New

The History of The USS Penobscot III - History

The History of The USS Penobscot III - History


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Penobscot III

(ATA-188: dp. 534; 1. 143'; b. 33'; dr. 13'; s. 13 k.; epl. 45;
a. 1 3"; cl. Sotoyomo)

The third Penobscot (ATA-188), an auxiliary ocean tug, was laid down as ATR 115 by Levingston Shipbuilding Co. Orange, Tex. ll September 1944; launched 12 October; an] placed in service 12 December.

Following shakedown Penobscot was designated for duty in the Far East. Assigned homeyard at Pearl Harbor, she provided extensive advanced base towing services and called at numerous islands as events in the march towards victory in the Pactfie reached a crescendo. With the end of hostilities the ocean tug operated for a short time out of Chinese ports.

In April 1946 Penobscot returned to home waters and was assigned to the 3rd Naval District. From this point she commenced a lengthy career of east coast towing operations. As a 3rd Naval District ship homeported at New York and berthed at the Naval Supply Center, Bayonne, N.J., she spends an average of half of each year away from home port, ranging from Maine to the Caribbean Islands.

In addition to towing assignments, Penobscot conducts
torpedo and mine recovery operations, and provides a wide range of services to ships of the Fleet. One demonstration of her operational flexibillty occurred in May 1967 when she assisted USNS Mission Capistrano in oceanographic research off Bermuda.

In July 1967 she shifted from the 3rd Naval Distriet List to the Service Force, Atlantic Fleet. After overhaul at Coastal Shipyard and Drydock Co., Staten Island, N.Y., that autumn, Penobscot resumed her multifarious tasks, nearlY every aspect of which involves the rendering of service to the Fleet. Into 1970 she remains active with the Service Force, Atlantic Fleet.


Penobscot Expedition

The Penobscot Expedition was an American naval expedition sent to reclaim Maine, which the British had conquered and renamed New Ireland. It was the largest American naval expedition of the American Revolutionary War and is the United States' worst naval defeat until Pearl Harbor. Δ] The fighting took place both on land and on sea, in what is today Castine, Maine. The defeat of the Expedition was one of the greatest British victories of the war.

In June 1779, British Army forces under the command of British General Francis McLean established a series of fortifications centered on the British fort, Fort George, located on the Majabigwaduce Peninsula in Penobscot Bay, with the goals of establishing a military presence on that part of the coast and beginning a new colony to be known as New Ireland. In response, the state of Massachusetts, with some support from the Continental Congress, raised an expedition to drive the British out.

The Americans landed troops in late July and attempted to establish a siege of the Fort George in a series of actions seriously hampered by disagreements over control of the expedition between Commodore Dudley Saltonstall and General Solomon Lovell. For two weeks British General Francis McLean held off the assault until a British fleet under the command of Sir George Collier arrived on August 13, driving the American fleet to total self-destruction up the Penobscot River. The survivors of the American expedition were forced to make an overland journey back to more-populated parts of Massachusetts with minimal food and armament.


Nicholson History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The story of the Nicholson family stretches back through time to the Viking settlers who populated the rugged shores of Scotland in the Medieval era. The name Nicholson was derived from from the personal name, Nicholas. Nicholson is a patronymic surname, which belongs to the category of hereditary surnames. The surname Nicholson arose out of the religious naming tradition. In Christian countries, the name Nicholas was popular, owing to the legends surrounding the 4th century Lycian bishop of that name. In Catholic countries in particular, this religious figure was revered. This accounts for its popularity as a surname in Scotland. The name Nicholas came from the Greek, Nikolaos, which means conqueror of the people. In Scotland, the earliest bearers of the surname Nicholson lived on the Isle of Skye, which is located on the western coast.

Set of 4 Coffee Mugs and Keychains

$69.95 $48.95

Early Origins of the Nicholson family

The surname Nicholson was first found in on the Isle of Skye, where the first on record was Ottar Snaekollson who was the Chief of the MacNichols and attended the Council of Chiefs, held by MacDonald, Lord of the Isles, at Finlaggan on the Island of Islay about 1240. One of the first records of the name in Scotland was Maucolum fiz Nicol, who rendered homage to King Edward I of England in 1296 and the Nicholsons of Skye have Englished their name from Macnicol. [1]

Coat of Arms and Surname History Package

$24.95 $21.20

Early History of the Nicholson family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Nicholson research. Another 115 words (8 lines of text) covering the years 1263, 1500, 1607, 1645, 1718, 1694, 1718, 1655, 1727, 1655, 1728, 1694, 1698, 1698, 1705, 1713, 1720 and 1725 are included under the topic Early Nicholson History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Unisex Coat of Arms Hooded Sweatshirt

Nicholson Spelling Variations

Spelling variations are extremely common among Scottish names dating from this era because the arts of spelling and translation were not yet standardized. Spelling was done by sound, and translation from Gaelic to English was generally quite careless. In different records, Nicholson has been spelled MacNichol, MacNicol, MacNicoll, Nicolson, Nicholson, MacNicholas, MacNickle, MacNickel, MacNickell, MacNiccol, MacNychole and many more.

Early Notables of the Nicholson family (pre 1700)

Notable amongst the Clan from early times was James Nicolson (d. 1607), Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland & Bishop of Dunkeld Thomas Joseph Nicolson (1645-1718), a Roman Catholic bishop, Vicar Apostolic of Scotland (1694-1718) William Nicolson (1655-1727).
Another 41 words (3 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Nicholson Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Nicholson family to Ireland

Some of the Nicholson family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 57 words (4 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Nicholson migration +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Nicholson Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Garret Nicholson, who settled in Virginia in 1635
  • Elizabeth Nicholson, who arrived in Virginia in 1635 [2]
  • Garret Nicholson, aged 23, who arrived in Virginia in 1635 [2]
  • Eliz Nicholson, who landed in Virginia in 1637 [2]
  • Georg Nicholson, who landed in Virginia in 1638 [2]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Nicholson Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • Richard Nicholson, who arrived in Virginia in 1703 [2]
  • Peter Nicholson, who arrived in Virginia in 1714 [2]
  • William Nicholson, who arrived in Maryland in 1720 [2]
  • George, Nicholson Jr., who arrived in Virginia in 1724 [2]
  • Geo Nicholson, who landed in Virginia in 1724 [2]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Nicholson Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • Patrick Nicholson, who landed in America in 1808 [2]
  • Duncan Nicholson, who arrived in North Carolina in 1809 [2]
  • Christopher Nicholson, aged 31, who arrived in Maryland in 1812 [2]
  • J M Nicholson, aged 21, who arrived in New York in 1812 [2]
  • S Nicholson, aged 26, who arrived in North Carolina in 1812 [2]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Nicholson migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Nicholson Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • William Nicholson, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1749
  • Mr. James Nicholson U.E. who settled in St. Andrews, Charlotte County, New Brunswick c. 1784 member of the Penobscot Association [3]
  • Mr. John Nicholson U.E. who settled in St. Andrews, Charlotte County, New Brunswick c. 1784 [3]
  • Mr. Robert Nicholson U.E. who settled in Home District [York County], Ontario c. 1784 [3]
  • Mr. Robert Nicholson U.E. who settled in Eastern District [Cornwall], Ontario c. 1784 [3]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Nicholson Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • John Nicholson, aged 35, a farmer, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1834 aboard the ship "Samuel" from Liverpool, England
  • Robert Nicholson, aged 30, a farmer, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1834 aboard the ship "Samuel" from Liverpool, England
  • Mr. Richard Nicholson, aged 40 who was emigrating through Grosse Isle Quarantine Station, Quebec aboard the ship "Manchester" departing 5th June 1847 from Liverpool, England the ship arrived on 17th July 1847 but he died on board [4]
  • Dond Nicholson, who landed in Nova Scotia in 1848
  • J C Nicholson, who landed in Victoria, British Columbia in 1862
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Nicholson Settlers in Canada in the 20th Century

Nicholson migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Nicholson Settlers in Australia in the 18th Century
  • Miss Alice Nicholson, (nèe Stewart), (b. 1770), aged 28, English convict who was convicted in Lancaster, Lancashire, England for 7 years , transported aboard the "Britannia III" on 18th July 1798, arriving in New South Wales, Australia, she died in 1827 [5]
Nicholson Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Miss Elizabeth Nicholson, (b. 1799), aged 27, Irish house servant who was convicted in Dublin, Ireland for 7 years for stealing, transported aboard the "Brothers" on 3rd October 1826, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[6]
  • Mr. Peter Nicholson, English convict who was convicted in Lancaster, Lancashire, England for 14 years, transported aboard the "Aurora" on 18th June 1835, arriving in Tasmania ( Van Diemen's Land) [7]
  • Thomas Nicholson, aged 20, a shoemaker, who arrived in Kangaroo Island aboard the ship "Buffalo" in 1836 [8]
  • G. Nicholson, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Asia" in 1839 [9]
  • James Nicholson, who arrived in Adelaide, Australia aboard the ship "Indus" in 1839 [10]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Nicholson migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:

Nicholson Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century
  • E. Nicholson, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Brougham" in 1842
  • Thomas D. Nicholson, aged 30, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "John Wickliffe" in 1848
  • Alison Nicholson, aged 29, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "John Wickliffe" in 1848
  • Catherine Ria Nicholson, aged 4, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "John Wickliffe" in 1848
  • Janet Dickson Nicholson, aged 3, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "John Wickliffe" in 1848
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Contemporary Notables of the name Nicholson (post 1700) +

  • John Joseph "Jack" Nicholson (b. 1937), three-time Academy award winning American actor, film director and producer
  • Ms. Lindsay Nicholson M.B.E., British Editor for Good Housekeeping, was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire on 8th June 2018, for services to Journalism and Equal Opportunities [11]
  • Mrs. Wendy Jane Nicholson M.B.E., British National Lead Nurse for Children, Young People and Families for Public Health England, was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire on 29th December 2018 for services to Nursing for Children and Young People [12]
  • John Nicholson (1941-2017), New Zealand racing driver from Auckland
  • Sir Sydney Nicholson (1875-1947), English choir director, founder of the Royal College of Music
  • Paul Nicholson (b. 1954), Canadian NHL ice hockey forward
  • Edward Max Nicholson (1904-2003), Irish environmentalist, ornithologist and internationalist, and a founder of the World Wildlife Fund
  • Sir Charles Nicholson (1808-1903), 1st Baronet, British-Australian politician and explorer
  • Elliot Nicholson (1871-1953), English rugby union player
  • Joyce Nicholson (1919-2011), Australian author
  • . (Another 5 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Historic Events for the Nicholson family +

Air New Zealand Flight 901
  • Miss Christine Margaret Nicholson (1953-1979), New Zealander passenger, from Christchurch, South Island, New Zealand aboard the Air New Zealand Flight 901 for an Antarctic sightseeing flight when it flew into Mount Erebus she died in the crash [13]
HMAS Sydney II
  • Mr. Robert Wesley Nicholson (1905-1941), Australian Warrant Electrician from Chatswood, New South Wales, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [14]
HMS Cornwall
  • John Edward Nicholson, British Sub Lieutenant (E) aboard the HMS Cornwall when she was struck by air bombers and sunk he survived the sinking [15]
HMS Hood
  • Mr. Thomas W Nicholson (b. 1916), English Cook serving for the Royal Navy from Gateshead, County Durham, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [16]
  • Mr. Alfred F Nicholson (b. 1912), English Petty Officer serving for the Royal Navy from Alverstoke, Hampshire, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [16]
HMS Prince of Wales
  • Mr. William Barlett Nicholson, British Corporal, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [17]
  • Mr. Nicholson, British Canteen NAAFI, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [17]
HMS Royal Oak
  • William Daniel Nicholson (d. 1939), British Petty Officer with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk he died in the sinking [18]
RMS Lusitania
  • Mr. Charles Duncan Nicholson, Canadian 2nd Class passenger from Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, who sailed aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [19]
RMS Titanic
  • Mr. Arthur Ernest Nicholson (d. 1912), aged 64, English First Class passenger from Shanklin, Isle of Wight who sailed aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking and was recovered by CS Mackay-Bennett [20]
USS Arizona
  • Mr. Glen Eldon Nicholson, American Electrician's Mate Third Class from North Dakota, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [21]
  • Mr. hancel Grant Nicholson, American Seaman First Class working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [21]

Related Stories +

The Nicholson Motto +

The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Generositate
Motto Translation: By Generosity.


