.

Photo of Ryton Haugh floodplain left of Newburn Bridge where much of the fighting occured.


The wooded area behind the factory complex is the area the English troops fled up after the battle towards Ryton. Back in 1640 this raised area wasnt wooded and composed of ancient enclosures and maybe earthworks constructed before the battle.

Looking down stream of the Tyne towards the site of the second ford that the Scots used to cross. the Tyne has had its course altered over time and also became deeper than it was in 1640.

Newburn Bridge possible site of one of the fords that the Scottish used to cross the Tyne. The photo was taken from the English side of the river roughly close to the English positions. In the back ground of the photo you can just make out the top of the Church where the Scottish had artillery pieces positioned.


Ten interesting facts about Newburn & Walbottle

Newburn and Walbottle are villages in Tyne and Wear and both suburbs of Newcastle upon Tyne.

Newburn and Walbottle are villages in Tyne and Wear and both suburbs of Newcastle upon Tyne. Newburn is situated on the banks of the River Tyne, and is built rising up the valley from the river. Historically, it was larger than Newcastle upon Tyne as it was the most eastern fordable point of the River Tyne, so had strong Roman links along with Walbottle. The name Walbottle dates back to 1176 as as "Walbotl", which is derived from the Old English botl (building) on the Roman Wall. Both villages transformed with the Industrial Revolution, when large collieries and a steelworks opened. But these industries declined and Newburn is now home to a country park and various leisure facilities.

Here are ten interesting facts about the villages:

1. On 28 August 1640, the Battle of Newburn took place. The Scottish Covenanters, led by Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven planted guns at Newburn to protect them while fording the river, after which they defeated the English on south side of the river at Stellahaugh, and subsequently occupied Newcastle upon Tyne.

2. In 1822 Spencer&aposs Steelworks was opened by John Spencer, which grew to a size which led the village to be known colloquially as New Sheffield, after the town famed for its steel making prowess. This remained operational until the 1960s.

3. The district has many associations with the early development of the railway. The famous engineer George Stephenson, was twice married in Newburn Church, where his remains are interred, and worked in the Water Row pit in Newburn.

4. The village is also the birthplace of an earlier steam pioneer William Hedley, whose first locomotive Puffing Billy was built in 1812, two years prior to his rival&aposs first locomotive. A gravestone in Newburn churchyard marks his death in 1843.

5. In the 1850s, the Newburn Brickworks was built as part of the North Wallbottle and Blutcher Colliery Company. It closed in 1965 and was demolished in 1979 to make way for a council run recycling centre.

6. On 18 October 1911, the Imperial Cinema on Station Road opened. It was designed by Thomas Eltringham of Throckley colliery, and originally had seating for 550 but a 131 seat gallery was added later. It closed down in 1961 and was used as a bingo hall for a time, but is now owned by Industrial Engravers, producing signs, vehicle liveries and banners.

7. Newburn is home to the independent micro brewery "The Big Lamp" which is attached to the public house, "The Keelman" which serves the brewery&aposs own cask ale. Prior to being used as a brewery and pub, the building was used as a pumping station, which opened in 1855.

8. Ann Potter, the mother of Lord Armstrong, the famous industrialist, was born at at Walbottle Hall in 1780 and lived there until her marriage to William Armstrong on 25 November 1801.

9. Railway engineers Joseph and George Armstrong both lived in Walbottle village from 1824, and found their first employment at nearby Walbottle Colliery.

10. Newburn Leisure Centre houses Newburn Judo Club, which has produced a number of junior medalists, and is the British Judo Association’s centre of excellence for the northern area.


Battle of Newburn

In 1637, King Charles I and Archbishop Laud Endeavoured to force on Scotland the religious service of the Church of England. They created thirteen bishops in the Church of Scotland, and appointed a service-book to be read by the clergy: but when the Dean of St Giles, at Edinburgh, began to read the new liturgy, such a riot ensued that he and the bishop fled in fear. An order came from the King to enforce the prayers, with the aid of troops if necessary. The stubborn spirit of the Scots was now aroused. In 1638, ninety-five per cent of the nation had signed a document in every parish church, called the ‘National Covenant’, by which they bound themselves to keep their kingdom free from all interference in church matters. After this all Scots were known as ‘Covenanters’ to the English.

