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RHNS Averoff - Thunder in the Aegean, John Carr

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RHNS Averoff - Thunder in the Aegean, John Carr

RHNS Averoff - Thunder in the Aegean, John Carr

RHNS Averoff was the pride of the Greek fleet during the Balkan Wars, an armoured cruiser superior to anything in the Ottoman fleet. When built she had a speed of 22.5kts, and was armed with four 9.2in guns in twin turrets fore and aft and eight 7.5in guns in twin turrets, two on each side. When built she was a powerful weapon, but as with so many warships of the period she was made obsolescent by the appearance of the all-big gun HMS Dreadnought. Luckily for the Greeks the Ottoman Empire didn't have any dreadnoughts, so the Averoff was able to play a significant role in the fighting during the First Balkan War.

Unusually for a ship history, that effectively ended her time as a first rate warship. During the First World War the seas around Greece were dominated by the far more powerful British and French navies, while the former German battlecruiser Moltke, given to the Ottomans early in the war, also outclassed her. By the time the Second World War broke out she was almost obsolete, although she did perform some valuable service as a convoy escort, and provided anti-aircraft firepower.

The first half of this book covers the most important part of the ship's military career, from her construction to the end of the Greco-Turkish War. The second half looks at the less impressive part of her career, when her officers took part in a seemingly endless succession of military coups and sinister military governments while the lower ranks supported a mix of political groupings. The author tends to side with the officers in these disputes, which continued on into the Second World War and saw a large part of the crew mutiny in Alexandria, much to the annoyance of the British authorities - here officers take part in revolts, crewmen are ill-disciplined, when in reality there is nothing more ill disciplined than taking part in a coup.

This is an interesting book, as much for the insights into the woeful Greek politics of the period as for its more traditional naval aspects, although they do include decent accounts of the ship's main battles and some excellent photographs.

Chapters
1 - Rush Job
2 - The Wine-Dark Sea
3 - Birth of the Averof
4 - Young Turks, Old Ships
5 - The Ship that Won a War
6 - Sailing to Byzantium
7 - Refit and Revolt
8 - To Fight Another Day
9 - Indian Summer
10 - Retirement and Rats
11 - Comeback

Author: John Carr
Edition: Hardcover
Pages: 144
Publisher: Pen & Sword Maritime
Year: 2014



H.R.N.S.AVEROF by John Carr

Built in Livorno in 1910 the 10,000 ton RHNS Averof (pronounced Av-AIR- Off) was the Flagship, and by far the biggest warship, of the Royal Hellenic Navy until 1951. To this day she is still afloat and one of the few armoured cruisers still in existence in the world. Since 1984, when she was refurbished as a floating museum, she has been at Phaleron.

The book deals with the battles that she fought and the trials and tribulations of the Royal Hellenic Navy through her years of active service.

There are maps showing the disposition of the opposing fleets during battles such as ‘The battle of Cape Helles’ phase 1 and 2. ‘The battle of Limnos’ 1913. Then her travels during the 2nd WW as an escort, the role she carried out from 1941-1944. Which included time spent carrying out escort duties to and from the Indian sub-continent, from June 1941 to November 1942.

Though the basis of this book is the story of the Averof, I found that I became more fascinated by the political intrigues that were taking place, at the beginning of the 20th Century, in the Aegean Sea. The period that began the demise of the Ottoman Empire, and the resurgence of the Nationalistic endeavours of the Greek nation.

Since before the Trojan War, about 1200bc,The Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the islands of the Aegean had been the heartland of the Greek Empire. Greek city states had flourished on all the adjacent coasts. Things changed though and the Rise of the Ottoman Empire put a dent in what had been Greek territory. In the early 20th century though the Ottoman Empires powers were declining and as a result Greece started to once again think of regaining lost territory.

I myself have never followed the history of the region so I enjoyed filling a gap in my knowledge. I will openly admit that the biggest problem that I had reading this book was to remember the names of the characters involved. That is my failing, not the book's.