Upcoming Program

In Pursuit of History: A Conversation About a Great Americana Collection

Thursday, May 13, 2021 | 6 PM (EST) | Free and open to the public

Join editors H. Richard Dietrich III, Deborah M. Rebuke, and the museum's Curator of Maritime History and publication contributor, Michael P. Dyer, for a discussion around their newest publication, In Pursuit of History, featuring topics surrounding Chinese exporting, whale trading, and the histories and interest with the maritime industry.

H. Richard Dietrich III, President of the Dietrich American Foundation and Deborah M. Rebuck, longtime Curator, worked together as co-editors of In Pursuit of History, paying tribute to a major collection and its founder, showcasing highlights from the Dietrich American Foundation. This foundation was established in 1963 by H. Richard Dietrich Jr., and focuses on 18th Century American fine and decorative art, books and manuscripts, and works with museums and cultural institutions to support their collections.

Throughout the publication, essays explore the formation of the collection and its many areas of strength, enhancing current understandings of colonial history and material culture. An array of specialists write about the scope and richness of the foundation’s holdings, of which books and manuscripts account for half. Chinese export wares, furniture, silver, fraktur, other decorative arts, and paintings of historical importance, speak in varied ways to the nature of colonial identity, while objects related to the whaling trade signal the new nation’s maritime focus. With striking new photography and insightful scholarship, In Pursuit of History brings to life both the collector and the time period that he loved.

Contributors to the book include David L. Barquist, Edward S. Cooke Jr., H. Richard Dietrich III, Michael P. Dyer, Kathleen A. Foster, Morrison H. Heckscher, Philip C. Mead, Lisa Minardi, Deborah M. Rebuck, and William S. Reese. In Pursuit of History is published by the Dietrich American Foundation, in association with the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and distributed by Yale University Press.


Naval History News

the Submarine History Seminar at the U.S. Navy Memorial on 31 October were treated to a discussion on a top-secret 1972 U.S. operation and the 1990 movie that brought the Cold War “Silent Service” to the big screen. The Naval Submarine League and the Naval Historical Foundation sponsored the event, titled “The Hunt for Red October—Fact and Fiction.”

Historian and discussion moderator David Rosenberg pointed out that one of Admiral Arleigh Burke’s directions to the first U.S. nuclear submarine captains in 1959 was to “follow the Russian submarines so that we know what we have got—if they know that we’re following them, it doesn’t matter.” Sonar made clandestine underwater “trailing” possible, and as Rosenberg noted, during the Cold War “we [the U.S. Submarine Force] could hear them, and they could not hear us.” Sub captains nevertheless needed years of experience to successfully trail another boat.

One such skipper was panelist Captain David C. Minton III, former commanding officer of the USS Guardfish (SSN-612). In the spring of 1972, after the breakdown of Vietnam War peace talks and the U.S. mining of Haiphong Harbor, Minton and his crew were off Vladivostok when they detected a Soviet Echo II–class missile submarine setting out to sea. The captain recounted the Guardfish’s subsequent weeks-long, tension-filled trail through hazardous waters to the South China Sea, near Yankee Station. “We took our bearings every 30 seconds for 28 days,” Minton said.

Many years later, Admiral Alfred Sim­eno­vich Berzin was reading an article by Minton about the episode and immediately recognized the trailed boat as his own, K-184. The two submariners exchanged many emails, using Google Translate, and in 2012 met face to face in St. Petersburg.

Rear Admiral David Oliver Jr., another panelist and submarine veteran, was a lieutenant commander on the staff of Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) Admiral Elmo Zumwalt in the spring of 1972. Oliver recounted that the Submarine Force was undergoing a cultural crisis at the time, transitioning from diesel to nuclear boats. Meanwhile, “in parts of the Navy, the Submarine Force was hated,” which was reflective of the relationship between the CNO and his confrontational director of Naval Reactors, Vice Admiral Hyman G. Rickover.

At this point, the discussion turned to The Hunt for Red October, the 1990 thriller based on Tom Clancy’s 1984 debut novel, published by the Naval Institute Press. In the late 1980s, then-Commander Tom Fargo was commanding officer of the USS Salt Lake City (SSN-716) when the Navy invited the movie’s cast on board before filming to better acclimate them to submarine-service life. Admiral Fargo emphasized how the film was the public’s “first real window into submarine operations, especially covert submarine operations,” and that “we pulled out all of the stops” to ensure an accurate portrayal. The submarine community was hoping to reap the same kind of publicity windfall from Red October that naval aviation had gotten from the 1986 blockbuster Top Gun.

During a brief cruise, Fargo took Scott Glenn—who would play Captain Bart Mancuso, skipper of the fictitious sub USS Dallas—under his wing. The admiral said the actor “listened and he watched and picked up all the nuances of interaction between captain and crew.” Fargo then had Glenn serve as temporary captain of the submarine so he could “get a feel for the responsibilities.”

How did submariners react to the movie? They thought it was “a pretty good representation of what we do,” Fargo said. “It wasn’t hokey.” Moreover, it lifted morale, he added.

The book The Hunt for Red October likely would never have made it to the screen if not for Mace Neufeld, the final panelist. After learning from a March 1985 Time magazine article that the book was a favorite of President Ronald Reagan, the Hollywood film producer quickly read it and called the Naval Institute Press, which accepted his offer to option the rights. But studio after studio rejected the project. Neufeld eventually gave a copy of the book to the head of Paramount Pictures to read on a flight to London. Soon after, the producer received a call from Heathrow Airport that the studio was on board.

But getting cooperation from the Navy would be key. Initial hesitation about bringing “the Silent Service” into the glare of the Hollywood spotlight was overcome, and the producer was treated to a voyage from Norfolk, Virginia, to Groton, Connecticut, in the USS Hyman G. Rickover (SSN-709). When Neufeld came aboard, crew members’ nametags bore the names of characters from The Hunt for Red October.

Tall Ship Providence Finds New Home

The Providence, a full-scale replica of the 110-foot, 12-gun sloop-of-war that served as the Continental Navy’s first warship, has found a new lease on life. A recently formed Alexandria, Virginia–based nonprofit, the Tall Ship Providence Foundation, has announced it is acquiring the vessel and seeking to rehabilitate her for educational maritime heritage programs at Old Town Alexandria’s waterfront after she arrives in the early summer of 2019.

The Providence suffered major damages at Rhode Island’s Newport Shipyard during a blizzard in January 2015. Heavy winds blew the ship off her cradle support, knocked her on her side, and smashed a hole in her hull. Extensive repair efforts got under way in summer 2016. The owner already had invested heavily in much-needed restoration of the ship before the winter storm, and he had been seeking a potential buyer.

The Tall Ship Providence Foundation stepped up. The nonprofit plans to hold public tours, chartered cruises, and historical seminars, as well as other educational programs. To accomplish these goals, the organization is focusing its efforts on fundraising and seeking capital contribution support. The group’s first event was held at Old Town in September.

Initial fundraising efforts are targeted toward a 16-month restoration of the ship to ensure historical accuracy and bring her into sailing condition. Master shipwright Leon Poindexter, who is leading the project, has more than 40 years’ traditional shipbuilding experience that includes restoring the USS Constitution’s gun deck and working on the ships used in the hit 2003 Russell Crowe movie Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World. The Providence herself has a cinematic connection as well, having been used in the filming of Pirates of the Caribbean.

The original Providence was built in the late 1700s by the prominent New England Brown family (of Brown University fame). Her first mission in the American Revolution was to clear the Chesapeake Bay of British ships. John Paul Jones had the Providence as his first command. The ship also deployed the Marines on their first amphibious assault on foreign soil. She was scuttled in 1779 to prevent her from falling into British hands after the failed Penobscot Expedition. Bringing the story full circle, the same Brown family commissioned the Providence’s exact replica to be built for the 1976 Bicentennial.


Jones History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

While the ancestors of the bearers of Jones came from ancient Welsh-Celtic origins, the name itself has its roots in Christianity. This surname comes from the personal name John, which is derived from the Latin Johannes, meaning "Yahweh is gracious."

This name has always been common in Britain, rivaling William in popularity by the beginning of the 14th century. The feminine form Joan, or Johanna in Latin, was also popular, and the surname Jones may be derived from either the male or female name. "Though its origins are in England, the surname is predominately held by people of Welsh extraction due to the overwhelming use of patronymics in Wales from the 16th century and the prevalence of the name John at that time." [1] "Next to John Smith, John Jones is probably the most common combination of names in Britain." [2]

Set of 4 Coffee Mugs and Keychains

$69.95 $48.95

Early Origins of the Jones family

The surname Jones was first found in Denbighshire (Welsh: Sir Ddinbych), a historic county in Northeast Wales created by the Laws in Wales Act 1536, where their ancient family seat was at Llanerchrugog.

The name Jones, currently one of the most prolific in the world, descends from three main sources: from Gwaithvoed, Lord Cardigan, Chief of one of the 15 noble tribes of North Wales in 921 from Bleddyn Ap Cynfyn, King of Powys and from Dyffryn Clwyd, a Chieftain of Denbighland.

All three lines merged in Denbighshire about the 11th century and it is not known which of the three can be considered the main branch of the family. Later some of the family ventured into England. "[The parish of Astall in Oxfordshire] was formerly the residence of Sir Richard Jones, one of the judges of the court of common pleas in the reign of Charles I. and there are still some remains of the ancient manor-house near the church, which are now converted into a farmhouse." [3]

"Llanarth Court [in Monmouthshire], the admired seat of John Jones, Esq., is a handsome and spacious mansion, the front ornamented with an elegant portico resembling that of the temple of Pæstum." [3]

Coat of Arms and Surname History Package

$24.95 $21.20

Early History of the Jones family

This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Jones research. Another 58 words (4 lines of text) covering the years 1578, 1658, 1638, 1712, 1610, 1673, 1656, 1660, 1618, 1674, 1650, 1656, 1605, 1681, 1645, 1637, 1649, 1628, 1697, 1550, 1619, 1589, 1643, 1669, 1640, 1643 and are included under the topic Early Jones History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Unisex Coat of Arms Hooded Sweatshirt

Jones Spelling Variations

Welsh surnames are relatively few in number, but they have an inordinately large number of spelling variations. There are many factors that explain the preponderance of Welsh variants, but the earliest is found during the Middle Ages when Welsh surnames came into use. Scribes and church officials recorded names as they sounded, which often resulted in a single person's name being inconsistently recorded over his lifetime. The transliteration of Welsh names into English also accounts for many of the spelling variations: the unique Brythonic Celtic language of the Welsh had many sounds the English language was incapable of accurately reproducing. It was also common for members of a same surname to change their names slightly, in order to signify a branch loyalty within the family, a religious adherence, or even patriotic affiliations. For all of these reasons, the many spelling variations of particular Welsh names are very important. The surname Jones has occasionally been spelled Jones, Jonas, Jone, Joness and others.