Charles marched north in 1639 with an army, and war seemed imminent, but after much talking on both sides, peace was declared, probably more due to their general unpreparedness and Charles’s usual shortage of money. This was known as the ‘Pacification of Berwick’. Afterwards it was obvious to everyone that war would come sooner or later, and both sides took measures accordingly.

The Scots began their preparations and rapidly collected stores, arms and horses. A number of 24 and 42 pounder guns were brought from Holland and the gun and shot forges were put into full operation. Sir Alexander Leslie, who fought as Field Marshal under Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, was given command of the army, while the commander of the artillery was Alexander Hamilton, whose invention of leather guns, did much to win the forthcoming battle.

At Newcastle, Lord Conway was appointed commander of 12, 000 foot and 3,000 horse, who were a very mutinous and discontented body. The rest of the English army lay at York, until the time should come to advance to the North.

The Scots moved first, crossing the river Tweed on 21st August, 1640, when, according to an old custom of the Scottish officers in the German wars, the colonels decided, by throwing dice on a drumhead, who should have the honour of leading the van and treading first on hostile ground. The lot fell to James, Earl of Montrose, the future marquis of gallant but unfortunate memory. All the troops wore the Lowland bonnet with a knot of blue ribbons above the left ear. The old song, ‘All the Blue Bonnets are Bound for the Border’ commemorates this. It has been recorded that it was four in the afternoon when the first regiment crossed the Tweed, but the bells of the English churches were heard chiming midnight before the rear-guard had crossed. The army comprised about 27,000 men, some being armed with bows and arrows, probably the last time they were used in warfare.

They divided the army into three bodies, keeping within sight, about ten miles from each other, during their march through Northumberland. After little opposition they arrived at Eachwick on the evening of the 26th August. It was hot summer weather and the troops soon drank all the wells dry. All the local cattle were commandeered for the army, but were scrupulously paid for.

From there, next day, Leslie sent his drum major and a trumpeter to Newcastle with letters asking for permission to pass through the town. Outside the walls the trumpeter sounded ‘most sweetly thrice’, while the drummer cast out a white flag of silk. Sir Jacob Astley, the Governor, asked him who he was. After being told of their mission Astley, without opening their letters, told them to be gone.

Back at Eachwick, Leslie realized it would be costly, if not impossible to storm Newcastle with its garrison of 15, 000 men: but once across the Tyne he could take the town in the rear, where it was virtually defenceless. Therefore on the evening of the 27th August, 1640, the Scottish army was found encamped upon Heddon Law. Great fires were made in and about their camp, the ground being open moorland with outcrops of coal being plentiful on the spot, so that in the darkness the army seemed to be very large. The Scots invited the country people to come into their camp and made them welcome with expressions of great love, saying that they came to harm no one.

An English regiment had been stationed at Newburn for some time to guard the ford, but on the approach of the Scots, it fell back across the river. A few days before this. Astley had sent out Lloyd, his chief engineer, to make outer defence works at Stella Haugh, and the regiment on the spot began constructing them. There were two separate entrenchments. On a plan of Stella dated 1779, the ground below Hedgefield Church is named the ‘Forts’ and it was near here that a small fortification was placed to guard the two lesser used fords, while a larger entrenchment was constructed opposite the two principal fords further west.

Late on the 27th August, Conway drew out forces from the garrison of Newcastle. The cavalry, 1,500 strong, and 3, 000 infantry marched to Stella, leaving on the way a covering party of foot who encamped in the fields below Whickham Church. This party was to guard against any retreat of the army to Newcastle. On his arrival at Stella, Lord Conway established his headquarters in Stella Hall, while the rest of the army soon completed the two forts on the Haugh. Each fort was garrisoned by four guns and four hundred musketeers. The English troops were not impressed by their defences, for to quote a gloomy soldier’s letter, ‘Their army appeared marching on the hills above the ford when we were drawing into our miserable works in the valley, where we lay so exposed’.