Describing the administration and workings of the Greek Navy made me realise how lucky we of the Royal Navy were not to be politicized as were the Greek Navy.

The ‘Averofs’ first official duty in May 1911 was to attend the Naval review to mark the Coronation of King George V. The Spithead Naval Review must have been a sight to see. The representative ships, from various countries, many of whom had a hatred of each other. Like the Russians and the Japanese, who had walloped Russia, six years before, in the Russo-Japanese war. The contempt that the Greeks had for the Turks, not to mention the enmity between the British and the Germans. (It would have been interesting to have been a fly on the wall of a Bar ashore when these various matelots met.)

After the Spithead Review the Averof sailed for a visit to Plymouth, where she had the misfortune to run aground on a mud bank and therefore had to be put into dry-dock for repair. This did nothing to help the crews morale. As a result of this accident, just 6 weeks after being commissioned, the crew mutinied. It seems that there had been discontent amongst the crew who thought that the ships complement of officers wasn’t doing its job. Considering that the Averof was the largest vessel in the R.H.N it wasn’t surprising that the crew were having a hard job learning how to sail and man her. Tempers must have been frayed at times.

This book not only tells the story of this exceptional ship, but places her in the midst of both world wars and gives us a glimpse into the history of the region. An apt sub-title…


Contents

Origins Edit

In 1911, the Greek Government appointed French specialists to form the Hellenic Aviation Service. Six Greek officers were sent to France for training, while the first four Farman type aircraft were ordered. All six graduated from the Farman school in Étampes near Paris, but only four subsequently served in aviation. The first Greek civilian aviator that was given military rank was Emmanuel Argyropoulos, who flew in a Nieuport IV.G. "Alkyon" aircraft, on February 8, 1912. The first military flight was made on May 13, 1912 by Lieutenant Dimitrios Kamberos. In June, Kamberos flew with the "Daedalus", a Farman Aviation Works aircraft that had been converted into a seaplane, setting a new average speed world record at 110 km/h (68 mph). In September of the same year the Greek Army fielded its first squadron, the "Aviators Company" (Greek: Λόχος Αεροπόρων).

Balkan Wars and aftermath (1912–1930) Edit

On October 5, 1912, Kamberos flew the first combat mission, a reconnaissance flight over Thessaly. This was on the first day of the Balkan wars. On the same day a similar mission was flown by German mercenaries in Ottoman service, over the Thrace front against the Bulgarian Army. The Greek and the Ottoman missions, coincidentally flown on the same day, were the first military aviation missions in the history of conventional war. As a matter of fact, all Balkan countries used military aircraft and foreign mercenaries during the Balkan Wars.

January 24, 1913 saw the first naval co-operation mission in history, which took place over the Dardanelles. Aided by the Royal Hellenic Navy destroyer RHNS Velos, 1st Lieutenant Michael Moutoussis and Ensign Aristeidis Moraitinis flew the Farman hydroplane and drew up a diagram of the positions of the Turkish fleet, against which they dropped four bombs. This was not the first air-to-ground attack in military history, as there was a precedent in the Turkish-Italian war of 1911, but the first recorded attack against ships from the air.

Initially, the Hellenic Army and the Royal Hellenic Navy operated separate Army Aviation and Naval Aviation units. During the Balkan Wars, various French Henry and Maurice Farman aircraft types were used. The Hellenic Naval Air Service was officially founded in 1914 by the then Commander in Chief (CnC) of the Royal Hellenic Navy, British Admiral Mark Kerr. Greek aviation units participated in World War I and the Asia Minor Campaign, equipped by the Allies with a variety of French and British designs.

Foundation, World War II and Civil War (1930–1950) Edit

In 1930 the Aviation Ministry was founded, establishing the Air Force as the third branch of the Hellenic Armed Forces. The Hellenic Army Air Service and Hellenic Naval Air Service were merged into a single service, the Royal Hellenic Air Force. In 1931 the Hellenic Air Force Academy, the Icarus School (Greek: Σχολή Ικάρων), was founded.