Early Notables of the Jones family (pre 1700)

Prominent amongst the family during the late Middle Ages was Gwaithvoed Lord Cardigan, Bleddyn Ap Cynfyn, and Dyffryn Clwyd Jones, the three patriarchs of the Jones family John Jones of Gellilyfdy (c. 1578-c.1658), a Welsh lawyer, antiquary, calligrapher, manuscript collector and scribe Richard Jones (1638-1712), first Earl of Ranelagh Sir Samuel Jones (1610-1673), an English politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1656 and 1660 Colonel Philip Jones (1618-1674), a Welsh military.
Another 74 words (5 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Jones Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Migration of the Jones family to Ireland

Some of the Jones family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
Another 143 words (10 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

Jones migration +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Jones Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
  • Chadwallader Jones, who landed in Virginia in 1623 [4]
  • Alexander Jones, who arrived in New England in 1631 [4]
  • Alice Jones, who arrived in Boston in 1635
  • Charles Jones and Humphrey Jones, who both settled in Virginia in 1636
  • Anne Jones, who settled in Virginia in 1648
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Jones Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
  • David Jones, who arrived in Boston, Massachusetts in 1712 [4]
  • Arthur Jones, who arrived in Virginia in 1724 [4]
  • Cornelius Jones, who arrived in Georgia in 1732 [4]
  • Roger Jones, who arrived in South Carolina in 1738
Jones Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
  • Christian Jones, who landed in Pennsylvania in 1801 [4]
  • William Jones, who landed in New York in 1815 [4]
  • James Jones, who arrived in Puerto Rico in 1816 [4]
  • Sarah Jones, who settled in New York in 1821
  • Caroline Jones, who landed in New York in 1824 [4]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Jones migration to Canada +

Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

Jones Settlers in Canada in the 18th Century
  • Mr. Ebenezer Jones Jr., U.E. (b. 1720) from New York, USA who settled in Home District, Saltfleet Township [Hamilton], Ontario c. 1780 he served in the Orange Rangers, married to Sarah Lockwood they had 5 children [5]
  • Capt. John Jones U.E., aka "Mahogany Jones" born in Maine, USA from Pownalborough, who settled in Grand Manan Island, Charlotte County, New Brunswick c. 1780 he served in the Rangers, member of the Port Matoon association as well as Penobscot Association [5]
  • Mr. Garret Jones U.E. who settled in Belle Vue, Beaver Harbour, New Brunswick c. 1783 [5]
  • Mr. Thomas Jones U.E. who arrived at Port Roseway [Shelburne], Nova Scotia on October 26, 1783 was passenger number 290 aboard the ship "HMS Clinton", picked up on September 28, 1783 at Staten Island, New York [5]
  • Mrs. Hannah Jones U.E. who arrived at Port Roseway [Shelburne], Nova Scotia on October 26, 1783 was passenger number 319 aboard the ship "HMS Clinton", picked up on September 28, 1783 at Staten Island, New York [5]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Jones Settlers in Canada in the 19th Century
  • Ty. Jones, aged 50, a farmer, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the ship "John" from Liverpool, England
  • John Jones, aged 24, a farmer, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1833 aboard the ship "John" from Liverpool, England
  • Robert Jones, aged 20, a labourer, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Billow" in 1833
  • Richard Jones, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Protector" in 1834
  • William Jones, aged 19, who arrived in Saint John, New Brunswick aboard the ship "Highlander" in 1834
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Jones migration to Australia +

Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

Jones Settlers in Australia in the 18th Century
  • Miss Ann Jones, English convict who was convicted in Shropshire, England for 7 years , transported aboard the "Britannia III" on 18th July 1798, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[6]
  • Miss Elizabeth Jones, English convict who was convicted in Hereford, Herefordshire, England for 7 years , transported aboard the "Britannia III" on 18th July 1798, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[6]
Jones Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
  • Mr. George Jones, British convict who was convicted in Middlesex, England for life, transported aboard the "Calcutta" in February 1803, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[7]
  • Mr. John Jones, (Hughes), British convict who was convicted in Bedford, Bedfordshire, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Calcutta" in February 1803, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[7]
  • Mr. John Jones, British convict who was convicted in Shropshire, England for life, transported aboard the "Calcutta" in February 1803, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[7]
  • Mr. Thomas Jones, British convict who was convicted in Sussex, England for life, transported aboard the "Calcutta" in February 1803, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[7]
  • Mr. William Jones, British convict who was convicted in Middlesex, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Calcutta" in February 1803, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[7]
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Jones migration to New Zealand +

Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:

Jones Settlers in New Zealand in the 19th Century
  • Mr. Andrew Jones, Australian settler travelling from Hobart, Tasmania, Australia aboard the ship "Bee" arriving in New Zealand in 1831 [8]
  • Mr. Stephen Jones, Australian settler travelling from Port of Hobart, Tasmania, Australia on board the ship "David Owen" arriving in New Zealand in 1832 [8]
  • Thomas Jones, who landed in Wellington, New Zealand in 1839 aboard the ship Success
  • Thomas Jones, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Success" in 1839
  • Joseph Jones, aged 21, a gardener, who arrived in Wellington, New Zealand aboard the ship "Martha Ridgeway" in 1840
  • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Jones Settlers in New Zealand in the 20th Century

Contemporary Notables of the name Jones (post 1700) +

  • John Walter Jones (1946-2020), Welsh civil servant, Chief Executive of the Welsh Language Board (1993�)
  • Mr. Terence Graham Parry Jones (1942-2020), born in Colwyn Bay, Denbighshire, Welsh Actor, Writer, Comedian known as Terry Jones, helped create Monty Python's Flying Circus
  • Aneurin M. Jones (1930-2017), Welsh painter who exhibited regularly at the National Eisteddfod of Wales
  • David Huw Jones (1934-2016), Welsh Anglican bishop, Bishop of St. David's from 1996 to 2001
  • Huw Jones (1700-1782), well-known Welsh poet
  • Peter Rees Jones (1843-1905), the son of a hat maker, from Wales and founder of the Peter Jones department store
  • Sir Edgar Rees Jones (1878-1962), Welsh barrister and Liberal Party politician
  • William Ronald Rhys Jones (1915-1987), Welsh literary journalist and editor
  • Tom Jones (b. 1940), born Thomas Jones Woodward, popular Welsh singer and actor particularly noted for his powerful voice
  • Catherine Zeta- Jones CBE (b. 1969), WelshAcademy Award-winning actress [9]
  • . (Another 147 notables are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Historic Events for the Jones family +

Arrow Air Flight 1285
  • Mr. Joseph A Jones (b. 1963), American Sergeant from Knoxville, Tennessee, USA who died in the crash [10]
Empress of Ireland
  • Mr. Edward John Jones, British First Officer from United Kingdom who worked aboard the Empress of Ireland and survived the sinking [11]
  • Mr. John Mackenzie Jones, British Junior 2nd Engineer from United Kingdom who worked aboard the Empress of Ireland and died in the sinking [11]
  • Mrs. Miriam Jones, née Roberts British Matron from United Kingdom who worked aboard the Empress of Ireland and died in the sinking [11]
  • Mr. Henry Andrew Jones, British Saloon Steward from United Kingdom who worked aboard the Empress of Ireland and died in the sinking [11]
  • Mr. Daniel Henry Jones, British Seaman from United Kingdom who worked aboard the Empress of Ireland and survived the sinking [11]
  • . (Another 11 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Flight TWA 800
  • Mrs. Ramona U. Jones (1932-1996), aged 64, from West Hartford, Connecticut, USA, American passenger flying aboard flight TWA 800 from J.F.K. Airport, New York to Leonardo da Vinci Airport, Rome when the plane crashed after takeoff she died in the crash [12]
Halifax Explosion
  • Mr. Robert  Jones (1877-1917), Canadian Engine Room Artificer aboard the HMS Highflyer from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada who died in the explosion [13]
  • Mr. Robert  Jones (1887-1917), Welsh Carpenter aboard the SS Picton from Port Madoc, Wales, United Kingdom who died in the explosion [13]
Hillsborough disaster
  • Richard Jones (1963-1989), English chemistry graduate who was attending the FA Cup semi-final at Hillsborough Stadium, in Sheffield, Yorkshire when the stand allocated area became overcrowded and 96 people were crushed in what became known as the Hillsborough disaster and he died from his injuries [14]
  • Gary Philip Jones (1790-1989), English student who was attending the FA Cup semi-final at Hillsborough Stadium, in Sheffield, Yorkshire when the stand allocated area became overcrowded and 96 people were crushed in what became known as the Hillsborough disaster and he died from his injuries [14]
  • Christine Anne Jones (1961-1989), English senior radiographer and Sunday school teacher who was attending the FA Cup semi-final at Hillsborough Stadium, in Sheffield, Yorkshire when the stand allocated area became overcrowded and 96 people were crushed in what became known as the Hillsborough disaster and she died from her injuries [14]
HMAS Sydney II
  • Mr. Wilfred George Jones (1895-1941), Australian Chief Shipwright from Naremburn, New South Wales, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [15]
  • Mr. Ivan David Jones (1918-1941), Australian Acting Engine Room Artificer 4th Class from Fremantle, Western Australia, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [15]
  • Mr. Philip Trevor Jones (1897-1941), Australian Chief Petty Officer from Frankston, Victoria, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [15]
  • Mr. Donald Edgar Jones (1920-1941), Australian Able Seaman from West Ryde, New South Wales, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [15]
  • Mr. David James Jones (1914-1941), Australian Acting Stoker Petty Officer from Glebe Point, New South Wales, Australia, who sailed into battle aboard HMAS Sydney II and died in the sinking [15]
  • . (Another 1 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
HMS Cornwall
  • Edward John Jones (d. 1942), British Able Seaman aboard the HMS Cornwall when she was struck by air bombers and sunk he died in the sinking [16]
HMS Dorsetshire
  • Norman Jones, British aboard the HMS Dorsetshire when she was struck by air bombers and sunk he survived the sinking [17]
  • William James Jones (d. 1945), British Able Seaman aboard the HMS Dorsetshire when she was struck by air bombers and sunk he died in the sinking [17]
HMS Hood
  • Mr. Richard Jones (b. 1919), Welsh Able Seaman serving for the Royal Navy Reserve from Holyhead, Anglesey, Wales, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [18]
  • Mr. Roy T R Jones (b. 1924), English Boy 1st Class serving for the Royal Navy from Southend-on-Sea, Sussex, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [18]
  • Mr. Ronald G S Jones (b. 1919), Welsh Ordinary Seaman serving for the Royal Navy from Tonpandy, Glamorgan, Wales, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [18]
  • Mr. Robert W Jones (b. 1924), English Boy 1st Class serving for the Royal Navy from Barton-upon-Irwell, Lancashire, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [18]
  • Mr. Kenneth Jones (b. 1923), English Ordinary Seaman serving for the Royal Navy from Northallerton, Yorkshire, England, who sailed into battle and died in the sinking [18]
  • . (Another 10 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
HMS Prince of Wales
  • Mr. Stanley Jones, British sailor, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [19]
  • Mr. John Emyr Jones, British Marine, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [19]
  • Mr. Bernard Jones, British Boy, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [19]
  • Mr. Thomas Jones, British Able Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and survived the sinking [19]
  • Mr. Stanley Jones, British Marine, who sailed into battle on the HMS Prince of Wales and died in the sinking [19]
  • . (Another 11 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
HMS Repulse
  • Mr. Selwyn Jones, British Steward, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [20]
  • Mr. Howard Wynn Jones, British Able Bodied Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and died in the sinking [20]
  • Mr. Hugh W Jones, British sailor, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and survived the sinking [20]
  • Mr. Maldwyn Price Jones, British Able Bodied Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and died in the sinking [20]
  • Mr. Henry Norman Jones, British Ordinary Seaman, who sailed into battle on the HMS Repulse and died in the sinking [20]
  • . (Another 10 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
HMS Royal Oak
  • Raymond Herbert S. Jones, British Leading Telegraphist with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk he survived the sinking [21]
  • Thomas H. Jones, British Leading Stoker with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk he survived the sinking [21]
  • Thomas John Jones (1922-1939), British Boy 1st Class with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk he died in the sinking [21]
  • Sydney Walter Jones (d. 1939), British Seaman with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk he died in the sinking [21]
  • Henry George Jones (1918-1939), British Able Seaman with the Royal Navy aboard the HMS Royal Oak when she was torpedoed by U-47 and sunk he died in the sinking [21]
  • . (Another 2 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
Pan Am Flight 103 (Lockerbie)
  • Christopher Andrew Jones (1968-1988), American Student from Claverack, New York, America, who flew aboard the Pan Am Flight 103 from Frankfurt to Detroit, known as the Lockerbie bombing in 1988 and died [22]
RMS Lusitania
  • Mr. William Ewart Gladstone Jones, English Third Electrician from West Kirkby, Liverpool, England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking [23]
  • Mr. Michael Jones, English Trimmer from England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking [23]
  • Miss Mary Elizabeth Jones, English Stewardess from Bishopston, Bristol, England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking and was recovered [23]
  • Mr. Arthur Rowland Jones, English First Officer from England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and survived the sinking by escaping in life boat 15 [23]
  • Mr. Hugh Jones, English Greaser from Liverpool, England, who worked aboard the RMS Lusitania and died in the sinking [23]
  • . (Another 16 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
RMS Titanic
  • Mr. Albert Jones (d. 1912), aged 17, English Saloon Steward from Southampton, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking [24]
  • Mr. Arthur Ernest Jones (d. 1912), aged 38, English Plate Steward from Woolston, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking [24]
  • Mr. H. Jones (d. 1912), aged 29, English Roast Cook from Alresford, Essex who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking [24]
  • Mr. Reginald V. Jones (d. 1912), aged 20, English Saloon Steward from Southampton, Hampshire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and died in the sinking [24]
  • Mr. Thomas William Jones, aged 32, English Able Seaman from Liverpool, Lancashire who worked aboard the RMS Titanic and survived the sinking escaping on life boat 8 [24]
  • . (Another 1 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)
USS Arizona
  • Mr. Hubert H. Jones, American Chief Water tender working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he survived the sinking [25]
  • Mr. Willard Worth Jones, American Seaman First Class from Tennessee, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [25]
  • Mr. Woodrow Wilson Jones, American Seaman Second Class from Alabama, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [25]
  • Mr. Leland Jones, American Seaman First Class from Tennessee, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [25]
  • Mr. Quincy Eugene Jones, American Private First Class from Texas, USA working aboard the ship "USS Arizona" when she sunk during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December 1941, he died in the sinking [25]
  • . (Another 9 entries are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