During the night, Leslie had not been idle. His troops were moved to their battle positions, the musketeers being scattered throughout the cottages and hedges of Newburn, while the wooded slopes above the village enabled him to position his batteries without being seen. One battery of heavy guns was situated in front of the church, and another upon the sentinel hill of the village at the east end of Newburn where the sand quarry is now. Scattered among the rushes on the riverbank were dozens of lighter guns, and some were even hoisted to the top of the church tower. These lighter ‘Swedish’ pieces were made of a tin bore, with leather hides strapped around them, and being very light they were easily transportable. They were only good for ten or twelve discharges, but using grape-shot they were murderous at short range. The Scottish baggage train was left under the guard of one regiment at Heddon.

Newburn, a place of note before the Norman Conquest, is the first fordable spot on the Tyne above Newcastle. At the time of the battle the river wound among flat meadows which lay between steep banks for a distance of about half a mile, and which were covered in scrub and gorse bushes. There were four fords here, and a child could cross before the river was dredged. The Newburn Ford, where the bridge is now, was connected to the second one, the Riding Ford. A little further to the east was the Kelso (Kelshy) Ford, a well known ford on the route of the old drove road from Scotland to the south. The Romans are said to have paved the bed of the river here to improve its passage. A quantity of black oak was found there in the last century, evidently belonging to the frame to keep the stones in place. The ford nearest to Stella was named Crummel, an old English name meaning winding or crooked stream: as this was the sharp bend of the river it is self-explanatory. After the visit of Cromwell in later years it was assumed that the name referred to him and so it was generally called the Cromwell Ford.

To the east of the Haughs was Stella Hall, an Elizabethan mansion, the army Headquarters. Some years ago a thatched cottage stood nearby, opposite to the Catholic Church, in which, tradition states, the royalist officers spent the night before the battle. The cottage, which was an inn, was probably used as an officers’ mess. It contained one large room and two smaller ones. We can imagine what a merry night of hard drinking there was the night before the battle, the last carousal many of these gay cavaliers would have on this earth. Later it was given the name ‘Cromwell’s Cottage through it probably having served the same purpose as an officers’ mess during the times when the Protector’s army was encamped on Stella Haughs, on his travels to and from Scotland.

On Wednesday, 26th August, 1640, Lord Conway had sent a messenger to the King, then at York with the rest of the army asking for instructions. The Earl of Strafford prepared a reply to be immediate sent back to him. John Rushworth, the famous author, being newly arrived from London and hearing of the letter, took the opportunity to ride to Newcastle with the messenger. When they arrived there on the morning of Friday, 28th August, they were informed that Conway had gone to the main army near to Newburn. They immediately went there and found the General and the field officers at a council of war in Stella Hall, half a mile distant from the army, and they delivered the letter there accordingly.

The order to Conway were quite sharp and explicit, for he was told that if the Scots tried to cross the Tyne he had to fight them with all means at his disposal. With these direct orders before him, Conway was hardly likely to shirk a battle, but any decision was taken of his hands by events beside the fords. As the council of war was debating the course of action to be taken, Lord George Goring came into the room and said that the Lt. General of the army ‘needed not to have sent order to bid them to fight, whatever came of it, for the enemy had begun the work out of their own hands’.

All through the morning of the 28th, the two armies had watched the other in silence across the river. Just after midday, when the tide was beginning to ebb, Leslie sent a trumpeter across to Conway to assure him that he came without hostile intent, desirous only to approach the King with a petition. He therefore requested that he might pass. Conway replied that he would allow a few to come over with their petition, but he was not empowered to let the whole army across. With this answer the trumpeter returned to Newburn accompanied by the jeers and ribald remarks of the English troops.

Sometime about one o’clock in the afternoon, a Scottish officer, well mounted and wearing a black feather in this hat, came out from one of the thatched cottages in Newburn and rode his horse into the river. While his horse was drinking, an English sentry, perceiving that he seemed to be taking stock of their positions, shot him down with a single musket shot. It was either a tremendous fluke or a jolly good shot by this unknown marksman, considering the inaccuracy of the old smooth bore muskets, but it was the first shot fired in the battle.