In 1939, an order for 24 Marcel Bloch MB.151 fighter aircraft was placed, but only 9 of the aircraft reached Greece, since the outbreak of World War II prevented the French from completing the order. The aircraft entered service in the 24th Pursuit Squadron (MD – Moira Dioxis) of the Air Force.

During the Italian invasion of Greece (1940) in the Second World War, although being severely outnumbered and counting only 79 aircraft against 380 fighters and bombers of the Italian Regia Aeronautica, [8] RHAF managed to successfully resist the assault. On October 30, two days after the start of the war, there was the first air battle. Some Henschel Hs126s of 3/2 Flight of 3 Observation Mira took off to locate Italian Army columns. But they were intercepted and attacked by Fiat CR.42 Falcos of 393 a Squadriglia. A first Henschel was hit and crashed, killing its observer, Pilot Officer Evanghelos Giannaris, the first Greek aviator to die in the war. A second Hs 126 was downed over Mount Smolikas, killing Pilot Officer Lazaros Papamichail and Sergeant Constantine Yemenetzis. [9] On November 2, 1940, a Breguet 19 intercepted the 3 Alpine Division Julia while it was penetrating the Pindos mountain range in an attempt to occupy Metsovo. On the same day, 2nd Lieutenant Marinos Mitralexis having run out of ammunition, aimed the nose of his PZL P.24 right into the tail of an enemy Cant Z1007bis bomber, smashing the rudder and sending the aircraft out of control. [10]

After 65 days of war the RHAF had lost 31 officers, 7 wounded, plus 4 NCOs killed and 5 wounded. Meanwhile, the number of combat aircraft had dropped to 28 fighters and 7 battleworthy bombers. [11] Still by March 1941, the Italian invasion on air and ground had been successfully pushed back, aided by the vital contribution of the RHAF to the Greek victory. During the Greco-Italian War the Hellenic Air Force shot down 68 enemy aircraft (official records) and claimed another 24. The British RAF claimed 150 additional air victories against Italian aircraft. However surprisingly, the Italian Air Force recorded only 65 aircraft lost, during the entire campaign against the Greeks and later the British, with 495 additional aircraft reported as damaged. [12]

In April 1941, the German Wehrmacht invaded Greece in order to assist the Italian assault. During this second wave of foreign invasion, the Luftwaffe eventually succeeded in destroying almost the entire Hellenic Air Force. However, some aircraft managed to escape to the Middle East, [10] including 5 Avro Anson, 1 Dornier Do 22 and 3 Avro 626.

During the German occupation of Greece, the Air Force was rebuilt under the expatriated Greek Air Force Ministry based in Cairo. Three squadrons were built, operating under the command of the British RAF. These squadrons were the 13th Light Bombing Squadron flying Avro Ansons, Bristol Blenheims and Martin Baltimores and the 335 and 336 Fighting Squadrons flying Hawker Hurricane I and IIs and Spitfire V types. The RHAF squadrons in the Middle East flew a variety of missions, including convoy patrols, antisubmarine search, offensive patrols, reconnaissance, attack and interception of enemy aircraft. In Summer 1943, the Greek squadrons participated in the attack against the German Wehrmacht on the island of Crete and then from May to November 1944 in Italy. During those years, 70 Greek pilots were lost. [13]

During World War II Greek pilots who were flying with the RAF achieved many victories. Rhodesian-born Wing Commander John Agorastos Plagis shot down 16 enemy aircraft over Malta and Western Europe. Lieutenant Vasilios Michael Vassiliadis was credited with 11.5 enemy aircraft over Western Europe before he was killed in action on March 15, 1945 over Germany. Steve Pisanos, an immigrant to the US in 1938, joined an Eagle Squadron of American volunteers in the RAF and fought over Western Europe. He later joined the USAAF and acquired US citizenship and continued to fly with the same squadron, now part of the USAF 4th FG. He had achieved 10 victories with the USAAF by 1944.