Related Stories +

The Jones Motto +

The motto was originally a war cry or slogan. Mottoes first began to be shown with arms in the 14th and 15th centuries, but were not in general use until the 17th century. Thus the oldest coats of arms generally do not include a motto. Mottoes seldom form part of the grant of arms: Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and can be added to or changed at will many families have chosen not to display a motto.

Motto: Heb dduw, heb ddim
Motto Translation: Without God, without anything.


Long History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

The ancient name Long is a Norman name that would have been developed in England after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066. This name was a name given to a person who was tall, big, or lanky. [1] The English Long family is descended from a Norman noble of Preux in Normandy. Also, known as Petrus de Longa, the family held estates in Normandy before and after the Conquest as in 1198 Emma de Longues was still listed in Normandy at that time. [2]

The family name Long became popular in England after the Norman Conquest, when William the Conqueror gave his friends and relatives most of the land formerly owned by Anglo-Saxon aristocrats.

Set of 4 Coffee Mugs and Keychains

$69.95 $48.95

Early Origins of the Long family

The surname Long was first found in Wiltshire and Gloucestershire.

Another source explores the story further: "one of the family of Preux, an attendant on Lord Treasurer Hungerford, from his great height, acquired the sobriquet of Long Henry. On his marriage to a lady of quality he transposed this appellation to Henry Long, and became the founder of the Longs of Wiltshire." [4]

As if to underscore Bardsley's comments above, Walter Hungerford, 1st Baron Hungerford (1378-1449) was made Lord High Treasurer in 1425, so the reader needs to take the rather romantic story of "Long Henry" as an oral tradition only.

In the aforementioned Hundredorum Rolls ( Hundred Rolls) of 1273, we found early spellings of the name in various shires: Henry le Longe in Buckinghamshire John le Longe in Huntingdonshire and Walter le Longe in Shropshire. [5]

The Yorkshire Poll Tax Rolls of 1379 listed Johanna Long as residing there at that time.

Much further to the north in Scotland, one of the first listing there was Johannes Longus who witnessed a grant to the Hospital of Soltre, c. 1180-1214. William Longus held land near Lyntonrothrik, c. 1200 and , Adam Long appears in Dumfriesshire, c. 1259. A few years later, Gregory le Long was a burgess of Dundee in 1268 and William Long witnessed confirmation of Snawdoun to Dryburgh c. 1350. [6]


4. The Awa Maru

The U.S. Navy submarine USS Queenfish, pictured in 1944, which sank the Japanese Awa Maru in 1945.

As World War II was drawing to a close, the United States shifted their attention towards the Allied soldiers who were being held captive as POWs in Japan. Switzerland stepped in and brokered a deal with both countries: the U.S. could send supplies to the POWs while Japanese ships could sail through without fear of retaliation. 

The Japanese took advantage of the opportunity, utilizing massive ships to transport privileged citizens, raw materials, invaluable artifacts, precious gemstones, and gold—worth an estimated $5-$10 billion dollars. Such was the case aboard the Awa Maru. 

Unfortunately in 1945 bad weather prevented the USS Queenfish from hearing about the peace deal, and when it detected the Awa Maru, the American fleet torpedoed the ship, killing all 2,004 people onboard, save one. It wasn&apost until decades later that U.S. authorities revealed the Awa Maru sunk in Chinese waters. 

In the 1970s a costly Chinese expedition attempted to find the Japanese riches but turned up empty. In 1981 a declassified U.S. document revealed that the Awa Maru—on its second-to-last voyage𠅍id indeed have valuables on board but already delivered them to Singapore and later to Thailand. It was only on its final trip that the Awa Maru met its fateful end, but by then, it was only carrying iron and coal back to Japan.


BURNISHED ROWS OF STEEL: A History of the Great War (Foreward)

As far as the West Coast goes, the British were able to put together about a division (11,000 officers and men) for the 1860-61 China expedition, but most of those returned to India after Peking and those that were left in China were garrisoning Hong Kong and the like, and engaging in various expeditions against the Taipings.

There were some fairly extensive campaigns in Bengal and the NW Frontier in 1861-62, as well, so it is doubtful there's much to spare from India, especially since a) the Indian Rebellion/Mutiny/etc had only ended in 1858 b) the entire Bengal Army was reorganized as a result c) the EIC's "European" regiments were being absorbed into the British Army in 1860-61, and not without friction, to the point that almost half of those serving were discharged and transported back to the UK and d) there were significant campaigns in China and New Zealand in the same period.

For BROS, picking and chosing from the 1861 and 1862 Army Lists, I came up with four battalions, an engineer company, and a colonel serving as a local brigadier in China leave one battalion and the engineers on Oahu (since BC's garrison amounted to a company each of engineers and RMs) gives Maitland et al about a brigade to play with, which is why the "Golden Gate" battle in BROS looks a lot like 2nd Taku Forts crossed with Petropavlovsk if the Chinese and Russians could defeat a RN+ expedition in the Pacific in (respectively) 1859 and 1854, including the reality the Chinese gave the RN a more costly defeat any other enemy between 1814 (Lake Champlain) and 1914 (Coronel), seems rather unlikely the British are going to do much on the Pacific Coast in 1862.

As, in fact, they don't, in BROS . which also draws on the minor reality that a raiding force of 5,000 (even British regulars!) did not do extraordinarily well against a middle-sized American city of 47,000, drawing upon an interior of

330,000, when they tried almost the exact same gambit in 1814. This is particularly interesting, since the population numbers are actually higher in San Francisco and California in 1861 than they were in Baltimore and Maryland in 1814, and the relative level of industrialization is actually probably comparable.

Worth remembering is that the Mother Lode and Comstock pretty much forced a level of industrialization - commercial and military - that included what became Union Iron Works in San Francisco proper, and both Mare Island and Benicia Arsenal farther up the east bay, and there was plenty of manpower, horsepower, timber, and livestock in California (as well as a limited amount of surface and cave niter), as well as a functioning state government with the ability to organize a useful militia force by 1862-63, plus the RA, USN, USVs, California militia, USRCS, etc. on station, and it's a defense problem that is not overcome by a handful of wooden-hulled steamers and a grab bag of infantry battalions from various British garrisons in the east.

Especially since the US steam merchant marine on the Pacific coast was quite numerous the Panama to California run required it, and there was a good market for fast steamers, quite well suited as commerce raiders, even armed with only a gun or two, which should be more than enough against the vast majority of unarmed British-registered merchant shipping, 90 percent of which was still under sail in the early 1860s - which has another impact on what little is available for the RN in the eastern Pacific.

BROS will revist the Pacific coast in this chapter have to finish off on the Penobscot and Presumpscot first, however.

As always, thanks for reading, and the comments they are appreciated.

Sloreck

One issue in the Pacific is the whaling fleet. OTL Confederate raiders made a mess of the US whaling fleet in the Pacific and here the RN will do worse. Having said that any US commerce raiders will play merry Hell with the British whaling fleet, which OTL prospered during the ACW. If any commerce raider get to the western Pacific or even as far as east of the DEI there is a lot of very valuable British merchant traffic to the spice islands and China. Furthermore, there are plenty of places in that neighborhood where you can dispose of some of these high value cargoes without taking back to the USA - good/silver always useful. Between the attacks on the whaling fleet and depredations of the China/DEI trade by British flagged ships the RN is going to have to use scarce resources chasing raiders and/or convoying ships. This will leave even fewer available for actions against the USA on the west coast.

This will add up the costs of this war, piss off merchants trading with the far east and whaling companies (whale oil still a big deal in 1860's as well as baleen for corset stays and buggy whips etc). Needless to say the folks at Lloyd's are beginning to be very unhappy with the current state of affairs. I would venture to say the losses there are already well above anything they have ever had, and climbing.