Apart from this shot, not a gun had been fired. The water was beginning to get lower and Leslie called up a body of three hundred horses and ordered them to cross the river. The English gunners, at this point, were really on their mettle, and their fire from the forts proved devastating, forcing the Scots to retire. Leslie at once unmasked his batteries, which had so far been unobserved, and poured a hot return fire into the English entrenchments. According to one source, the whole riverbank seemed to be ablaze. For some time (some authorities say for about three hours) the artillery duel was maintained between the guns on both sides of the river. The English gunners were striving to put out of action the Scottish guns firing from Newburn Church Tower. The Scots’ fire badly damaged the larger of the two English forts, the shots plunging into the low-lying position. Colonel Lunsford, who was in command of this fort, restrained his men with great difficulty and kept them at their posts. We must remember that these were raw troops who had not been under fire before. Soon after this, a shot fell into the works, killing about twenty men, some of the officers. Once again, Lunsford had difficulty in restraining the men who were complaining bitterly that they had been on duty all night and that none of the troops at Newcastle had been sent to relieve them, when a second shot dropped into the fort completely demoralizing them. They deserted the work en masse casting away their arms, abandoning the cannon and blowing up the powder in the fort.

Their flight opened up the ford to the Scots. Leslie therefore called up a small body of cavalry and sent them across to reconnoitre the remaining works. At this point, the English cavalry came into action. They had so far remained out of gunshot on Stella Haugh. They were the cream of the English army led by Lord Wilmot, a very capable cavalry commander, whose day was to come in the Civil Wars. As they had passed through the streets of Newcastle on the preceding day, all of these wild spirits were described as having ridden in wild disorder, brandishing their swords, waving their plumed beavers, drinking at every other door to the health of the King, swearing they would fight to the last gasp, and each to exterminate at least a dozen Scots.

In no way discouraged by the flight of their musketeers, whom they taunted as the scum of London, they mad a sortie to recover the cannon and arms which the infantry had abandoned. The approach of the Scottish horse, however, diverted them from that duty, and with a flourish of cavalry trumpets they charged the enemy with such fury that the Scots were forced to retire until their guns, covering the retreat, enabled them to reform and await reinforcements.

Meanwhile at the east end of the position, the remaining earthwork had been knocked out of action. After the fall of the larger earthwork, Leslie had moved his heavy guns to reinforce the battery on the hill to the cast of Newburn. They rapidly completed the demolition of the fort and removed the last resistance of the English artillery.

It was about four in the afternoon, and low tide, when Leslie ordered a general advance. In the final attack, he sent over two regiments consisting altogether of fifteen hundred men. Wilmot set himself to oppose them: closing up in twelve squadrons in a narrow place between two thick hedges they made a furious charge upon the Scottish Life Guards. Despite all their valour, the troopers began to recoil on each other. Being pressed forward by the rear files, they were forced back to the front and a dreadful struggle with sword and pistol ensued. All being gentlemen, no one would yield an inch. Wilmot cut down one or two of the enemy. Sir Henry Vane had his horse wounded under him and drew off with but six or seven of his troop, was taken, and the bearer, Cornet Porter, was killed by a pistol shot, while many Scots were shot, run through, or trodden down beneath the heaving mass of horsemen.

By now ten thousand Scottish infantry were beginning to wade across the Tyne. Most of the English foot now fled without supporting the horse, retreating up Stella Banks to the Old Hexham Road, and from there to Blaydon, Swalwell and Newcastle.

On receiving a flank fire from a thousand musketeers, the English horse gave way, but instead of retreating along the Haugh on the heels of their infantry, they continued along to the west of the Haugh were Wilmot rallied his men together with some infantry stragglers on some wooded high ground. An ambush was laid for the pursuing Scots, but was spoilt by the rashness of some musketeers. There was a short sharp fight in which Wiulmot, Sir John Digby and various other officers were taken prisoner. In Sir John’s life story it was said that he was captured through the death of his gallant horse ‘Sylverside’, who had carried him all day safely through battle. All of the prisoners were well treated by their captors and later released.