After Greece's liberation in 1944, RHAF returned to Greece and subsequently played a decisive role in the Greek Civil War, which lasted until 1950. By then, it was re-equipped with Supermarine Spitfire Mk IX, Spitfire Mk XVI fighters and Curtiss SB2C Helldiver bombers.

Post-war developments (1950–1970) Edit

After the end of the Greek Civil War in November 1950, Greece sent 7 Douglas C-47 Dakota transport aircraft of the 13th Transport Aircraft Squadron to South Korea to assist the United Nations. Greek aircraft operated in Korea until May 1955. Greek pilots flew thousands of missions including air evacuations, personnel transport, intelligence gathering, and supply flights. In 1952 Greece joined NATO and the Air Force was rebuilt and organized according to NATO standards. New aircraft, including jets, were introduced.

The first jet fighter flown by the RHAF was the Republic F-84G Thunderjet in 1955. It was also flown by the first Air Force aerobatic team 337 SQ “Hellenic Flame” (Greek: Ελληνική Φλόγα). The RF-84F entered service with the 348 Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron in 1956. Although the F-84G was replaced by the Canadair Sabre 2 in 1954 and 1955 after 100 units were retired from the Royal Canadian Air Force and upgraded in the United Kingdom before entering service with the RHAF, the RF-84F remained in service until 1991. The Lockheed T-33 was also delivered as a trainer in 1955. Some RT-33s were used for reconnaissance missions.

In the late 1960s, the RHAF acquired new jet aircraft. These included the Convair F-102 Delta Dagger (in service 1969–1975), the Lockheed F-104G Starfighter and the Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighter. The F-104 and F-5 stayed in service until the mid- to late 1980s.

In the mid-1970s the Hellenic Air Force was further modernized with deliveries of the Dassault Mirage F1CG fleet, the Vought A-7 Corsair II (including a number of TA-7Hs) and the first batch of McDonnell-Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs.

In 1993, the United States Air Force delivered 62 additional A-7Es and TA-7Cs increasing further the air-to-ground capabilities of the HAF. These aircraft remained in service until 2011. [14]


Monday, 28 September 2020

Indian Mutine-era

Hot on the heels of his recently-published TAIPING ERA: TABLETOP WARGAME RULES FOR LAND CONFLICT IN MID-19TH CENTURY CHINA, Graham Evans (AKA Trebian) has published INDIAN MUTINE-ERA: A SUPPLEMENT FOR "TAIPING ERA" COVERING THE USE OF THE RULES FOR FIGHTING BATTLES IN THE INDAIN MUTINY.

The book does contain some period-specific changes and clarification to the TAIPING ERA rules, as well as relevant Commander Cards. Also included are a number of linked scenarios for battles fought by General Havelock during his first campaign in Oudh. These include:

  • Fatehpur: 12th July 1857
  • Aong: 14th July 1857
  • Pandu Nadi: 14th July 1857
  • Maharajpur: 16th July 1857

This supplement contains some colour illustrations and maps, and is very reasonably priced, and only costs ٣.00 from Amazon.


RHNS Averof, John Carr

Built at Livorno in 1910, the 10,000-ton RHNS Averof had the distinction of being the flagship, and by far the biggest warship, of the Royal Hellenic Navy until 1951. More than a century after its construction, she is still afloat, one of just three armoured cruisers still in existence in the world. Originally intended for the Italian navy, the ship was bought by Greece and soon saw her first action in the Balkan Wars. In the Battle of Cape Helles (3 Dec 1912) Averof inflicted heavy casualties on the Turkish fleet, following it up with a victory in the Battle of Lemnos (5 Jan 1913).

In the 1920s the ship underwent a major refit in France, which included modernizing her armament by replacing her obsolete torpedo tubes with more anti-aircraft guns. When the Germans overran Greece in World War Two, Averof made a dramatic escape to Alexandria, dodging attacks by the Luftwaffe, despite Admiralty orders that she be scuttled. In 1941 she escorted a convoy to India, being the first Greek vessel to enter Indian waters since the time of Alexander the Great, and continued to serve on escort duties throughout the war.