Question: At the time of the ACW OTL the USA had not signed conventions against privateers/letters of marque and reprisal. Have they issued them, and if so are the British treating captured privateers as POWS or pirates. If the latter, it would cause a US reaction like that vs CSA folks who kill US prisoners (black or white officers of black troops).

TFSmith121

All true. and there are enough "open" ports between

One issue in the Pacific is the whaling fleet. OTL Confederate raiders made a mess of the US whaling fleet in the Pacific and here the RN will do worse. Having said that any US commerce raiders will play merry Hell with the British whaling fleet, which OTL prospered during the ACW. If any commerce raider get to the western Pacific or even as far as east of the DEI there is a lot of very valuable British merchant traffic to the spice islands and China. Furthermore, there are plenty of places in that neighborhood where you can dispose of some of these high value cargoes without taking back to the USA - good/silver always useful. Between the attacks on the whaling fleet and depredations of the China/DEI trade by British flagged ships the RN is going to have to use scarce resources chasing raiders and/or convoying ships. This will leave even fewer available for actions against the USA on the west coast.

This will add up the costs of this war, piss off merchants trading with the far east and whaling companies (whale oil still a big deal in 1860's as well as baleen for corset stays and buggy whips etc). Needless to say the folks at Lloyd's are beginning to be very unhappy with the current state of affairs. I would venture to say the losses there are already well above anything they have ever had, and climbing.

Question: At the time of the ACW OTL the USA had not signed conventions against privateers/letters of marque and reprisal. Have they issued them, and if so are the British treating captured privateers as POWS or pirates. If the latter, it would cause a US reaction like that vs CSA folks who kill US prisoners (black or white officers of black troops).

All true. and there are enough "open" ports between China, Japan, Korea, the Russian Far East, the Philippines, Indochina, Indonesia, etc - and the British "presence" is still limited enough - that a lot of British merchant shipping (again, 90 percent of which is still under sail in the 1860s) - is going to be at serious risk.

My presumption is the US would NOT issue letters of marque in the event of an Anglo-American conflict, for precisely those reasons that being said, given the USNVs, there is plenty of precedent for commissioning raiders and their officers and men for auxiliary duties . much of the US merchant marine was taken up for naval service, historically, so commissioning cruisers is just a variation on a theme.

As it was, the USN expanded from 9000 officers and men in 1861 to 64,000 (mostly Naval Volunteers) during the course of the war add in the USRCS and the rest of the ocean-going merchant marine, and there would be a lot of manpower.

One thing that became clear is that the USMM had plenty of (reasonably) modern steamers, screw and sidewheel, with the range and capacity and speed (under power) to make good commerce raiders, even with minimal armament - 2-4 guns and a double crew for prizes is more than enough to run down any number of unarmed merchantmen.

The Americans were obviously thinking along those lines, as per Wampanoag and her semi-sisters 15-knot steam cruisers were not needed for the blockade, obviously.

As an aside, the number of large, ocean-going steamers (

1,000 to 3,000 tons) available to the US in 1861-62 is pretty interesting just going by the OR for the USN's sidewheel sloops-of-war and various merchant steamers (screw and sidewheel, some commissioned historically, some not), and what I could find on-line for the Merchant Marine (which, granted, probably does not reflect the realities of what ships were where when the balloon would go up, but still), came up with the following:

Atlantic:
Mississippi, Susquehanna, Powhatan, Vanderbilt, Rhode Island, Santiago de Cuba, Adriatic, R. R. Cuyler, Atlantic, Baltic, Quaker City, State of Georgia, James Adger, Florida, Augusta, Bienville, Constitution, Ariel

Pacific:
Saranac, Massachusetts, Washington, California, Oregon, Panama, Columbia, Fremont, Republic, Golden Gate, Pacific, Brother Jonathan, John L. Stephens, Uncle Sam, Sonora, St. Louis, Golden Age, Orizaba


Include a couple of the screw sloops that (historically) were already in European waters in the winter of 1861-62, and some number of the sailing warships (frigates, sloops, etc) that were in commission and could run down British sailing merchantment, and the potential challenges for the RN are made a little more manifest.

And the lists above are not exhaustive, obviously . based on the precedents of 1775-83 and 1798-1800 and 1812-15, even a small ship with a limited armament could be an effective commerce raider - especially against sailing merchant ships.

The RN would adopt convoy for troopships and the like, but the vast amount of commercial traffic would be vulnerable. and based on the results achieved by Alabama, Shenandoah, and the like, losses could be substantial.

It certainly is not a war winner (any more than Semmes et al were for the rebels), but it certainly would force the RN to stretch even farther and the Treasury to spend money, and a flight from the (British) flag would be expected.

The difference with the Russians in the 1853-56 war is pretty significant, obviously.

Sloreck

A further thought on the pacific naval war - given how in the 1860s Russia was very much "for" the Union, and here the USA is fighting the UK with whom Russia is not on good terms with, I'm sure that Vladivostok and Petropavlosk would be open for US commerce raiders to reprovision, and possibly get coal - wonder if coal on Sakhalin was being exploited yet.

Yet another question: Did the USN retain a "prize money" rule? If so, this is yet a further encouragement for commerce raiding - you can still get commercial owners to outfit and recruit for raiders, but rather than letters of marque and reprisal do commission them as USNV - of course there will still be profit if prize money is distributed.

TFSmith121

The last prize money settlement in the USN was for

A further thought on the pacific naval war - given how in the 1860s Russia was very much "for" the Union, and here the USA is fighting the UK with whom Russia is not on good terms with, I'm sure that Vladivostok and Petropavlosk would be open for US commerce raiders to reprovision, and possibly get coal - wonder if coal on Sakhalin was being exploited yet.

Yet another question: Did the USN retain a "prize money" rule? If so, this is yet a further encouragement for commerce raiding - you can still get commercial owners to outfit and recruit for raiders, but rather than letters of marque and reprisal do commission them as USNV - of course there will still be profit if prize money is distributed.

The last prize money settlement related to USN action was in 1947, over the Odenwald.

So yes, prize money for a commissioned raider with a USNV crew is pretty much to be expected and what is playing out in BROS.

And yes, the port captains in Petropavlovsk (Vladivostok was only founded in 1860, so not much there) will presumably be at least as friendly toward the USN as those in various "British" ports were, historically, to the rebels.

Galveston bay

A further thought on the pacific naval war - given how in the 1860s Russia was very much "for" the Union, and here the USA is fighting the UK with whom Russia is not on good terms with, I'm sure that Vladivostok and Petropavlosk would be open for US commerce raiders to reprovision, and possibly get coal - wonder if coal on Sakhalin was being exploited yet.

Yet another question: Did the USN retain a "prize money" rule? If so, this is yet a further encouragement for commerce raiding - you can still get commercial owners to outfit and recruit for raiders, but rather than letters of marque and reprisal do commission them as USNV - of course there will still be profit if prize money is distributed.

One reason Admiral Porter almost managed to lose an entire river boat fleet was because he was questing for prize money in the Red River Expedition. There was a huge amount of cotton in places like Shreveport he was hoping to grab, worth a lot of money in a prize court, and he was a big reason the expedition was determined to be feasible.

Sometimes prize money is not a good thing

TFSmith121

True, but in the sense of using it as a method to support

True, but in the sense of using it as a method to support commerce raiding in the strategic situation of an Anglo-American war in 1862-63, that's not really a factor.

Thanks for reading, and the discussion appreciate it.

Vl100butch

TFSmith121

More so to the British merchant navy, but yep.

More so to the British merchant navy, but yep.

Not even a Parrott is necessary for a commerce raider, actually any artillery is going to be more than what the typical merchant ship has in terms of defense.

Altwere

TFSmith121

Ashokan Farewell over images of the Battle of Berthierville. Could be an interesting approach.

Thanks for reading, and the post. Anything in particular you have read you thought was particularly well (or poorly) done?

TFSmith121

Burnished Rows of Steel: Chapter 15 (p. I-ii) March, 1863

BURNISHED ROWS OF STEEL: A History of the Great War
By T.F. Smith
Copyright (c) 2013-2015 by the author. All rights reserved.

Chapter 15 – After the ball…

Part 1 – … Victoria Regina

ii. And the wife and the child and the musing comrade suffer'd,

“I consider it an officer’s first duty to look after the welfare of his men … My experience in several trying campaigns has taught me that the way to ensure the efficiency of the army is to keep the men in the best possible condition, physically and morally." - Brigadier General (brevet) Thomas Chamberlain, USV, lately colonel, 1st Maine Heavy Artillery

Excerpt from Chapter 22, “Coffee Mill! Engage!” in “in Contested Waters: A Naval History of the Anglo-American War, by Irene Musicant, HarperCollins, New York, 1995

By March, 1863, the British campaign in Maine, which had begun with such hopes the previous June, had deteriorated into a grinding stalemate – not unlike the most recent prior British attempt to wage a corps-sized expedition, the Crimean campaign of 1854-55, and for largely the same reasons.

The British, even by straining every sinew, had never managed to sustain an expeditionary force of 50,000 men in the Black Sea in 1854-56 at various dates during the two-year-long campaign, the total number of British (as opposed to French, Turkish, or Sardinian) troops in the theater had ranged from 27,000 to 45,000. Despite this reality, British grand strategy in the event of war with the United States in 1862 had been to mount two separate offensives, one from the Province of Canada into upstate New York, with the goal of seizing control of Lake Champlain the other was to attack Maine, with the goal of seizing Portland and the railroad northwest into Canada.

Even with volunteers or militia in the Canadas and volunteers from the Maritimes in support, however, the British could not match – much less exceed - the available US forces, regulars, volunteers, and militia by the necessary 3-1 ratio to win on the offensive, in either theater. It took every British infantry battalion in the North America, the United Kingdom, and Ireland, plus ten more drawn from the Channel Islands, the Caribbean, and the Mediterranean, to get the two separate British armies in Lower Canada and New Brunswick to approach the size of the single force they had mobilized for the Russian war, less than six years earlier. Even including the available militia and volunteer battalions raised in British North America, much less filling the necessary corps and army-level troop requirements with local recruits, the two British armies did not come close to what the Americans could deploy and sustain, in Upper and Lower Canada and in New England, to face the threat. It is worth pointing out that in 1860, the six New England states alone had a population of more than 3.1 million the entire population of British North America, including the Province of Canada and the Maritime colonies, was roughly the same, while the Maritimes by themselves numbered only 787,000. Maine alone, for example, had some 628,000 residents in the 1860 census.

And New England was not, of course, entirely rural: there were 30 cities and towns in New England with populations of 10,000 or more. These included the metropolis of the region, Boston, with some 178,000 residents, and nine more cities in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts with more than 20,000 each, including Lowell (37,000) Portland (26,000) Cambridge (26,000) Roxbury (25,000) Charlestown (25,000) Worcester (25,000) New Bedford (22,000) Salem (22,000) and Manchester (20,000). New England was also highly industrialized, and had strong connections via canal and rail as far north as Bangor - which with more than 16,000 people, was the largest city in Maine after Portland.

In the Maritimes, in contrast, the largest city was Halifax, Nova Scotia, with a population of 49,000, while Saint John, New Brunswick, only had some 27,000 residents, and industry was extremely limited in comparison. Even Maine itself, although largely a rural state, had an industrial sector equivalent to that of the Maritimes. This included the Oriental Powder Company’s mills in Gorham and Windham, the Katahdin Ironworks well inland on the Pleasant River, the shipyards and boatyards of Casco and Penobscot bays and the Penobscot River, the Kennebec Arsenal in Augusta, and multiple foundries, factories, and machine shops scattered across the state, including the small arms factory of C.V. Ramsdell in Bangor itself. Prewar, Ramsdell was a gunsmith known for manufacturing highly accurate hunting rifles with the British invasion, his shop became an annex of the Kennebec Arsenal, and Ramsdell himself organized a militia sharpshooter’s company to serve along the Penobscot.