Had Leslie desired, the disorganized rout could be been cut to pieces. Stringent orders, however, had been issued to capture, but not to kill the fugitives. So towards nightfall, the broken remnants of the foot, with two rescued guns, reached Newcastle. The horse routed and in disorder, galloped to Durham. That night the whole Scottish army camped in the fields and cottages of Ryton and after giving thanks for their victory they stood to their arms all night.

As the foot retreated through Swalwell and Whickham, they picked up the party who had encamped in the church fields. This force retreated in such haste they did not bother to dismantle their encampment, but fired their tents and departed. This in turn set fire to a seam of coal which is said to have burnt continuously for thirty years. In the building operations, carried on here in recent years, the burnt ashes of this seam have been traced for quite some distance. Old army leather water bottles are supposed to have been found in the Coaly Well itself before it was filled in.

At midnight after the battle Lord Conway decided to retreat from Newcastle to Durham, the retirement taking place at five in the morning of Saturday 29th August, 1640.

The parsons of Ryton and Whickham rifled their own houses and fled. At Whickham, the parson left only a few playbooks and doubtful pamphlets in his house with one old cloak. An old woman was the only living Christian left in the town.

The Scots immediately occupied Newcastle, but they left a detachment at Stella, both as a guard and a detail to clean up the battlefield, gathering up the arms thrown away by the English troops. The next task was to bury the dead. Casualties were not heavy considering that about twenty-five thousand men had been involved. Most of the English dead were scattered around the earthworks: according to the Scots there were about sixty of them, but the Scots tended to play down the amount of casualties in line with their policies. Their own dead must have been much greater, as an attacking force usually suffer approximately three times more casualties than the defence: about three hundred dead from both sides would be a reasonable estimate.

The dead were carried across the river and buried on the site of Leslie’s eastern battery. In the closing years of the last century the site was worked as a sand quarry by a firm named Kirton, and from the start the bones of the battle dead were turned up in large quantities from just under the turf. Among the bones of humans were also the bones of the old warriors’ horses. Cannon and musket balls were also found, many of these being carried away by the villagers as mementoes. Bourn mentions a cannon ball which was found embedded in a beam at Newburn in 1893. Another cannon ball is on display inside Stella Power Station after having been dredged out of the Tyne some years ago. Unfortunately, Newburn Parish Registers do not commence until 1658, so that there is no record there of the dead. The only mention in the Ryton Registers of the Scottish army is in October, 1641, when the death of an illegitimate son of Jane Kirkhouse and a Scottish soldier is recorded.

The Scots continued to occupy the North for a year, and during this time the Bishopric had to pay them £350 per day. Before this heavy tax the people fled, so that not one house in ten was occupied and when the Scots withdrew their forces in 1641, the Bishopric was saddled with the payment of £25,000.


Battle of Newburn upon Tyne, 28 August 1640 - History

Newburn is a semi rural parish, electoral ward and former urban district in western Newcastle upon Tyne. Situated on the North bank of the River Tyne, it is built rising up the valley from the river. It is situated approximately 5 miles (8.0 km) from the city centre and 14 miles (23 km) east of Hexham. In the 2001 census, the population was given as 9,301, increasing to 9,536 at the 2011 Census.

Historically, the area was larger than Newcastle upon Tyne as it was the most eastern fordable point of the River Tyne. The area has Roman remains, and a Norman church dating from 1070 AD. In 1640, the Battle of Newburn took place. The area grew with the Industrial Revolution with the discovery of coal, and in 1822 Spencer's Steelworks was opened, which grew to a size which led the area to be known colloquially as New Sheffield, after the town famed for its steel making prowess. The town's steelworks fell into decline after the First World War, and the area is now home to a country park and various leisure facilities.

History
Though some claim the area's name comes from the Old English for "New Fort or Castle" (burh or burg being the Old English for fort or castle), the name is more commonly thought to have come from the Dewley or New Burn, which runs through the area. This is somewhat substantiated by the fact that the settlement was recorded as Neuburna in 1121, rather than Neuburh.
Newburn was originally considered to have pre-eminence over Newcastle, as Newburn was the first point up from the mouth of the river that was fordable. The Romans marked this ford with a framework of stones, and may have built a fort to command the crossing. The area has other Roman connections, with the route of Hadrian's Wall cutting across its northern half, before running toward Throckley. From the eighth century, Newburn was a royal vill or town, and Newcastle didn't become a more important settlement until Plantagenet times.
Between 1332 and 1974 the Percy family were associated with Newburn, and Hugh Percy was the last to inherit Newburn Manor House, which was built in the 16th century. Also in the area at this time was Newburn Hall, which was built in the 15th century.