In 1945 Averof was laid up on the island of Poros and neglected until 1984 when the Greek Admiralty decided to resurrect the ship. After years of slow refitting and preservation, the ship is now moored at Phaleron on the coast of Athens as a floating naval museum. As well as giving full technical specifications and operational history, including details of her restoration, John Carr draws on first-hand accounts of the officers and men to relate the long and remarkable career of this fine ship.


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Built at Livorno in 1910, the 10,000-ton RHNS Averof had the distinction of being the flagship, and by far the biggest warship, of the Royal Hellenic Navy until 1951. More than a century after its construction, she is still afloat, one of just three armoured cruisers still in existence in the world. Originally intended for the Italian navy, the ship was bought by Greece and soon saw her first action in the Balkan Wars. In the Battle of Cape Helles (3 Dec 1912) Averof inflicted heavy casualties on the Turkish fleet, following it up with a victory in the Battle of Lemnos (5 Jan 1913).

In the 1920s the ship underwent a major refit in France, which included modernizing her armament by replacing her obsolete torpedo tubes with more anti-aircraft guns. When the Germans overran Greece in World War Two, Averof made a dramatic escape to Alexandria, dodging attacks by the Luftwaffe, despite Admiralty orders that she be scuttled. In 1941 she escorted a convoy to India, being the first Greek vessel to enter Indian waters since the time of Alexander the Great, and continued to serve on escort duties throughout the war.

In 1945 Averof was laid up on the island of Poros and neglected until 1984 when the Greek Admiralty decided to resurrect the ship. After years of slow refitting and preservation, the ship is now moored at Phaleron on the coast of Athens as a floating naval museum. As well as giving full technical specifications and operational history, including details of her restoration, John Carr draws on first-hand accounts of the officers and men to relate the long and remarkable career of this fine ship.

This is an interesting book, as much for the insights into the woeful Greek politics of the period as for its more traditional naval aspects, although they do include decent accounts of the ship's main battles and some excellent photographs.

History of War Web

The author's light style and the remarkable nature of the story he is telling make for an enjoyable read.

Mariners's Mirror

As well as giving full technical specifications and operational history, including details of her restoration, John Carr draws on first-hand accounts of the officers and men to relate the long and remarkable career of this fine ship. All-in-all, I found this to be a most interesting and very enjoyable book about a little known subject which will be enjoyed by all naval enthusiasts.

Marine News

Launched in 1910 [RHNS Averof] was an Italian built armoured cruiser of just under 10,000 tons. The book takes us through the story of the ship right up to the present day. . The detail of the stories surrounding the ship, of rebellion among the crew at different times as well as the descriptions of the actions she took part in, made for a really interesting read, as much for the link between the politics of Greece over the years and how it was intertwined with the history of the ship.

MIlitary Modelling

An impressive and valuable account.

Firetrench

RHNS Averof: Thunder in the Aegean is a well-written account of a ship and what she truly means to her country. There are forty-five centrally located pictures of the Averof within the book showing her birth, service and final placement as a museum. This book captures the grandeur of this vessel very well.

MSC Reviews

John Carr is a retired journalist living in Athens. Now an established historian, his many previous books include The Defence and Fall of Greece 1940-41 and Mussolini's Defeat at Hill 731, March 1941.


RHNS Averof: Thunder in the Aegean (English Edition) Versión Kindle

Unfortunately the author of this book is a fully paid up enthusiast for all things Greek and this is his fourth book on Greek history. I say unfortunately because it is very clear he knew nothing at all about warships or sea warfare before doing a small amount of research for this book and then spends most of the first 50 pages (of a mere 162 total) recapping three thousand years of Greek history.

The whole account is so inaccurate and biased in favour of Greece as to be embarrassing. In the Balkan wars, to Mr Carr the Turks and Bulgarians played a similar role to wicked and luckless indians as depicted in old 1950's hollywood 'Cowboys and Indians' movies. There are few references of any kind and much of the text relies on the memoirs of two Greek admirals- Koundouriotis and Sakellariou- between the lines its clear that both were really rather unpleasant fellows and such men are hardly likely to have been unbiased and objective observers!

I knew we were in trouble when the great English naval constructor Sir William White is referred to as 'Admiral William White'. Throughout, ships are called battleships, pre- Dreadnoughts or cruisers seemingly at random. The author particularly favours 'cruiser' and the three old coast defence battleships of the Hydra class are so called throughout. Mr Carr even calls the Turkish battleship Turgut Reis a cruiser at the battle of Helles. It should not be difficult to correctly designate the ships in a 'fleet' of just four vessels.(much later, even the British battleship Barham is referred to as a cruiser). This sort of thing does matter rather a lot since obviously the characteristics and role and of cruisers is fundamentally different from battleships- obvious to a naval enthusiast like myself, anyway, and if you call your book 'RHNS Averof' naval enthusiasts will be the ones who incline to buy it. Such people will at once note that the main barbettes of Averof would not have been a mere 40mm thick- they were actually 160mm. They may also know that the 'cruiser' Frth-i-Bulend sunk at at Thessaloniki was actually an 1870's coastal defence ironclad. And so on.

In that war the Turks did not cover themselves in glory at sea, but their casualties at lemnos were just over 200- not 500 and 'about half dead'. The idea that two hardly conclusive naval engagements with no ships sunk actually decided the war plainly lacks any credibility. Then, immediately before the outbreak of war in 1914 Churchill requisitioned the battleships Sultan Osman 1 and Reshadiye, just completed for Turkey in England. Mr Carr again takes a naive and simplistic view, describing this as 'a neat piece of chicanery, not far removed from outright theft'. It was not- it was allowed for in the contracts, and since Turkey, with its German trained army, would almost certainly have sided with Germany anyway (against Russia) imagine the furore THAT would have caused in Britain! The British government also requisitioned the battleship 'Canada' from Chile, and that was not 'stolen'- it was returned to Chile after the war.

The rest of this book is really a brief history of Greek politics from the 1920's until modern times, in which Averof makes occasional brief appearances. Unfortunately it's a most unedifying tale of revolution, coups, and the vicious treatment of Greeks by other Greeks. Averof played her part in the misery though, remarkably, she survived WW2. All told, this is a story in two parts, the first a jingoistic account of the Balkan wars, the second a sad tales of domestic political strife- overall, the first half is infuriating whilst the second is just not very enjoyable to read..


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Unfortunately the author of this book is a fully paid up enthusiast for all things Greek and this is his fourth book on Greek history. I say unfortunately because it is very clear he knew nothing at all about warships or sea warfare before doing a small amount of research for this book and then spends most of the first 50 pages (of a mere 162 total) recapping three thousand years of Greek history.

The whole account is so inaccurate and biased in favour of Greece as to be embarrassing. In the Balkan wars, to Mr Carr the Turks and Bulgarians played a similar role to wicked and luckless indians as depicted in old 1950's hollywood 'Cowboys and Indians' movies. There are few references of any kind and much of the text relies on the memoirs of two Greek admirals- Koundouriotis and Sakellariou- between the lines its clear that both were really rather unpleasant fellows and such men are hardly likely to have been unbiased and objective observers!

I knew we were in trouble when the great English naval constructor Sir William White is referred to as 'Admiral William White'. Throughout, ships are called battleships, pre- Dreadnoughts or cruisers seemingly at random. The author particularly favours 'cruiser' and the three old coast defence battleships of the Hydra class are so called throughout. Mr Carr even calls the Turkish battleship Turgut Reis a cruiser at the battle of Helles. It should not be difficult to correctly designate the ships in a 'fleet' of just four vessels.(much later, even the British battleship Barham is referred to as a cruiser). This sort of thing does matter rather a lot since obviously the characteristics and role and of cruisers is fundamentally different from battleships- obvious to a naval enthusiast like myself, anyway, and if you call your book 'RHNS Averof' naval enthusiasts will be the ones who incline to buy it. Such people will at once note that the main barbettes of Averof would not have been a mere 40mm thick- they were actually 160mm. They may also know that the 'cruiser' Frth-i-Bulend sunk at at Thessaloniki was actually an 1870's coastal defence ironclad. And so on.

In that war the Turks did not cover themselves in glory at sea, but their casualties at lemnos were just over 200- not 500 and 'about half dead'. The idea that two hardly conclusive naval engagements with no ships sunk actually decided the war plainly lacks any credibility. Then, immediately before the outbreak of war in 1914 Churchill requisitioned the battleships Sultan Osman 1 and Reshadiye, just completed for Turkey in England. Mr Carr again takes a naive and simplistic view, describing this as 'a neat piece of chicanery, not far removed from outright theft'. It was not- it was allowed for in the contracts, and since Turkey, with its German trained army, would almost certainly have sided with Germany anyway (against Russia) imagine the furore THAT would have caused in Britain! The British government also requisitioned the battleship 'Canada' from Chile, and that was not 'stolen'- it was returned to Chile after the war.

The rest of this book is really a brief history of Greek politics from the 1920's until modern times, in which Averof makes occasional brief appearances. Unfortunately it's a most unedifying tale of revolution, coups, and the vicious treatment of Greeks by other Greeks. Averof played her part in the misery though, remarkably, she survived WW2. All told, this is a story in two parts, the first a jingoistic account of the Balkan wars, the second a sad tales of domestic political strife- overall, the first half is infuriating whilst the second is just not very enjoyable to read..


Produktinformation

  • Herausgeber &rlm : &lrm Pen & Sword Books Ltd Illustrated Edition (9. Juni 2014)
  • Sprache &rlm : &lrm Englisch
  • Gebundene Ausgabe &rlm : &lrm 144 Seiten
  • ISBN-10 &rlm : &lrm 1783030216
  • ISBN-13 &rlm : &lrm 978-1783030217
  • Abmessungen &rlm : &lrm 15.75 x 2.54 x 23.62 cm
  • Amazon Bestseller-Rang: Nr. 2,245,493 in Bücher (Siehe Top 100 in Bücher)
    • Nr. 8,299 in Militärwissenschaft
    • Nr. 27,642 in Militärgeschichte (Bücher)
    • Nr. 388,533 in Film, Kunst & Kultur (Bücher)

    Career of the Pisa and Amalfi

    The career of the Amalfi was shortened during the conflict since she was sunk by the UB14 (U26 under Austro-Hungarian flag), on July 7, 1915 in the north of the Adriatic. A German submarine operating under the Austrian flag sank her. Indeed officially the Kaiser was not yet at war against Italy.
    Pisa for her part received a foremast, her tertiary artillery was modified with the addition of fourteen 76 mm guns and six 76 mm AA. In 1921 she was relegated to coastal defense, then became a training ship. A Macchi M7 reconnaissance aircraft was carried in 1925, and she later served as a cadets training ship and for naval lieutenants. She was retired from service in April 1937.


    Pisa off Derna in 1912

    Pisa was the flagship of Rear-Admiral Ernesto Presbitero, commander of the 2nd Division of the 1st Squadron of the Mediterranean Fleet when the Italo-Turkish war broke out. She started the initial blockade of Tripoli with her sister-ship, searched for the Ottoman navy, and landed troops for the occupation of Tobrouk. She escorted along with Marco Polo and destroyers a convoy bound to Derna and shelled the port when negotiations broke down. The town was razed and taken on October 18 after several days of siege and constant bombardment. She also escorted troops from sicily and attempted to seize the port of Zuara before Christmas 1911.

    Early in 1912, the cruiser was in operations in the eastern Aegean Sea to try to lure out the Ottoman fleet, and shelled the Dardanelles forts while other ships systematically destroyed telegraph and radio stations, plus cutting underwater cables. With her sister ship she landed her armed crews to take the island of Astropalia on 28 April and convert it as a supply base, while she later covered the landings and occupation of Rhodes on 4 May. She spent some time after peace was signed, anchored at Constantinople and roaming the Aegean sea, showing the flag.

    She later operated at Taranto, and Brindisi when the war broke out for Italy in 1915. During the war, she was redeployed at Venice by Admiral Paolo Thaon di Revel in order to prevent other sorties by the Austro-Hungarian fleet, bound on shelling coastal cities. After the loss of Amalfi she was transferred to Vlore, Albania in April 1916. She took part in the shelling of Durazzo on 2 October 1918. On 1 July 1921, Pisa was already considered a second-class battleship, and became coastal battleship doubling as training ship. In 1925 she was modified to operate a Macchi M.7 flying boat and until 1930, trained naval cadets and lieutenants.

    Pisa in 1932, bound to China
    Pisa in 1932, bound to China.

    Amalfi

    There is little information in sources on Amalfi until the 1911 Italo-Turkish War (as for Pisa), however at the start of the war in 1911 she departed Syracuse for Tripoli with the bulk of the Regia Marina, comprising the battleships Roma and Napoli, armored cruisers Pisa, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Varese, and Francesco Ferruccio escorted by two flotillas of destroyers. She blockaded Tripoli after coaling at Malta, and on 15 October, was shelling Derna. In April 1912 she was in the Aegean Sea to bombard the Turkish coast and Dardanelles. Two squadrons had joined force from Tobrouk and Augusta and met at Stampalia on 17 April for the latter operations.

    Amalfi and Pisa took over the dangerous task of entering deep the Dardanelles in order to draw out the Ottoman fleet. Meanwhile, they duelled for two hours with four Turkish batteries armed with 200 to 230 mm guns while the Italians fired at a range of 8,000 metres (8,700 yd). On 28 April she also landed a party of 250 men to fight off the Turkish garrison on the island of Astropalia and take the Island.

    During the interwar (1912 and 1915) Amalfi escorted King Victor Emmanuel III on the royal yacht Trinacria to the regatta at Kiel in Germany. Then on Trinacria and Stockholm. She later greeted USN Admiral Charles J. Badger at Naples on USS Wyoming. When the war broke out for Italy, and later in May 1915 she was part of th squadron anchored at Brindisi, comprising six pre-dreadnought battleships, those of the Regina Elena class and Ammiraglio di Saint Bon plus the cruisers San Marco, San Giorgio and her sister-ship.

    Under orders from Admiral Anton Haus, the Austro-Hungarian Navy raided Italian coast on the night of 23/24 May 1915 to disrupt the Italian mobilization, striking Ancona hard. The fleet safely made home, showing some form of impunity, while the Italian fleet was just too far away to do anything. Pressure from Rome to act translated send the fleet to Venice to supplement the local fleet, and it acted as planned as a deterrent against further raids, while this made a tempting prize for the Austrian U-boats roaming in the sector.

    Indeed, the consequence was dire for Amalfi and her light underwater protection. Shortly after her arrival at Venice, she made reconnaissance mission near the Austro-Hungarian port of Pula during the night of 6/7 July 1915. Making it back to Venice she was only 20 nautical miles (37 km 23 mi) when she was torpedoed by the Austrian submarine U-26 at dawn. The latter was the rebranded UB-14, flying the Austrian flag, under command of Oberleutnant zur See Heino von Heimburg. He was just making his first patrol and was awarded at his return.

    The unfortunate cruiser sank relatively slowly (30 minutes), listing to port and gradually evacuated. Distress calls to the division also made many ships arrive to save the crew. However losses were about 200, down to 67 fatalities in an official report. Pisa and the other armored cruisers at Venice stayled mostly inactive in harbor due to the result of this action before being ordered to Valona in April 1916.


    Watch the video: ΠΑΡΑΙΤΗΘΗΚΕ Η ΠΡΩΘΥΠΟΥΡΓΟΣ ΤΗΣ ΝΕΑΣ ΝΟΤΙΑΣ ΟΥΑΛΙΑΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΑΥΣΤΡΑΛΙΑ (June 2022).


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