By the winter of 1862-1863, Sumner’s Department of New England, headquartered in Boston, included the garrisons – largely enrolled militia – of every port from Long Island Sound to the Gulf of Maine, and the standby militia of Rhode Island, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont. In addition, the field army, organized under Heintzelman as the Army of Maine, had two corps, the II under Sedgwick with divisions led by Howard, French, and Blenker (which had been traded for Phelps’ division, originally the 3rd of the II Corps) Hooker’s III Corps also had the 1st Division under C.S. Hamilton and the 2nd, under Grover. Army-level troops included Blake’s cavalry brigade, as well as various detachments operating in far northern and western Maine. Sedgwick’s corps was headquartered at Portland Hooker’s at Augusta. Including active State Militia units, Heintzelman’s forces in Maine numbered some 80,000 men.

By the winter of 1862-63, of course, the Maine state troops and militia were a much more effective force than what would be expected, otherwise, in large part because of how deeply the state was committed to the war effort. Hannibal Hamlin, Lincoln’s vice president, was a Maine native who had lived in Oxford and Penobscot counties, practiced law in Bangor, served in the state legislature, in Congress, as governor, and in the U.S. Senate a veteran of the militia. Hamlin had been commissioned during the Aroostook Valley border crisis with Britain in 1838-39 and volunteered to serve with the Home Guard in 1862. His company originally drilled with maple lathes, but by the winter of 1862-63, they were carrying .69 M1842 percussion muskets that had been rifled at the arsenal. Along with his duties in Washington, Hamlin served in Maine and New England as a provost marshal, overseeing recruiting for both the volunteers and state troops, along with the governor, Israel Washburn. A member of the well-known Washburn political family, the governor had been elected in 1861, after representing a district in Congress centered on Bangor. Washburn was ably supported in organizing the state troops by his adjutant general, Brigadier General (Maine) John L. Hodsdon, a Bangor attorney and judge who had served in the militia since 1831, including in the field during the Aroostook Crisis as aide-de-camp to the commanding general, his stepfather, Major General Isaac Hodsdon. A veteran of the 1812-15 war against the British, the major general had raised, organized, and commanded the Aroostook field force, more than 10,000-strong (including 9,900 infantry and riflemen, 500 artillery, and 100 cavalry) at a time when the state’s population was 500,000. Brigadier General Hodsdon was assisted by the state quartermaster general, Colonel (Maine) Edward K. Harding, a shipyard owner and builder from Bath who had served as a militia officer since 1850. More than 70,000 Mainemen served in the U.S. forces during the conflict, including the 16 long-service regiments raised as part of the initial 1861 mobilization of 500,000 volunteers and the equivalent of 18 more of replacements and new units raised under the 1862 call for the same number.

Among those assigned to garrisons in Maine were the defenders of Fort Knox, the granite and earthwork bastion that guarded the Penobscot River Narrows, half-way between Penobscot Bay and the city of Bangor. The fort was headquarters of the Penobscot District, commanded by Major General (Maine) Samuel F. Hersey, a Bangor businessman, state legislator, and veteran of the Aroostook crisis his chief of staff was Col. Thomas L. Casey (USMA, 1852, engineer) who had been assigned to Fort Knox as chief engineer. Casey, in turn, was assisted by Lt. Col. Henry E. Prentiss, (USMA, 1831, engineer) a Bangor native who had left the army but offered his services when the Anglo-American war broke out.
Hersey’s command included a mixed force of some 6,000 federal and state troops, militia, home guards, and some naval gunners under Captain James Alden, a Portland native commissioned in 1828. Alden, who had commanded the chainclad sloop-of-war USS Richmond in the Home Squadron, had been transferred to Maine in the autumn of 1862 to take command of the “Penobscot River Flotilla,” a mixed bag of river and coastal steamers, tugs, and towboats that had been extemporized in the summer by Col. Adelbert Ames (USMA, 1861, artillery), a Rockland native and former merchant mariner to support his heavy artillerymen. As the river iced over, Alden had taken his men – an equally mixed bag of Navymen and volunteers, fishermen, and merchant mariners – ashore as gunners and reinforcements for the shore defenses.
Militarily, Hersey’s force was made up of the following regiments, led – other than the Heavy Artillery - by Maine militia officers, whose experience on active service, if any, was limited largely to 90 days service during the Aroostook Crisis, two decades earlier. They were, however, expected to be able to hold a fortified line or guard a railroad bridge.

1st Maine Heavy Artillery - Col. Adelbert. Ames
2nd Maine State Militia Regiment- Col. John S. Case
5th Maine State Militia Regiment - Col. F.M Sabine
7th Maine State Militia Regiment - Col. Moses Houghton
8th Maine State Militia Regiment - Col. William H. Mills

In the event of an attack, the Maine troops would be reinforced by one or more brigades drawn from the Army of Maine, notably from Major General John W. Phelps’ 3rd Division, made up entirely of New Englanders. Phelps, a Vermonter and West Pointer (1836) with 27 years of service in the artillery, including in Mexico, had three able brigadiers his 1st Brigade (9th Connecticut, 12th Connecticut, 13th Connecticut 8th New Hampshire) was led by Brigadier General Godfrey Weitzel (USMA, 1855, engineer) the 2nd Brigade (7th Vermont, 8th Vermont, 13th Maine, 14th Maine), was commanded by Brigadier General Davis Tillson, a Rockland native who was appointed to West Point with the class of 1853, but left because of an injury Tillson had served as a federal customs officer, militia artillery battery commander, and adjutant-general of the state from 1858-61, when he was relieved by Hodsdon and the 3rd Brigade (12th Maine, 15th Maine, 30th Massachusetts, 31st Massachusetts), led by Brigadier General George F. Shepley, a Saco native and Dartmouth graduate who had served as United States attorney in Maine from 1853-61, when he raised the 12th Maine Volunteers. The division’s artillery, led by Captain Albert W. Bradbury, included the 1st Vermont, 1st Maine, 4th Massachusetts, and 6th Massachusetts batteries. After spending most of 1862 in northern Maine, including brigade-level skirmishing with the British along the Aroostook and the Kennebec, the division had been concentrated in winter quarters on the Penobscot.

At the same time, the British Army of New Brunswick, some 40,000 strong, numbered four infantry divisions, each with nine infantry battalions, plus two separate brigades and various corps- and army-level troops. The army was now commanded by Lord Frederick Paulet, CB, who had led its 1st Division ashore at Portland and then replaced Lt. Gen. Sir J.L. Pennefather when the older officer’s health had broken down. Paulet, whose older brother Lord William Paulet, CB, now commanded in Lower Canada, was a distinguished career officer who had served with the Coldstream Guards in the Crimea, seeing action in every battle from the Alma to Sevastopol, and had commanded the brigade of Guards sent to British North America in the winter of 1861.

Two divisions, the 1st (now commanded by Maj. Gen. A.T. Hemphill) and 2nd (Maj. Gen. A. A. Dalzell) were still on Cape Elizabeth, south of embattled Portland, and one, the 3rd (Maj. Gen. C. W. Ridley) to the north of the city on the Presumpscot. Additional troops, including a brigade of cavalry under Brig. Gen. C. W. Key and various separate battalions, detachments, and columns, operated to the northeast, between Falmouth and Rockland. Setting aside the militia in each of the four (separately-governed) Maritime colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland), the only other large formation was the newly-organized 4th Division, commanded by Maj. Gen. Henry Keane Bloomfield, a veteran officer of four decades’ service who had previously served as a brigade commander in the 3rd Division.

Bloomfield’s division had been organized in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia from a mixed bag of infantry and artillerymen from Britain, Ireland, and the British garrisons in the West Indies, Royal Marine infantry and artillery, and volunteers from the Maritimes. Some of the later simply enlisted as replacements in British units others had joined six “imperial” regiments raised in the Maritimes, including infantry from New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland, and cavalry from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The colonials were dispersed across the army, including the Royal New Brunswicks in Ridley’s 3rd Division, the Royal Nova Scotias in Bloomfield’s 4th, and a mixed brigade of cavalry and infantry, under Brigadier General Thomas Anderson, former adjutant general of New Brunswick, serving along the Saint John River, from Fredericton west to the Saint Croix River and then north. Anderson’s troops raided and counter-raided across the border in a generally futile effort to keep the winter sleigh road open. Anderson’s volunteer “Maritime” brigade, reinforced by the New Brunswick sedentary militia whenever possible, faced a similar force of Americans, including USVs, Maine state troops, and militia, in a brutal little border war that ranged along the river, north to Houlton and then Fort Fairfield on the Aroostook River and then west to Edmundston and Madawaska – what a later historian would call “a sideshow of a sideshow,” that nonetheless cost hundreds of lives and left bitter memories on both sides of the border for decades to come.

However bloody, the border campaign was just that, a sideshow the Penobscot Campaign, where Bloomfield’s division would see action for more than eight months, from the first tentative probe at Fort Knox in August of 1862 to the last act in April of 1863, was bigger and even bloodier. Even the Penobscot, however, paled in comparison to the siege of Portland to the south and the vast actions on the Saint Lawrence to the west, from the twin drives on Montreal in the spring of 1862 to the last acts at Arthbaska/Richmond, Levis, and Quebec. The Penobscot Campaign, however, is a prime example of how far the reach of the British Army, yet again as a “projectile fired by the Navy,” actually could go, and the last attempt at the Narrows served as essentially the final act of the conflict in Maine.

When Bloomfield’s division was finally organized, the order of battle was:

4th Division - Maj. Gen. H.K. Bloomfield
1st Brigade (from UK) - Brigadier Charles Reid, CB
1st Btn, Coldstream Guards – Lt. Col. Dudley W. Carleton
1st Btn, 3rd Regiment (Buffs) – Lt. Col. George J. Ambrose, CB
1st Btn, 5th Regiment (Northumberland Fusiliers) – Lt. Col. William C. Master
2nd Brigade (from Caribbean) – Brigadier Edward R. Hill
1st Btn, 14th Regiment (Buckinghamshire) – Lt. Col. Ralph Budd
1st Btn, 21st Regiment (Royal North British Fusiliers) – Lt. Col. John R. Stuart, CB
39th Regiment (Dorsetshire) – Lt. Col. William Munro, CB
1st Royal Marine Brigade - Col. William F. Hopkins, RM, CB
2nd (Portsmouth) Btn, Royal Marines Light Infantry – Lt. Col. Simon Fraser, RM
3rd (Plymouth) Btn, Royal Marines Light Infantry – Lt. Col. John G. A. Ayles, RM
4th (Woolwich) Btn, Royal Marines Light Infantry – Lt. Col. William R. Maxell, RM
Naval Brigade & 1st Battalion, Royal Marines Artillery – Lt. Col. Henry C. Tate, RM
Attached:
2nd Royal Marine Brigade - Col. Thomas Holloway, CB, RM
1st (Chatham) Btn, Royal Marines Light Infantry - Lt. Col. John H. Gascoigne, RM, CB
5th (West Indies) Btn, Royal Marines Light Infantry, Lt. Col. S.N. Lowder, RM
Royal Nova Scotia Regiment - Col. William Chearnley
Naval Brigade & 2nd Battalion, Royal Marines Artillery – Lt. Col. G. C. Langley, RM

Although the formation was a solid organization of (largely) regulars, there were some serious issues within the division. First and foremost, the four brigades had never been grouped before Bloomfield took command, and the six infantry battalions of the 1st and 2nd brigades had not served together before they were brigaded early in 1862.