On 28 August 1640, the Battle of Newburn took place. The Scottish Covenanters, led by Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven, planted guns at Newburn to protect them while fording the river, after which they defeated the English on the south side of the river at Stellahaugh, and subsequently occupied Newcastle upon Tyne. The Scottish claim this occupation to have been the prologue to the English Civil War. The name of Scotswood, one of the manufacturing areas between Newburn and the city centre, commemorates one of their positions.

Newburn and nearby Lemington had always been considered among the greenest areas of Newcastle, and in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the majority of vegetables supplied to local markets came from Newburn and Hexham. Prior to the early 19th century, the majority of employment in the Newburn area was for fishermen, keelmen and miners.

The district has many associations with the early development of the railway. The famous engineer George Stephenson, who was born in Wylam a few miles to the west of Newburn, was twice married in Newburn Church, though he is buried in Chesterfield in Derbyshire, and worked in the Water Row pit in Newburn. The area is also the birthplace of an earlier steam pioneer William Hedley, whose first locomotive Puffing Billy was built in 1812, two years prior to his rival's first locomotive Blücher. A gravestone in Newburn churchyard marks his burial in 1843. The future railway engineers Joseph and George Armstrong both lived in the village from 1824, and found their first employment at nearby Walbottle Colliery.

In 1855, William Whellan's History, Topography, and Directory of Northumberland described the banks of the Tyne at this point having extensive iron works, coal staithes, brickyards, chemical works and other manufactories.

In 1822 John Spencer established Newburn Steelworks in a small mill for grinding files, on the Dewley Burn in the north of Newburn. Over the course of next hundred or so years his mill grew to take over much of Newburn as the demand for steel boomed with the growth of railways and other industries. By the late 19th century, the works had spread to the east of the area along the banks of the Tyne to such an extent Newburn Hall was "embedded" in them. In 1916 the mill had a weekly output of 1,500 tons. Steel plates for the liner Mauretania were made by Spencers. However the industry was hit hard by the depression after the First World War and the steel works closed between 1924 and 1926, despite a large effort to raise 㿷,000 needed to save the works. The works' large number of 130-foot (40 m) high chimneys were demolished in 1933. A number of buildings connected with the works still stand today, although with new uses, including two large sheds which are now owned by H. Pringle, used as a large indoor scrapyard, and offices which are now used by the Multi-Lab company.

In the 1850s, the Newburn Brickworks was built as part of the North Wallbottle and Blucher Colliery Company. The works were situated near Spencer's early mill in the north of Newburn. It was connected to the colliery at Blucher by a small railway, which continued onto the staithes at Lemington. Newburn bricks were mainly used for industrial buildings such as sewers, tunnels and arches. The works closed in 1965 and demolished in 1979 to make way for a council-run recycling centre. Its sister plant, Throckley Brick Works, still operates.

In the early twentieth century, around 4,000 people lived in the area. A working men's club was built, comprising a library, reading rooms and lecture rooms for community meetings. By 1925 the building was used as a dole office, and in 1990 adapted for use as a residential care home.


Military conflicts similar to or like Battle of Newburn

Involved in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, a series of wars starting with the Bishops Wars , the Irish Rebellion of 1641, the English Civil War (and its extension in Scotland), the Irish Confederate Wars, and finally the subjugation of Ireland and Scotland by the English Roundhead New Model Army. Fought between Scottish Royalists—supporters of Charles I under James Graham, 1st Marquis of Montrose—and the Covenanters, who had controlled Scotland since 1639 and allied with the English Parliament. Wikipedia

Agreement signed by Charles I, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Scottish Covenanters on 28 October 1640, in the aftermath of the Second Bishops' War. The Bishops' Wars were fought by the Covenanters to oppose attempts by Charles to bring the Church of Scotland closer to the Church of England, specifically in relation to treating the king as the source of spiritual power and the introduction of bishops into government. Wikipedia

Fought on 2 July 1644, during the First English Civil War of 1642–1646. The combined forces of the English Parliamentarians under Lord Fairfax and the Earl of Manchester and the Scottish Covenanters under the Earl of Leven defeated the Royalists commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine and the Marquess of Newcastle. Wikipedia

Pitched battle of the First English Civil War. Fought near Edge Hill and Kineton in southern Warwickshire on Sunday, 23 October 1642. Wikipedia


History reclaims sole battle of low-key war: The importance of a Scots victory which forced Charles I to recall Parliament has finally been recognised. Oliver Gillie reports

A FORGOTTEN British battlefield has at last found its place in history.

Few people have heard of the Battle of Newburn Ford in 1640, when English soldiers defended a crossing of the river Tyne from Scots invaders. The history books gloss over it and it is often omitted from lists of important English battles - perhaps because the English army was ignominiously defeated by the Scots. Now English Heritage, the government agency in charge of historic buildings and landscape, has decided that Newburn Ford is an important British battle and that the battlefield should be included in its official register. On 28 August 1640, 20,000 Scots defeated 4,000 English soldiers who were defending a ford over the Tyne four miles west of Newcastle. The Scots had been provoked by Charles I, who had imposed bishops and an alien prayer book on their church. The Scots army, led by Alexander Leslie, who had fought as a professional soldier in Sweden under Gustavus Adolphus, fought its way to Newcastle and occupied the city for almost a year before Charles I paid it pounds 200,000 to depart. The battle brought to an end the 'Eleven Years of Tyranny' by forcing Charles to recall Parliament.

David Smurthwaite, a historian at the National Army Museum who has investigated the Battle of Newburn Ford for English Heritage, writes in his report: 'The events of 28 August 1640 at Newburn Ford have never been accorded great recognition. It was the only action of a decidedly low-key war (the second Bishop's War against the Scots).

'The Scots acted with great restraint throughout, doing the minimum necessary to achieve their political objective. The English army was ill-paid and mutinous and by no means had its heart in the fight.'

The Scots also had the advantage of the rising ground above Newburn and of a much larger force of experienced fighters.

The small number of casualties in the battle - a few hundred at most - indicates that the fighting was not severe.

'This would appear to suggest that Newburn languishes in well-deserved obscurity, but in fact the battle was in one respect of the greatest importance. The cost of first trying to get an army together to conduct the war, and then the need to find pounds 200,000 to buy the Scots off once they occupied Newcastle after their success at Newburn, meant that King Charles I was forced to recall Parliament in November and deal with it in earnest for the first time in 11 years. Newburn administered the coup de grace to Charles' famous attempt to rule without Parliament.'

Mr Smurthwaite regards the battle as a classic example of how to conduct an opposed river crossing. His research has established the location of the battlefield as an area of about a mile to each side of Newburn on both sides of the river. The Scots army drew up on the steep bluffs above the flood plain of the river, using the church as a convenient site for its guns.

The English army was drawn up on the southern side behind earthworks defending the ford at Newburn and a smaller ford to the east at Kelshaw.

The Scots cannonade drove the English back from the earthworks and at low tide in the afternoon, the Scots cavalry crossed the Tyne, scattering the English foot soldiers to the west up Ryton and Stella banks while the English horsemen recoiled towards Stella.

To the west of Newburn, the battlefield is now Tyne Riverside Country Park. Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council has erected boards explaining the local wildlife but there are no plaques marking the battlefield. The east of Newburn is an industrial landscape of power stations, although part of this has been decommissioned and offers a opportunity to consider the importance of the site in future development.

However, the local authorities of Gateshead and Newcastle upon Tyne have no plans to provide any interpretation of the battlefield. Gateshead is planning to put a car park and events field on an important part of the site, at Parson's Haugh.


Background

At the root of the Battle of Newburn was the Protestant Reformation. The Reformation created the Church of Scotland and the Presbyterian “kirk” in structure and Calvinism in doctrine.

Most Scots believed in a monarchy mandated by God but disagreed on what it meant for the monarchy to be well-run. They were separated into two categories: Covenanter and Royalist.

The Presbyterians were thoroughly divided from the Episcopalians. Elders ruled the Presbyterians. Supporters of a rule by the Presbyterian Church were called Covenanters. The Episcopals were governed by bishops, which were appointed by the King. Supporters of government by the monarch were called the Royalists.

Tensions were exacerbated in 1596 when King James VI wanted to take greater control of the Kirk, according to historian Tim Harris. He had a lot of hostility to the Scottish “Puritans,” and then made it a point to attend every General Assembly from 1597 to 1603. He banned “troublesome” ministers from the Assembly and then asserted royal control over the Assembly.

In 1600, the General Assembly met at Montrose, Scotland, to approve a scheme by the King: he could choose his commissioners to sit in Parliament. He persuaded the Kirk to agree to ecclesiastical representation in Parliament and wanted to add three bishops to Parliament. The Kirk refused to acknowledge the convention’s authority of the Montrose Convention, but James did not back down.

James VI would later become James I once the Scottish and English crowns were united in 1603. According to historian Jeffrey Stephen, his first step towards a centralized state was having a unified Church of Scotland and England. However, combining the Church of England and the Church of Scotland was extremely difficult due to theological differences.

Charles I would later be the King of England and Scotland, he tried to impose religious reforms on the Church of Scotland. According to historian J.D. Mackie, on February 28, 1638, the National Covenant in Scotland vowed to oppose any changes by Charles I. In December, the Kirk expelled the bishops.

The tension between the Royalists who supported Charles the Covenanters soon led to the First Bishops’ War in 1639. The Scottish army was very experienced and well-trained. The English army was not. According to historian Trevor Royle, the Covenanters defeated the Royalists at Aberdeenshire and cemented their control over Scotland.

Royle also noted that the English troops were mostly militia troops who were poorly-equipped and unpaid. Morale was extremely low as Charles levied his attacks on an Irish army in the west, a Scottish army in the north, and an English army in the south. His army lacked necessary supplies, and so needed to loot from areas they passed.

Lord Conway, who was the commander in the north, tried to reinforce Berwick-upon-Tweed if the Scottish army decided to invade England. Instead, Alexander Leslie led the Scottish military and went towards Newcastle-on-Tyre, the center of London’s coal trade.


Battle of Newburn

In the Battle of Newburn , after the 1st Episcopal War , the English King Charles I tried to make up for his defeat and wanted to attack the Scottish Covenanters again. But there was not enough money, so only in Berwick-upon-Tweed troops were concentrated, while only a few were available on the rest of the border. In contrast, the Scottish general Alexander Leslie was an experienced soldier from the Thirty Years' War , in which he had fought for Sweden. In addition, part of his wages had been paid by the Swedes in cannons and muskets, so that he could lead a modern armed army.

The Scots crossed the Tweed and marched along the Tyne towards Newcastle upon Tyne . 3,000 infantry and 1,500 cavalry under the command of Edward Conway awaited them there .

The English, under the command of Henry Wilmot, fortified the ford at Newburn (also: Newbourne ) with cannons and trenches to stop the Scots. A brief skirmish relaxed, which the superior Scottish weapons won. Leslie had occupied Heddon Law , but the greater range of the Scottish artillery decided the battle. The English army fled after a short time and gave up Newcastle. The Scots could now occupy Northumberland and Durham .


References

  • Donaldson, G., Scotland from James V to James VII, 1965.
  • Fissel, M. C., The Bishops' War: Charles I's Campaigns against Scotland, 1638-1640, 1994.
  • Hewison, J. K., The Covenanters, 1913.
  • Matthew, D, Scotland Under Charles I, 1955.
  • Russel, C, The Fall of the British Monarchies, 1637-1642, 1991.
  • Stevenson, D., The Scottish Revolution, 1637-44, 1973.
  • Turner, Sir James, Memoirs of his own Life and Times, 1632-1670, 1829.
  • Terry, C. S., The Life and Campaigns of Alexander Leslie, 1899.
  • Wedgewood, C. V., The King's Peace, 1637-1641, 1955.

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