Holloway had commanded a brigade in Paulet’s division at Cape Elizabeth, but the only unit left from that organization was the 1st Battalion, RMLA the 5th Marine Battalion was new to the brigade, and had previously served to take over the Panama Railroad and accept the surrender of various American garrisons on the Gulf Coast and the Florida keys. The Nova Scotians were a brand-new volunteer regiment, based on the pre-war Halifax Volunteer Rifle Battalion, but had not seen any action. The other Royal Marine brigade, Hopkins’, had been formed as the Embarked Brigade with Milne’s fleet, and had occupied Martha’s Vineyard, Nantucket, Block Island, and Sandy Hook against minimal resistance before being relieved the campaign on the Penobscot would also be its first real test.

Reid’s’ 1st Brigade was made up of three excellent regular battalions, but it had been formed in Britain of what was left in the garrisons after the armies of New Brunswick and of Canada had been mobilized of the winter and spring of 1862, and the troops had never served together until the battalions arrived at Sandy Hook and met their commander. Hill’s 2nd Brigade had likewise been scraped together from the three regular battalions in the prewar West Indies garrisons at Jamaica, Barbadoes, and Bermuda. Hill had served with the 63rd Foot in British North America before being assigned as deputy adjutant general in the Windward Islands, and so brought some knowledge of conditions in northeastern North America to his post the battalions, however, along with the Royal Marines who had served in the West Indies and Panama, were not ready for the extremes of a Maine autumn and winter, and their performance on the Penobscot suffered because of that – the rigors of a winter campaign were not to be entered lightly, for any military unit.

Nonetheless, the 4th Division was a formidable force largely made up of regulars who had not suffered the losses of the Portland Siege, if the entire division had embarked on the Penobscot campaign as a united force, and with the Royal Navy’s support, Bloomfield’s troops presumably could have swept through to a victory quickly and effectively. Unfortunately for the British, the circumstances of the campaign did not allow such a movement, and so the Penobscot turned into a months-long effort where units were introduced piecemeal. As a later critic said, “the British kept sending a boy to do a man’s job, and we kept upping the ante … they were unwilling to make the big play, and suffered because of it.”

The Penobscot River, 110 miles long, arises from four branches in several lakes in north-central Maine, which flow generally east. The river drains the eastern half of the state (with a basin of more than 8,600 miles) including the West and South branches, the length is increased to 264 miles. It is the longest river system in the state, and is navigable from Bangor south, some 30 miles from the sea at the top of Penobscot Bay. The Bay itself stretches another 40 miles to the Atlantic.

Since the war had begun in April of 1862, the bays and sounds of New England had become havens for American cruisers and blockade runners, including a few drawn from the prewar Boston to Bangor trade, the screw steamers Eastern State and Bangor and the sidewheelers Boston, Penobscot, Kennebec, and Menemon Sanford. These ships, among the U.S. Navy commerce raiders that mounted an onslaught on British shipping in the North Atlantic and ranging as far north as Newfoundland and as far east as the Mediterranean, had sent maritime insurance rates skyrocketing and scattered the Royal Navy’s strength to stations as far apart as West Africa and the River Plate.

The British need in an trans-Atlantic war to convoy troopers and supply ships, patrol the merchant shipping lanes, and chase American commerce raiders, along with lifting the U.S. blockade of the rebel states and the effort to impose a British blockade of the North had taken every frigate, corvette, sloop, and gunboat in commission in the Atlantic on the 1861 Navy List and then some it was only by commissioning ships from the steam reserve and arming British merchant steamers as auxiliaries that the Royal Navy had been able – at great expense – to make up the numbers required. Even now the blockade remained leaky shutting down the havens enjoyed by American cruisers and runners in Maine, the shortest distance from Europe, was a predictable strategy. It had simply taken longer – until August, and Ridley’s initial operations on the Lower Bay - to gather the means than armchair strategists in had thought.

Rockland, in Knox County on the west side of Penobscot Bay, had been taken in August by a British force that had steamed into the undefended harbor and landed a brigade of Ridley’s 3rd Division. The British had pushed aside two understrength regiments of Maine militia and moved west, past Thomaston there were rumors the British were headed towards Augusta to burn the State House and the Arsenal. Then-Brig. Gen. John W. Phelps threw together a hasty defense along the Kennebec, with a mix of U.S. troops and Maine militia. The operation had not been unexpected after the failure of the initial British attack at Cape Elizabeth in June, most of the American officers had expected their enemies would use their naval strength to raid up and down Maine’s coast, as they had in 1812-15 it appeared that effort had finally come.

Royal Navy gunboats and small craft were much in evidence in Penobscot Bay, and a second landing, this one of a battalion of Royal Marines, had taken Castine, scattering a handful of militia and raising the Union flag over the overgrown hill that had once been Fort George. Another landing force had gone ashore across the Bay at Belfast, due west of Castine. A third force had steamed up the Penobscot River, almost as far as the Narrows, with a pair of small gunboats in the lead. The riverside batteries at Fort Knox had opened fire, bracketing the British steamers on the first broadside and hitting on the second the gunboats had dropped back down the river.

The operations in August, however, had largely been a feint, to cover the amphibious dash by Ridley’s troops against Portland’s northern defenses on the Presumpscot the effort had been stopped by the stand of Berry’s brigade and Fessenden’s Home Guards on the river, and any future threat had been forestalled by the arrival of the rest of Hamilton’s 1st Division, III Corps. As Heintzelman’s troops came into Maine by rail, after their victorious campaign against Montreal, the shift in the correlation of forces in the state changed to favor the Americans even with the mobility provided by the Royal Navy, the U.S. forces – organized as the Army of Maine, under Heintzelman, with Sedgwick in command of the II Corps and Hooker the III Corps, outnumbered the British Army of New Brunswick by more than 2-1 (adding in Maine state troops and militia on active service raised that to 2.5 to one) – which meant the British could be frustrated whenever they attempted to drive inland in the state.

This frustration, in turn, led to the concept of the Penobscot River campaign, as much to peg out claims for what even the most sanguine of British war leaders was seeing had become a stalemate shuffling what troops as were yet uncommitted, or could be relieved by the first of the “hostilities only” battalions raised in the spring and summer of 1862, to form yet another expeditionary force was an obvious move. The problem was, as always, the divided British command – split between London, Milne’s fleet, the newly-reorganized “commands” of Upper Canada, under Williams as essentially a viceroy, and Nova Scotia (including Maine), under Doyle, and the two army commanders even in Maine, the British effort was split between Frederick Paulet’s Army of New Brunswick besieging Portland (although it was increasingly looking like Heintzelman’s Army of Maine was besieging the British) and Bloomfield’s planned assault. The sense the balance of power in Maine was shifting ever more strongly to the Americans led to an incremental approach by the British – the goal, taking the American bastion of Fort Knox at Bucksport on the Penobscot, remained the same – but the press of events led to no less than four separate attacks between September, 1862 and the final effort in April, 1863, by Bloomfield’s entire division.

The first assault, in September, involved Holloway’s Royal Marine Brigade, made up from two battalions of Royal Marines and one of volunteers from Nova Scotia, along with Royal Marine artillerymen and naval gunners. The brigade had landed at Gondola Cove on the Penobscot in what was expected to be a short march toward Fort Knox, which the Royal Marines were to storm with support from the Royal Navy, including Lt. Edward Poulden’s squadron of gunboats, led by Stork, and with long-range fire support from the mortar ships Eurotas (12), Cdr. John M. Bushel, and Horatio (12), Cdr. St. Vincent D. Lake, both old steam frigates converted for their role during the Russian war and pulled from the reserve. They had served in a similar task during the initial attacks on Portland, and were assigned to the Penobscot operation to provide the main strength of a detached squadron under Commodore William Loring, who had served in similar assignments in the Black Sea against the Russians six years earlier. Loring’s flag was the sidewheel sloop Magicienne (16), Capt. HSH Prince Leiningen liaison between Poulden’s coastal gunboats and the mortar ships was to be provided by the flagship and her sister Valorous (16) Capt. W.C. Aldham, C.B. None of the ships were the most modern of their types, but Loring was confident enough, and after Cape Henlopen and Fishers’ Island, his squadron was seen as capable of being risked against the defenses of the Penobscot and, if necessary, being expended to force the Narrows.

Unfortunately for the British, Loring’s squadron was not capable of winning the day the small gunboats had been built for coastal service, not riverine warfare, and the sloops’ sidewheels were far too vulnerable to the guns of Fort Knox and the defenses that Alden had created. Almost immediately as they rounded Sandy Point, the warships were forced into low water to avoid the lines of obstacles Magicienne, in the lead, went aground on Odom Ledge, well within range of the Fort’s water battery. The flagship was vulnerable to the fort’s 8 inch Parrotts and howitzers, but it took most of the morning before hot shot and high explosive had reduced her to a wreck. Poulden, meanwhile, had steamed up the Orland River and then the Eastern Branch of the Penobscot before Stork grounded on the shoals south of Porcupine Island as the British tried to pull the little gunboat off, the Americans, hidden by the tree line, dragged a single 12-pounder mountain howitzer to the heights above the river and fired high explosive shells into the gunboat until she was abandoned. The remaining British ships steamed back down river.

The naval action, such as it was, had covered the landing of the British troops at Mill Cove. Without cavalry or effective scouts, however, the British had little knowledge of conditions ashore the brigade landed but was hemmed in by Stowers Marsh to the west and the 500-foot-tall Mount Tuck to the north. Colonel Casey, with a mixed brigade of USV troops (including Ames’ 1st Maine Heavy Artillery, some 1,200 strong) and Maine militia and home guards, had an observation post on the top of the rocky hill, concealed in the trees, and could see everything the British were doing semaphore and torch signals sufficed to pass the word back to Fort Knox, and Ames was able to react in time, throwing infantry into the thick evergreen forests along Partridge Ridge.

When Poulden’s ships had approached, Maine militia on Penobscot Island had set the woods afire, sending clouds of smoke drifting downriver and masking the American positions when the British attempted to put scouts ashore on the island, the militiamen, many from the island itself or Bucksport just to the north, were able to easily frustrate the parties of Royal Navy officers and men. Among them was Ramsdell’s company of militia sharpshooters, whose numbers included Sgt. Hiram L. Leonard, a master gunsmith in the shop. Born in Sebec, Maine in 1831, Leonard was known as a skilled hunter, who at an early age supplied lumber camps with moose. Leonard’s exploits as a great shot, a man of legendary strength and endurance, and a hunter’s hunter might have been reputation enough, but as a sniper during the Penobscot campaign, Leonard is credited with multiple long-range shots, including – at least in Penobscot lore – of shooting down British naval officers on their quarterdecks from the heights above the river, including during the September attack.

During the first attack, even as the Royal Navy stalled, Holloway’s troops on the west side of the river moved up Partridge Ridge to the foot of Mount Tuck, where they were stopped by the fire of Ames’ infantry in the trees, firing at close range with rifles, muskets, and more mountain howitzers the British naval artillery was still on the beach, and any advantages of discipline or marksmanship of the Marines were frustrated by the close quarters, heavy woods, and trying to attack uphill. After a bloody repulse, the British retreated from the slopes of Mount Tuck, falling back south to Sandy Point and Mill Cove.

In October, the British had been reinforced by Hopkins’ 1st Royal Marine Brigade, formed six months before of battalions organized out of the barracks at Portsmouth, Plymouth, and Woolwich, which along with an attached battalion-sized composite Marine Light Artillery and Naval Brigade, had served as the “Embarked Brigade” with Milne’s fleet. The Marine infantry- and artillerymen, and the attached naval gunners, had occupied Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket in late June, after the Cape Elizabeth landings they had gone on to Sandy Hook in December, as half of Major General Charles Ash Windham’s Light Division, made up of Hopkins’ Marine Brigade and the Light Brigade, under Brigadier Charles Reid, CB. Both brigades were eventually transferred to Bloomfield’s division, while Windham remained in command of the troops in Long Island Sound and at Sandy Hook, six of the “new” battalions raised in 1862.

With the reinforcements in hand, the British tried again in November this time, the redesignated 2nd Marine Brigade marched out from Sandy Point to the northwest, toward Muskrat Run and Carley Brook. Hersey and Casey, sent Ames and most of the mobile forces to the southwest to meet them. Holloway’s movement was a feint, however Hopkins’ newly-arrived 1st Marine Brigade steamed up the Penobscot to the Orland River in small craft, and then north to the Eastern Channel of the larger river, landing at the mouth of Ulmer Brook on the east side of Penobscot Island while screened by Porcupine Island. Hopkins’ brigade moved overland across the big island to Cook Farm, driving the militia back across Eastern Branch. This allowed the Royal Navy artillery “brigade” attached to the force to emplace and begin a regular if desultory bombardment of Bucksport, to the north across the river and defended only by militia and Home Guards. This in turn, drew troops and equipment from Ames’ force on the west side of the Penobscot, spreading the American defenders thin on both side of the big river until Tillson’s brigade could come down from Bangor.

In January, now with the combined Royal Naval Brigade in place on Penobscot Island and threatening Bucksport, both Marine brigades tried for Fort Knox. The British crossed and re-crossed the Penobscot, on the ice and in boats where possible, and using Penobscot Island to get past Mount Tuck. They came ashore on the west side of the river at Switzer Creek on a cold, foggy, snowy day. The Royal Nova Scotias led the way across the river, and moved quickly – or as quickly as possible in the depth of a Maine winter.
This effort, despite the élan with which it was carried out, ran afoul of the defenses the Americans had built up over the previous weeks and months the Maritimers and the Marine infantry ran into a dense network of blockhouses and trenchlines built deep in the trees during the autumn and manned by the best of Ames’ men, a picked rifle battalion of the 1st Maine Heavy Artillery, now under Lt. Col. J. L. Chamberlain, as well as most of the rest of Ames’ brigade, absent only enough gunners to hold the fort. With the arrival of Shepley’s brigade from Augusta, however, at Bucksport, Tillson’s brigade had switched over to the west bank, and reinforced Ames’ line. From cover, the Mainemen shot the British down in droves, even as they attacked repeatedly across the snow.
The high-water mark of the British attack was at the “saddle” between Mount Tuck to the south and Eustis Mountain (also 500 feet high) to the north it was here that Chamberlain’s battalion, running low on ammunition and in danger of being flanked by Lowder’s 5th Battalion, fixed bayonets and plunged down the side of the hill into the battered Nova Scotias, sending them flying back in turn. The British withdrew, both south toward Mill Cove and east across the river, yet again the Americans had held, albeit at a heavy cost – losses were almost equal between Ames’ troops and the British and Nova Scotians, and among the dead or wounded were Captain Hamlin of the Home Guard and Col. Chamberlain of the Volunteers. Tillson’s fresh brigade, however, filled in behind Ames’ battered troops, and the Americans held the line.

When the lead elements of Hooker’s III Corps began arriving in northern Maine, the whole of Phelp’s division, now redesignated as the 3rd/III, was concentrated on the west side of the river in Winterport, Frankfort, and Prospect, while Hersey’s battered militia was left to cover the burned-out town of Bucksport.

By March, and with the arrival of Bloomfield’s two brigades of regular infantry, the British were ready to try again. This assault was to include all four brigades, although the 2nd Marine Brigade would remain on Penobscot Island to feint at Bucksport yet again. The 1st Marine Brigade would push up the western bank, while Bloomfield, with the two army brigades, would swing wide to the west, south of Mount Tuck and then turning east and marching on the fort from the west, in the valley between the northern slopes of Eustis and the southern slopes of Heagan Mountain, to the north. Bloomfield’s troops slogged west toward Carley Brook and then north, along the Marsh River and Colson Stream, and then northeast between Eustis and Heagan, each more than 500 feet high. Marching east again, Hill’s 2nd Brigade was leading the column, with the Scottish troops of the 1st Battalion, 21st Regiment in the lead, on a cold, drizzly, misty day. Visibility was limited, and American sharpshooters sniped from the hillsides as the Scots came under artillery fire from an earthwork that blocked the crossroads where Fort Knox Road, Heagan Mountain Road, and Bowden Point Road came together.

This work, the “Chamberlain Redoubt” (named after Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain) was manned by some of the remaining men of the 1st Maine, commanded at this point by the colonel’s younger brother, then-Major Thomas Chamberlain. Along with their rifles and muskets, they also had the equivalent of a battery each of 12 pounders and that unusual weapon, the Agar “Coffee Mill” gun. Sixty of the generally balky .58 Agars had been purchased in 1861 and parceled out among various fortified positions, including four that had found their way to Fort Knox. The Chamberlain brothers had taken an interest in them during the regiment’s training as heavy artilleryman, and the guns had been emplaced in the earthworks built up to protect the western flank of the fort over the summer and fall. The guns had been babied for months they tended to jam and overheat if not, but if taken care of, they could lay down a prodigious amount of fire. The British assault was just the sort of situation the guns were meant for, and as the Scots infantrymen moved forward in open order, the gunners put them to use.

The sharp and repeating crack-crack-crack of the Agars was a different sound than the bang-ziz of standard rifles and the boom of muskets as the Fusiliers moved forward, the guns began playing over the snow to the east of the redoubt, stopping the Scots in their tracks and leaving, an observer wrote later, “a perfect line of dead men, from one side of the vale to the other.” Combined with field artillery from the Redoubt and small arms and howitzer fire from the mountains looming over the road, the little valley turned into a charnel house. Most of the Scottish battalion fell in a period of minutes Hill ordered the Buckinghamshires and Dorsetshires in as well, while Reid sent the Buffs and Northhumberland Fusiliers up each side of the little valley to try and clear the heights of Tillson’s infantry to the south, on Eustis Mountain, and Shepley’s to the north, on Heagan. At the same time, Reid ordered the Coldstream Guards forward to support Hill’s attack on the redoubt, even as more of Phelps’ division, including Weitzel’s 1st Brigade, slogged into the American line to the east.

There was bloody fighting back and forth around Chamberlain’s Redoubt, as the English and Scots infantry battled with the New Englanders the British were regulars, but few had seen action so far in the conflict, and the Americans, all volunteers, were veterans by the time of the Penobscot Campaign. Experienced infantry and artillery, fighting – quite literally, for the Mainemen – on their home ground, with inspiring leadership, and with the advantage of numbers, could only lead to one end. After two days of costly battle in the snow and slush, with men on both sides reduced at times to fighting hand-to-hand, Bloomfield’s division was shattered, retreating to the west and then south, back down the river and then into quarters in Stockton Springs, Searsport, and Belfast, on the west side of Penobscot Bay.

The results of the campaign, even though it remained a sideshow compared to the battles around Portland, much less in Lower Canada, Virginia, or the west, was yet another example of the Americans successfully being able to use their resources in the theater to their advantage it had, however, come at a great cost, however, especially in Maine.

Coda - To the Last Man

I saw battle-corpses, myriads of them,
And the white skeletons of young men, I saw them,
I saw the debris and debris of all the slain soldiers of the war,
But I saw they were not as was thought,
They themselves were fully at rest, they suffer'd not,
The living remain'd and suffer'd, the mother suffer'd,
And the wife and the child and the musing comrade suffer'd,
And the armies that remain'd suffer'd.
- Except from When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd, in Leaves of Grass, by Walt Whitman Boston, Fourth Edition, 1867.

The Potter Street house was quiet it seemed all of Brunswick is quiet, Tom Chamberlain thought. Lights were dimmed crepe had replaced the bunting that had hung on many a home a year ago, and even the crepe was thinning and weather-beaten.

The tang of green wood smoke hung in the air as he crossed the cobblestone street it was misty, and snow turning to slush was everywhere. The gutters were full of water running down to the Androscoggin River. More than a few of the trees that had lined the residential streets were gone, Chamberlain noticed. Coal was dear, and firewood – as ever in Maine – was cheap, but timber required men to cut it and time for it to dry little of each these days, the major thought to himself. He stood for a moment in the street and then jumped the gutter, clearing the water by several inches but stumbling on the brown grass of the verge.

Let’s see how brother is doing , Chamberlain thought, stomping up the steps to the door, flung open by a doe-eyed woman even more care-worn than she had almost a year ago.

“Tom! Oh, Tom,” she said, almost collapsing into his arms. “Thank God you are here.”

“Fan, what’s the matter?” the major asked.

“Lawrence is fading, Tom the doctor says no more than a few days,” Fanny Chamberlain said, red-eyed. “His wound is infected again even to try and move him to hospital will … end it.”

They stepped into the parlor, where an older man lay in a sickbed. There was a sour smell, but the same old voice – weaker, but still recognizable – croaked at him:

“They did fine, Lawrence they did fine,” the major said. “They held the fort … even Ames can’t say they didn’t … the British are back down the river. It is fine, Lawrence, it’s all mighty fine.”


Captain Joseph Fry, Cmdr. of Agnes E. Fry-- Part 3: Loss of the Agnes E. Fry

Later, Joseph Fry became the commander of the new blockade-runner Agnes E. Fry, named after his wife. He made three successful voyages through the blockade of Wilmington, North Carolina, and was then run ashore with complete loss of the ship. Fry, however, was not steering the ship at the time as it was the pilot. The wreck lies not far from the Virginius. Fry and the crew escaped.

Fry's next command was of the CSS Morgan in Mobile Bay where he was highly complimented by General Dabney H. Maury for conspicuous bravery.

No comments:

Post a Comment


U.S. Navy Civil War medal of Honor. See June 8, 9, 10, 11 and 13 posts.
Colonel Charles Fisher for whom Fort Fisher was named. Colonel of the 6th NC Infantry Regiment, killed at First Battle of Bull Run. See June 1 post.
U.S. Coast Survey Ship Robert J. Walker. See May 11 and 12 posts.
John J. Guthrie. See March and April posts.
Blockade Runner Advance. John Guthrie captained this ship through the blockade. See April 1 post.
The Slaver Nightingale captured by USS Saratoga in 1861. John Julius Guthrie was the one who captured it. He later served in the Confederate Navy. See March 6 post.


Watch the video: The Wreck of the. Richard Montgomery (June 2022).


Comments:

  1. Mahpee

    They are wrong. I am able to prove it. Write to me in PM.

  2. Chuma

    I apologize for interrupting you, I wanted to express your opinion too.

  3. Fejora

    In my opinion, it is a lie.



Write a message

Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos