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First Anglo-Dutch War (1652-1654)

First Anglo-Dutch War (1652-1654)


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First Anglo-Dutch War, (1652-1654)

Naval war between England and Holland, caused by commercial maritime competition, particularly in the East Indies. The build up to the war included the passing of the First Navigation Act (9 October 1651), which forbade the import of goods unless transported either in English vessels or by vessels from the country of origin, a measure aimed against the Dutch. The first fighting took place on 19 May 1652 off Dover, where a 20 strong English fleet under Admiral Robert Blake attempted to search a Dutch fleet under Admiral Maarten Tromp (battle of Goodwin Sands).

War was declared in July, and the first major battle followed on 28 September 1652. The battle of Kentish Knock saw an English fleet of 60 ships under Blake defeat a similar Dutch Fleet under Cornelius de Witt, after which Tromp was restored to command of the Dutch fleet, and on 30 November, with 80 ships, inflicted a severe defeat on a 40 ship strong English fleet under Blake at the battle of Dungeness. From this point the war turned towards the English. On 18 February, a running fight began after the English fleet stalked a Dutch convoy, which led to the battle of Portland or Beachy Head (20 February), in which Tromp lost 17 men-at-war and over 50 merchant ships from the convoy, while the English only lost 10 ships, although Blake was wounded. March 1653 saw the first issuance of the Fighting Instructions, which laid out the foundation of English Naval tactics for over a century, and insisted on line-ahead formation, with the ships following each other with only a 100 yard gap, intended to make the best use of the broadside. The Instructions saw their first test at the battle of the Gabbard Bank (2-3 June 1653), where the arrival of Blake with reinforcements caused the Dutch to retreat with 20 losses. From June-July 1653 the English fleet blockaded the Dutch coast, until on 25 July Tromp was able to get past the blockade. The decisive battle of the war followed. On 31 July 1653 the battle of Scheveninghen (or Texel) was fought between a combined Dutch fleet numbering 100 ships, and an equally sized English fleet under George Monck. In a twelve hour fight, the Dutch lost 30 men-at-war, 1,600 sailors, and Admiral Tromp, who was killed in the fighting. English losses were half that, and the battle marked then end of serious fighting in the war. The war was finally ended by the Treaty of Westminster (3 April 1654), in which Holland agreed to compensate England, and to respect the Navigation Act.


Anglo-Dutch Wars

The Anglo-Dutch Wars (Dutch: Engels–Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were a series of wars fought between the Dutch Republic and first the Kingdom of England and then the United Kingdom of Great Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries. The nations fought for control over trade routes on the seas. All of the wars were mostly fought by naval warfare.

The First War (1652–1654) took place during the Interregnum in England, the period after the Civil War when England did not have a king or queen. The war was fought between the navies of England and the Dutch Republic (also known as the United Provinces). It mainly took place in the English Channel and the North Sea. It ended with the Royal Navy of England gaining control of these seas and a monopoly over trade with the English colonies. [1]

The second (1665–1667) and third (1672–1674) wars happened after the English Restoration of the monarchy. England tried to end the Dutch monopoly over world trade. Most of the fighting in both wars was done in the North Sea. In the Third War, England fought alongside France. Both of these wars ended in strong victories for the Dutch. They confirmed the Dutch Republic's position as the leading maritime power of the 17th century. The English took New Netherland and the Dutch let them keep it in return for Suriname.

The Fourth War (1780–1784) took place after the Acts of Union 1707 in Great Britain, and involved the Dutch Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain. It mainly started because Britain disagreed with the Dutch trading with the United States during the American Revolutionary War. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris (1784). It ended with a very bad defeat for the Dutch. [2] They lost parts of their Dutch Empire.


The First Anglo-Dutch War: How it Began

The First Anglo-Dutch War (1652-1654) was the first of three wars fought between England and the Netherlands in the 17th century. Here, Daniel Smith considers the background to the war and some of the key battles and events during the war’s first year

Daniel’s new book on mid-19th century northern California is now available. Find our more here: Amazon US | Amazon UK

An 1873 depiction of the Battle of Dover/Battle of Goodwin Sands.

Into The First War

It was between the years of 1652 and 1678 that England and the Netherlands would fight a terrible series of wars for ultimate control of trade and mercantile establishments over both the English Channel and the North Sea. During this time period, most nations would come to rely on merchant shipping with a couple of cannons for their naval defense. However with the rise of trade and the pretense to control trade, this series of events may have been the catalyst that led to England’s historic reputation as a naval superpower.

In 1790, the Royal Navy was ten times larger than it was in 1650. Soon well-crafted vessels which were well-armed in cannon with disciplined crews began to emerge. In the Anglo-Dutch Wars, British ships would end up attacking Dutch interests all over the world: Africa, North America, the West Indies, and actually capturing New Amsterdam—where it was immediately renamed New York. It was the growth of the English and the Dutch fleets, who had been rapidly expanding since earlier in the 17th century, that would cause hostilities and political friction. It was them who had been competing in a rivalry over securing maritime trade and in pushing early colonial expansion.

Prior to the year 1648, the Dutch were at war with the Spanish. This was beneficial to English traders who could profit from the Spanish marketplace, where the warring Dutch merchants were banned from commerce. This was typical of warfare, where neighboring nations would capitalize on trade with neighboring belligerent nations, while staying far away from participation. Spain and the Netherlands would sign a formal peace treaty to cease hostilities in 1648. Due to this, the very expertly mercantile Dutch nation would return to the trading sphere globally. As a result of this, English merchants would end up being economically pushed out of the very profitable East Indian spice trade and their economic markets would resultingly plummet. To make matters worse, England would quickly lose global trade power and suffer a significantly detrimental shock to its economy.

Due to security fears, the Navigation Act of 1651 was passed through parliament and opened up privateering (codified contractual piracy) to ordinary captains of vessels outside of the Royal Navy. English privateers began to exercise these new legal rights and the profitable Dutch shipping trade and their cargo became main targets. The Dutch government regarded England as a traditional Protestant ally against Catholicism and the Pope, despite the aggressive trade war that had been ensuing. At this point there had been internal struggles inside both nations, but more specifically with the beheading of King Charles I in England and no hereditary heir to the Dutch Stadtholder (government). Stability in both nations was at a low point. In the Netherlands, as the Prince of Orange, Willem II, was too young to inherit the responsibilities and obligations to lead the Dutch government, two elite individuals jumped on the opportunity.

It’s Just Politics

Dutch republicans (government party officials) led by Cornelis de Graeff and Johan de Witt used their cunning and wit to influence the House of Orange – the very influential aristocrats. While this velvet takeover was taking place inside of the Dutch palace, the English had sent a diplomatic envoy to The Hague led by Oliver St. John in March 1651. The ultimate goal of St. John’s was to present a political union between England and the Netherlands however the political upheaval in England was too heavy for the Dutch to consider a union. Oliver Cromwell was Lord Protector over England with the execution of Charles I. Besides religious and political turmoil, the House of Orange would never accept an informal government.

Soon after the negotiations between the two nations fell apart, St. John drafted a malicious trade policy that would later be drafted into law called the Navigation Act of 1651—which would further increase the tensions between the Dutch and the English. Besides that, the Dutch did not want to risk losing their sovereignty over a political union with England. They felt the plan was underhand and could even compromise the existence of the Netherlands. With such an excessive and aggressive maritime policy in effect and relations spiraling out of control, the Dutch and English both felt war inevitably on the way.

It was during the blistery winter of 1651 and into the spring of 1652 that the English would press their will onto Dutch shipping with letters of marque. Later, France would lend political support to the English Royalists - the opposition of the English government. Because of this, the English authorized letters of reprisal—allowing them to confiscate French cargo onboard Dutch shipping. Meanwhile, the naval officer and well-respected veteran Maarten Tromp took to the ocean in May of 1652.

Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp had orders to defend Dutch merchant shipping from any belligerent flying the English flag. English Captain Robert Blake and Tromp of the Netherlands would end up meeting in a naval engagement off the coast of Dover, England in May. War would be officially declared by both nations on July 8, 1652. Naval battles would be fought predominantly in the English Channel and the North Sea, with minor action in the Mediterranean.

The engagement by both naval commanders would officially be titled the Battle of Dover (Goodwin Sands) on May 19, 1652. Lieutenant-Admiral Tromp sailed with a strong fleet of 42-ships one-month prior in April, with naval superiority as the goal set for his fleet inside of the English Channel. This was a logical attempt to prevent Dutch merchant trade from being disrupted by English hostility and naval aggressions. During his patrol of the straits, Tromp and his fleet experienced a storm that would have surely battered down the fleet. To protect it, he attempted to duck into a pocket near the Kent coastline outside of Dover under the South Foreland. Much to his dismay, Tromp sailed right into nine British warships under the command of Nehemiah Bourne. There was a timid stand-off between the two fleets before the Dutch officers insisted that they were only seeking shelter from the storm.

Ducking the Channel

The two opposing fleets would stay anchored within sight of each other until the next day. An awkward departure, Tromp’s fleet sailed off towards Calais, France. At one point, Tromp’s War Galleon rendezvoused with two Dutch merchants who had been shot at by an English fleet near Kent’s coast at Start Point. Tromp’s fleet responded by punctually returning back to meet Captain Blake’s squadron. On May 19, upon arriving near Dover, Lieutenant-Admiral Tromp ordered his ships into the oncoming path of Blake’s ships. Further, he refused to hoist their Dutch colors up the mast when approaching the English - a complete sign of disrespect. Captain Blake responded in kind by sending a warning shot over their bows. The event would spiral out of control and a full-blown battle occurred.

There were two highlights to the battle: Captain Blake’s fleet had considerably more heavy ships, in comparison to Tromp’s fleet which only had one heavy ship—his own—theBrederode off Helvoetsluys. The Dutch fleet was also very uncoordinated in their execution of tactical and logistical planning during the battle. Further, the back-up fleet of Nehemiah Bourne’s nine warships arrived unexpectedly to attack the Dutch rear. In knowing that the battle was lost, Tromp’s merchant fleet returned to the Netherlands (minus two that had been captured) after sundown without further actions or incident.

The English were content on retaliating. The English Council of State would end up ordering Sir Robert Blake to cut off (and possibly capture) the Dutch East Indian trading convoy that was headed towards the Netherlands from Scotland. Their course was dialed in to avoid any English patrols in and around the English Channel. On June 27, 1652, Captain Robert Blake took his fleet of warships north, and Sir Ayscue would stay to patrol. Six days later in the Channel, Ayscue with ten warships, would spot a Dutch merchantmen fleet near Calais. He moved to attack. In the melee, three Dutch ships were destroyed. Five of them were captured, and out of further fear of death, the others would purposefully run themselves aground on the local sandbars.

A month later, on July 8, Maarten Tromp’s now had a massive war-fleet of eighty-two vessels and nine fireships (boats designed to be set afire and pushed into enemy vessels). In seeing the outnumbered fleet, Ayscue parked his fleet underneath the artillery fort on the coast near Deal, England. This move was of course a defensive posture. It seems as though providence may have been on the side of the English, as a fierce storm prevented the massive Dutch fleet from entering the coastal area where Blake and his fleet were anchored. At this point, Captain Blake’s fleet was split into two. His smaller squadron located on the southern end of England, and the larger squadron on the northern end of England.

A Twice-Bitter Ending

The Dutch fleet of warships patrolling the English Channel decided to pursue Blake’s more vulnerable flotilla in the north on July 10, 1652. Captain Blake in the meantime was busy between the northern islands of Orkney and Shetland near Scotland, awaiting the East India Trading convoy scheduled to make their appearance. While there, he also took aggressive action in breaking up the North Sea fishing fleet—a pride of the Dutch—while operating in the area. While on patrol near Fair Isle on July 24, Lieutenant-Admiral Tromp spotted Captain Blake and his fleet.

In another turn of extraordinary events, another fierce storm took hold in their location that lasted for three days. It seems it was another disaster, as the Dutch squadron was smashed apart on the rocks of Sumburgh Head. Captain Blake ended up ducking into Bressay Sound to avoid the winds and waves. Most of his fleet was damaged to some degree, but all of his ships managed to stay afloat. On July 27, the fierce storm began to subside and both the English and the Dutch fleets set a course to their own home ports. Both sides limped back however, Tromp’s fleet had halved in size

It would be in fact Lieutenant-Admiral Tromp that received a bitter homecoming, as his political opponents laid complete blame on him for all the losses involved. He would resign his commission showing his complete ownership of the defeat. Generally speaking it was the heavier weighted and well defended English warships that prevailed over the Dutch fleet. The war would end up peaking with the loss of the fleet and untimely death of Tromp in July of 1653. He etched his historical end at the battle of Scheveningen

Daniel’s new book, 1845-1870 An Untold Story of Northern California, is available here: Amazon US | Amazon UK

You can read Daniel’s past articles on California in the US Civil War (here ), Medieval Jesters (here ), How American Colonial Law Justified the Settlement of Native American Territories ( here ), Spanish Colonial Influence on Native Americans in Northern California ( here ), Christian ideology in history ( here ), the collapse of the Spanish Armada in 1588 ( here ), and early Christianity in Britain (here ).


WORLD EVENTS OF 1600-1754

  • Merchants in London found the English East India Company to challenge the Dutch spice trade in the East Indies.
  • Having been granted a monopoly on the North American fur trade, Frenchmen Pierre Chauvin Fran ç ois Grav é , Sieur de Pontgrav é and Pierre du Guast, Sieur de Monts, try unsuccessfully to establish a colony at Tadoussac on the lower Saint Lawrence River at the mouth of the Saguenay River.
  • Cynthia ’ s Revels, a play by Ben Jonson, is performed in London. , an English physician and physicist, writes De Magnete, Magneticisique Corporibus, a pioneering treatise on electricity.
  • The popular New World plant tobacco sells in London for a price equal to its weight in silver shillings.
  • At about this time Dutch lens grinders begin making the refracting telescope and the compound microscope.
  • 17 Feb. Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake in Rome for advocating the Copernican theory that the planets revolve around the sun and for suggesting that there may be other worlds with other absolute deities.
  • Twelfth Night, a play by William Shakespeare, is performed in London.
  • The English Act for the Relief of the Poor makes local parishes responsible for levying local taxes to provide for the needy and establishes residence requirements to prevent poor people from flocking to wealthy parishes.
  • English adventurer John Smith is captured by the Turks and sold into slavery.
  • 25 Feb. Robert Devereux, second Earl of Essex, a onetime favorite of Elizabeth I, is executed for plotting against the queen.
  • An English East India Company fleet commanded by James Lancaster defeats a large Portuguese treasure galleon and loots its valuable cargo, trading some for pepper from Dutch merchants in Java.
  • The Dutch East India Company doubles or nearly triples European pepper prices.
  • Elizabeth I of England dies. James VI of Scotland succeeds her as James I of England. is imprisoned in the Tower of London for his alleged part in a plot to depose James I in favor of his cousin Arabella Stuart.
  • England makes an alliance with France. escapes from slavery in the Near East and returns to England.
  • John Mildenhall of the English East India Company reaches India and presents himself to the Great Mogul Akbar seeking trade privileges for England.
  • James Lancaster ’ s English East India Company fleet returns to Great Britain with more than a million pounds of pepper.
  • Johann Bayer compiles the first celestial atlas that uses Greek letters to indicate the brightest stars in the constellations.
  • Othello, a play by William Shakespeare, is performed in London.
  • As part of a long-term attempt to regain control over the Netherlands, Spanish forces seize Ostend from the Dutch after a siege of three and one-half years.
  • England signs a peace treaty with Spain. establishes a French colony in Nova Scotia. It is abandoned in 1607.
  • Jan. James I presides over the Hampton Court Conference between the Anglican bishops and the Puritans, who fail in their attempts to institute reforms in the Church of England. The king issues the Act of Uniformity requiring strict adherence to the tenets of the Anglican Church, banishes all Jesuits and Roman Catholic seminary priests from England, and appoints a commission headed by Lancelot Andrewes to make a new English translation of the Bible.
  • Spring Part one of The Honest Whore, a play by Thomas Dekker and Thomas Middleton, is performed in London.
  • Jan.The Masque of Blackness, by Ben Jonson, is performed at Whitehall Palace in Westminster.
  • 4 Nov.Guy Fawkes is arrested during preparations to blow up the houses of Parliament while James I is presiding over the opening of Parliament on 5 November. The plot was originated by Robert Catesby, John Wright, and Thomas Winter in 1604 and eventually included many other English Catholics who were unhappy about renewed enforcement of laws requiring them to attend Anglican church services and placing severe penalties on saying Mass or assisting at it.
  • Macbeth, a play by William Shakespeare, is performed in London.
  • James I of England grants the Virginia Charter, establishing the Plymouth Company and the London Company to found separate settlements in the New World.
  • Feb.-Mar.Volpone, a play by Ben Jonson, is performed in London.
  • English peasants revolt against the enclosure of common grazing lands and other abuses by the landed gentry. The rebellion is suppressed by the forces of James I.
  • Jesuits establish a settlement in Paraguay.
  • Members of the Plymouth Company attempt to establish a settlement in Maine but abandon it after a harsh winter.
  • 14 May Members of the London Company found Jamestown, Virginia.
  • The Hector becomes the first English East India Company ship to land in India.
  • Frederick IV, Elector Palatine of the Rhine, organizes the Protestant Union.
  • English separatists, who later become known as the Pilgrims, leave England for religious freedom in Holland.
  • Cymbeline, a play by William Shakespeare, is performed in London.
  • The Twelve Years ’ Truce ends fighting between the Spanish and Dutch, and Philip III of Spain recognizes the independence of the northern provinces of the Low Countries (Holland).
  • Duke Maximilian of Bavaria organizes the Catholic League to oppose the Protestant Union.
  • In his Astronomia novaJohannes Kepler explains his first two laws of planetary motion: that the planets move in elliptical paths around the sun and that the planets do not travel at uniform rates of speed.
  • Galileo Galilei uses a telescope to view the Milky Way.
  • Dutch merchants found a post in western Japan, ending the Portuguese monopoly on trade with that country.
  • The city of Amsterdam founds a bank and issues coins made from South American silver. Its practice of weighing coins initiates the principle of public regulation of money, and the bank soon begins lending money at interest.
  • An Anatomy of the World, an elegy by English poet John Donne, is published in London.
  • The Alchemist, a play by Ben Jonson, is performed in London. discovers the moons of Jupiter and publishes Siderius nuncius, arguing the validity of Copernicus ’ s theory that the planets orbit the sun.
  • Marie de M é dicis removes from office Maximilien de B é thune, Duc de Sully, who has instituted reforms in taxation and improvements in agriculture and frontier defenses. Concino Concini, Marquis d ’ Ancre, increases his influence at court.
  • 14 MayHenry IV is assassinated in Paris. He is succeeded by his nine-year-old son, Louis XIII, whose mother, Marie de M é dicis, becomes his regent.
    and fellow translators complete the King James, or Authorized, version of the Bible.
  • After the failure of an uprising against England, Hugh O ’ Neill, Earl of Tyrone, flees to Rome, and the Plantation of Ulster in Northern Ireland is forfeited to the Crown.
  • The University of Rome is founded.
  • The University of Santo Tomas is founded at Manila in the Philippines.
  • 9 Feb. James I of England dissolves Parliament.
  • 15 MayThe Winter ’ s Tale, a play by William Shakespeare, is performed in London.
  • 30 Oct. Charles IX of Sweden dies. His sixteen-year-old son, who begins a twentyone-year reign as Gustavus II Adolphus, signs a charter giving the council and estates a voice in legislation and veto power in matters of war and peace.
  • 1 Nov.The Tempest, a play by Shakespeare, is performed in London.
  • The Second Anniuersarie, by English poet John Donne, is published in London.
  • An enlarged edition of Essays, by English philosopher Francis Bacon, is published in London (first edition, 1597).
  • After two English East India Company ships defeat four Portuguese galleons off the coast of India, Emperor Jahangir is impressed with their military skills and grants the British trading rights at Surat.
  • The British establish a colony at Bermuda.
  • The English East India Company establishes its first trading post in India.
  • The Dutch establish a fur-trading post at the southern tip of Manhattan Island.
  • 22 July Michael Romanov becomes Russian emperor, establishing the Romanov dynasty.
  • The Duchess of Malfi, a play by John Webster, is published in London.
  • Louis XIII is declared of age, but his mother continues to exert strong influence on the government of France.
  • Armand Jean du Plessis, Duc de Richelieu, is elected to the Estates-General of France and engineers its dissolution. It does not meet again until 1789.
  • Sweden takes Novgorod from the Russians.
  • Scotsman John Napier introduces the system of arithmetical calculation that is the basis for the slide rule.
  • Designed by the late Andrea Palladio, the Church of San Giorgio Maggiore is completed in Venice after fifty-five years of construction.
  • 5 Apr. James I calls Parliament into session. After it argues with him over his finances, the king dissolves Parliament on 7 June. It becomes known as the “ Addled Parliament ” because it has passed no enactments.
  • In the East Indies, Dutch forces take the Moluccas from the Portuguese, and a British fleet defeats a Portuguese armada off the coast of Bombay.
  • Chocolate paste is imported from the Spanish colonies in the New World to Spain, Italy, and Flanders, introducing the practice of drinking chocolate.
  • The Vatican orders Galileo to stop defending the “ heretical ” notion that the planets orbit the sun.
  • The English East India Company begins trade with Persia.
  • James I of England begins selling peerages to replenish the royal treasury.
  • Nov.-Dec.The Devil Is an Ass, a play by Ben Jonson, is performed in London.
  • Released from the Tower of London in 1616, Sir Walter Raleigh sails for the Orinoco in South America in an unsuccessful attempt to find a gold mine. Though he has agreed not to disturb Spanish settlements there, one of his men leads an expedition that attacks a Spanish town.
  • Prime Minister Concino Concini of France, a favorite of Marie de M é dicis, is arrested and assassinated.
  • 23 May Angry over the closing of one of their churches and the destruction of another and upset because seven of the ten governors appointed to administer Bohemia are Catholic, the Protestant Count Matthias von Thurn leads a rebellion. Two of the governors are thrown from a window in the Palace of Prague into a ditch below, escaping with their lives. This “ Defenestration of Prague ” precipitates the Thirty Years ’ War. Fought mainly on German soil, it begins as a dispute between the German Protestant states and the Catholic forces of the Holy Roman Empire (Germany, Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, parts of northern Italy, present-day Belgium, the Netherlands, and Switzerland), but virtually all the states of Europe become involved in this long war of shifting alliances.
  • 29 Oct. As reparation to Spain for the attack in the Orinoco, Raleigh is executed in London.
  • 20 Mar. Holy Roman Emperor Matthias dies and is succeeded by Ferdinand II, who has been deposed as king of Bohemia, where the Protestant Frederick V is now king.
  • In Novum Organum Sir Francis Bacon proposes inductive logic as a means of interpreting nature rather than the deductive method put forth by Aristotle. In his insistence that observation and experience are the sole source of knowledge, Bacon inaugurates the modern scientific method.
  • 8 Nov. The forces of Frederick V are defeated at the Battle of the White Mountain. He flees to Holland. The leading rebels are executed, and Protestantism is wiped out in Bohemia. After the battle the Protestant Union is dissolved, and the seat of the war is moved to the Palatinate states of Germany.
  • 11 Nov. The Mayflower arrives off the coast of Cape Cod, bearing the first group of Pilgrims. Discovering that Cape Cod is outside the jurisdiction of the London Company, which has granted them their charter, they decide to establish a settlement in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
  • The Anatomy of Melancholy, by English clergyman Robert Burton, is published in Oxford.
  • The States-General of the Netherlands charters the Dutch West India Company.
  • Pembroke College is founded at Oxford.
  • 30 Jan. In need of funds to support British military efforts in the Thirty Years ’ War, James I of England calls the third Parliament of his reign, which impeaches Sir Francis Bacon, who has been lord chancellor since 1618, on charges of taking bribes. Bacon is found guilty, fined, and banned from holding future offices, but he is pardoned by James I, who also remits Bacon ’ s fine.
  • 31 Mar. Philip III of Spain dies and is succeeded by fifteen-year-old Philip IV, who allows his prime minister, Gaspar de Guzman, Duque de Olivares, to conduct affairs of state. Olivares resumes the war with Holland that ended with the Twelve Years ’ Truce of 1609.
  • 18 Dec. After James I rebukes the House of Commons for meddling in foreign affairs by protesting the proposed marriage of the Prince of Wales to a Spanish princess, Parliament issues the Great Protestation, declaring “ That the liberties, franchises, privileges, and jurisdictions of parliament are the ancient and undoubted birthright and inheritance of the subjects of England, and that the arduous and urgent affairs concerning the king, state, and defense of the realm. Are proper subjects and the matter of council in debate in parliament. ”
  • Designed by architect Inigo Jones, the banqueting hall at Whitehall in London is completed.
  • 8 Feb. James I tears the Great Protestation from the journal of the House of Commons and dissolves Parliament.
  • The first collected edition of William Shakespeare ’ s plays (the First Folio) is published in London.
  • After the failure of negotiations to arrange the marriage of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Maria, sister of Philip IV of Spain, Charles and Charles Villiers, first Duke of Buckingham, return to England in anger.
  • The Dutch drive colonists of the English East India Company from the Spice Islands.
  • The Dutch grant a formal charter to New Netherland, and some thirty families establish a permanent settlement on Manhattan Island.
  • Aug.The Bellman of Paris, a play by Thomas Dekker and John Day, is performed in London.
  • Designed by Jacques Lemercier, the earliest section of the Louvre in Paris is completed as a palace for Louis XIII. The Palais de Luxembourg in Paris, designed by Salomon de Brosse, is completed as a residence for his mother, Marie de M é dicis.
  • A cardinal since 1622, Richelieu becomes the chief minister of Louis XIII and continues to dominate French government until his death in 1642.
  • France and England agree to the marriage of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Henrietta Maria, sister of Louis XIII of France.
  • England goes to war against Spain.
  • French settlers colonize the Caribbean island of St. Kitts.
  • The British found the first colony on Barbados.
  • 5 Mar. James I of England dies and is succeeded by Charles I.
  • 1 May Charles I marries Henrietta Maria of France by proxy and receives her at Canterbury on 13 June.
  • 18 June Charles I calls the first Parliament of his reign.
  • 12 Aug. After Parliament limits appropriations for the war with Spain, in part because of anger over sending English troops to help Louis XIII put down a rebellion of Huguenots (Protestants) in France, Charles I dissolves Parliament.
  • 8 Sept. The English and Dutch sign the Treaty of Southampton, forming an alliance against Spain.
  • 6 Feb. Charles I calls a second Parliament, which impeaches Buckingham for the embarrassing failure of his expedition against C á diz in Spain in 1625.
  • 15 June Charles I dissolves Parliament to prevent the trial of his favorite Buckingham.
  • Cardinal Richelieu of France founds a company to colonize New France. completes Queen ’ s Chapel in St. James ’ s Palace at Westminster.
  • Louis XIII commissions Jacques Lemercier to design a ch â teau at Versailles.
  • The French Huguenots rise again, and Richelieu personally supervises the Siege of La Rochelle, the Protestants ’ center of power.
  • English physician William Harvey publishes a treatise establishing that the heart is a muscle whose regular contractions cause the circulation of blood.
  • 17 Mar. Charles I calls his third Parliament, which passes the Petition of Rights, prohibiting all forms of taxation without the consent of Parliament, the billeting of soldiers in private homes, the declaration of martial law in peacetime, and the imprisonment of an individual without a specific charge. The king agrees to the petition on 7 June.
  • 23 Aug. After leading one unsuccessful mission to help the Huguenots at La Rochelle, Buckingham is assassinated on the eve of embarking on another expedition.
  • 28 Oct. Despite the aid of three English fleets, La Rochelle falls, resulting in the complete subjugation of the French Huguenots.
  • The Massachusetts Bay Company is chartered in England.
  • The Dutch West India Company grants Kiliaen van Rensselaer lands near Albany, New York.
  • Pope Urban VIII appoints Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini to complete Saint Peter ’ s Cathedral in Rome.
  • 10 Mar. Charles I dissolves Parliament after members of the House of Commons oppose the king ’ s continued levying of taxes without the consent of Parliament. Charles rules without Parliament until 1640.
  • Faced with the growing influence of Bishop William Laud, a favorite of Charles I and an absolutist in his advocacy of enforcing strict adherence to the Anglican Church, Puritans begin settling in New England in what becomes known as the “ Great Migration. ”
  • Having heard of atrocities committed by Gen. Albrecht von Wallenstein and his Catholic troops, Emperor Ferdinand II of the Holy Roman Empire consents to a decree dismissing Wallenstein and much of his army.
  • Apr. England and France make peace.
  • July Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden sends troops to aid German Protestants in Pomerania.
  • Nov. England makes peace with Spain.
  • Richelieu subsidizes Gustavus and Bernhard, Duke of Saxony, bringing France into the Thirty Years ’ War.
  • 22 Feb.Chloridia, a play by Ben Jonson, is performed in London.
  • 20 May Forces under Johann Tserclaes, Graf von Tilly, commander-in-chief of Catholic League armies, sack and burn Magdeburg, massacring the citizens.
  • 17 Sept. An army of Swedish troops led by Gustavus II Adolphus and the troops of John George, Elector of Saxony, defeat Tilly ’ s forces at the Battle of Breitenfeld (or Leipzig).
  • Charles I of England grants Maryland to Lord Baltimore.
  • Galileo repeats his support for Copernicus ’ s theory that the planets orbit the sun.
  • 30 Apr. Tilly dies after receiving a mortal wound in the defeat of his forces by Gustavus ’ s troops at the confluence of the Lenz and Danube Rivers.
  • 16 Nov. The Swedes defeat Catholic forces at Lutzen, but Gustavus is killed in battle. He is succeeded by his six-year-old daughter, Christina. Until she ascends the throne on her eighteenth birthday, in December 1644, Sweden is governed by a chancellorship.
  • Poems by J. D., by the late English poet John Donne, is published in London. becomes archbishop of Canterbury.
  • 12 Apr. The Catholic Church in Rome tries Galileo for heresy because he has refused to retract his support for the Copernican view of the universe. Threatened with torture on the rack, he recants and is confined to his villa outside Florence for the remaining nine years of his life.
  • Love ’ s Mistress, a play by Thomas Heywood, is performed in London.
  • Tulip mania in Holland reaches a high point, as speculators pay enormously inflated prices for single bulbs.
  • 18 Feb. Recalled to duty in 1632, Gen. Albrecht von Wallenstein is formally deposed amid accusations that he intended to seize the crown of Bohemia or even the throne of the Holy Roman Empire for himself.
  • 25 Feb. Wallenstein is assassinated by an Irish officer.
  • The Academie Fran ç aise is founded to establish French grammar and usage rules and cleanse the language of “ impurities. ”
  • 30 May The Treaty of Prague ends hostilities between John George of Saxony and Emperor Ferdinand II. The Thirty Years ’ War becomes largely a battle between French and Swedish troops and the forces of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain.
  • Comus, a masque by English poet John Milton, is published in London.
  • Hundreds of Dutch tulip speculators are ruined as the bottom falls out of the tulip market.
  • In La g é ometrie Ren é Descartes applies algebra to geometry, creating analytic geometry and establishing the basis for modern mathematics.
  • 15 Feb. Ferdinand II dies and is succeeded as Holy Roman Emperor by his twenty-eight-year-old son, Ferdinand III.
  • 23 June Riots erupt in Edinburgh after Charles I orders the Anglican liturgy read in Scottish churches — the decree is part of Archbishop Laud ’ s campaign to root out Calvinism in England and Presbyterianism in Scotland.
  • 28 Feb. Scots Presbyterians sign the Solemn League and Covenant in defense of their religion.
  • Nov. The Scottish “ Covenanters ” hold a general assembly in Glasgow, abolishing the episcopacy of the Anglican Church and adopting the liturgy and canons of the Scottish Kirk (Church).
  • The First Bishops ’ War begins as Scots seize Edinburgh Castle and raise an army.
  • 18 June The Scots meet the forces of Charles I near Berwick. Negotiations result in peace without bloodshed after Charles promises that differences can be resolved by a new general assembly and a new Scottish parliament after the armies have disbanded.
  • Love ’ s Masterpiece, a play by Thomas Heywood, is performed in London.
  • Supported by the French, who recognize its independence, Catalonia begins a revolt against Spain that continues until 1659.
  • Portugal declares its independence from Spain, which the Spanish do not recognize until 1668.
  • 13 Apr. In financial distress and still in trouble with the Scots, Charles I calls his fourth Parliament.
  • 5 May Because it refuses to grant any money until he solves Scottish grievances, Charles dissolves Parliament, which thus becomes known as the “ Short Parliament. ” In response to the king ’ s actions rioters attack Archbishop Laud ’ s palace.
  • 28 Aug. A Scottish army defeats the troops of Charles I in a skirmish at Newburn on the Tyne as the Second Bishops ’ War erupts over the unresolved dispute between the Presbyterians and the Anglican Church.
  • 26 Oct. In the Treaty of Ripon, which ends the Second Bishops ’ War, Charles I agrees to pay the Scottish army £ 850 a day until all disputes are resolved.
  • 3 Nov. In need of money to pay the Scots, Charles I is forced to call his fifth Parliament, which becomes known as the “ Long Parliament. ”
  • 11 Nov. Because Charles I cannot dissolve it until it gives him the money he needs, Parliament takes advantage of its unusual hold over the king and impeaches the king ’ s chief adviser, Thomas Wentworth, first Earl of Strafford, who had urged invasion of Scotland in the Second Bishops ’ War. He is sent to the Tower of London on 25 November.
  • 18 Dec. Parliament impeaches Archbishop William Laud for treason, blaming him for causing the difficulties that resulted in the Bishops ’ Wars. He is committed to the Tower of London in March 1641, but his trial does not occur until 1644.
  • Dutch forces take Malacca, beginning their domination of the East Indies.
  • Mar. Strafford goes on trial for treason. He is found guilty and executed on 12 May.
  • May Parliament passes the Triennial Act, requiring that Parliament meet every three years even if not called by the Crown. This act was followed by a bill preventing Parliament from being dissolved without its own consent.
  • The moderate Puritans in Parliament split from the more-radical Presbyterians when they propose the Root and Branch Bill, which calls for doing away with the office of bishop.
  • July Parliament abolishes the constitutionally established courts of Star Chamber and High Commission, which Laud has used in his efforts to destroy Calvinism and Presbyterianism in England. This radical move has been interpreted as a sign that Parliament intends to bring about a revolution.
  • Aug. England and Scotland sign a treaty, and both armies are paid with the revenues from a special poll tax voted by Parliament.
  • Oct. Charles I is implicated in a plot by James Graham, Marquis of Montrose, to seize Presbyterian leader Archibald Campbell, second Duke of Argyll. As a result Charles is forced to give virtually all control over Scotland to Argyll and the Presbyterians.
  • 21 Oct. Irish Catholics rise up against their mostly English landlords and slaughter thirty thousand Protestants in Ulster.
  • 1 Dec. Parliament gives Charles I the Grand Remonstrance, listing all their grievances against him since the beginning of his reign. They order it printed on 14 December.
  • French settlers found Montreal.
  • Dutch explorer Abel Tasman discovers Tasmania and New Zealand.
  • 3 Jan. Charles I orders the impeachment of Edward Montagu, Lord Kimbolton, and three members of Parliament on allegations of treason during the recent troubles in Scotland. The House of Commons refuses to order their arrest, and when the king sends troops to seize them, they go into hiding. After Charles leaves London on 10 January, the five members of the Commons return in triumph to Parliament.
  • Mar. From York, Charles I sends word to the House of Commons that he will not sign bills excluding bishops from the House of Lords. Thirty-two members of the Lords and sixty-five members of Commons join the king in York. Because he has the Great Seal, Parliament in London begins passing ordinances without the seal or the king ’ s signature.
  • 2 June Parliament makes a final attempt to resolve its differences with the king, sending him the Nineteen Propositions, which include the requests that he sign a bill giving control of the militia to Parliament and that Parliament be allowed to reform church liturgy and government as it chooses. The king rejects the propositions.
  • July Parliament appoints a committee of public safety and puts Robert Devereux, third Earl of Essex, at the head of a parliamentarian army.
  • 22 Aug. Charles I raises his royal standard at Nottingham, signaling the beginning of the military phase of the English Civil War, pitting parliamentarians and Puritans (Roundheads) against royalists (Cavaliers).
  • 12 Nov. Essex turns back royalist troops at Brentford, ending their march on London. After Oliver Cromwell distinguishes himself in this battle, the associate counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cambridge, Hertford, and Huntington put him in charge of their combined force, which becomes the best in the war and earns the nickname “ the Ironsides. ”
  • 4 Dec. Cardinal Richelieu of France dies.
  • Italian mathematician Evangelista Torricelli invents the barometer.
  • May Louis XIII of France dies and is succeeded by his five-year-old son, Louis XIV. The government is dominated by Cardinal Jules Mazarin.
  • 19 May The French defeat the Spanish at the Battle of Rocroi, marking the end of Spanish military supremacy.
  • 1 July The Westminster Assembly convenes to discuss religious differences. It meets until 1649.
  • 25 Sept. The Solemn League and Covenant is signed by 25 members of the House of Lords and 288 members of the Commons, agreeing to make the religions of England, Ireland, and Scotland as similar as possible and to reform them “ according to. The examples of the best reformed churches. ” As a result the Scots Presbyterians agree to help the parliamentarians in the war effort. At the same time Charles alienates many of his English allies by enlisting the aid of the Irish Catholics, with whom he has just reached a peace agreement.
  • Areopagitica, an essay in favor of freedom of the press by English poet John Milton, is published in London.
  • The last Ming emperor of China dies and is succeeded by the first Manchu emperor of the Ch ’ ing dynasty, which rules China until 1912.
  • Charles I convenes a rival parliament at Oxford.
  • 12 Mar. Archbishop Laud goes on trial for treason. He is found guilty and beheaded on 10 January 1645.
  • 2 July.Oliver Cromwell defeats royalist forces at Marston Moor, a decisive battle that gives the north to Parliament.
  • Aug. Montrose slips into Scotland from abroad and raises an army of Highlanders to support the royalist cause.
  • Jan.-Feb. A truce in the English Civil War ends after Charles I once again rejects Parliament ’ s proposals.
  • 14 June The defeat of royalist troops at the Battle of Naseby spells the ruin of Charles ’ s cause.
  • 12 July Czar Michael Romanov of Russia dies and is succeeded by his son Alexis I.
  • 13 Sept. After several victories Montrose ’ s Highland army is decisively beaten at Philiphaugh.
  • 26 Mar. Royalists are defeated at Stowe-on-the-Wold, the final battle of the English Civil War.
  • 5 May Charles I surrenders himself to the Scots.
  • July Parliament submits the Newcastle Proposals to Charles I, demanding that it control the militia for twenty years and that the king take the Covenant and support the Presbyterian establishment. Foreseeing a split between the radical Presbyterians in Parliament and the more moderate Independents in the army, Charles rejects the proposals.
  • 30 Jan. The Scots surrender Charles I to Parliament as the rift widens between it and the army, which refuses an order to disband.
  • 11 Nov. After several months of disputes between Parliament and the army, Charles I flees to the Isle of Wight, where the governor of Carisbrooke Castle takes him into custody.
  • 24 Dec. Parliament sends Charles I the Four Bills, including one allowing it to determine the time of its own adjournment.
  • 26 Dec. Charles I signs a secret agreement with the Scots, who disapprove of the increasing religious toleration in England and agree to restore him to the throne by military action.
  • 28 Dec. Charles I rejects the Four Bills.
  • 15 Jan. Parliament renounces allegiance to the king, setting in motion the Second English Civil War, pitting England against Scotland, Roundheads against royalists, and Independents against Presbyterians.
  • 17-20 Aug. Cromwell ’ s forces defeat the Scottish army at Preston, the final battle of the Second English Civil War.
  • 24 Oct. The Treaties of Westphalia end the Thirty Years ’ War and recognize the independence of the Dutch Republic of the United Provinces. The treaty does not apply to the war between France and Spain, which continues for eleven more years.
  • 6-7 Dec. Ninety-six Presbyterians are excluded by force from Parliament, creating a sixty-member body known as the “ Rump Parliament. ”
  • 13 Dec. The Rump Parliament votes to bring Charles I to trial.
  • 20-27 Jan. Charles I is tried for treason and sentenced to death by a court appointed by the House of Commons. He is beheaded on 30 January. The monarchy and House of Lords are abolished. England is governed by Parliament and a council of state, but power rests mainly with the army.
  • 5 Feb. Scots in Edinburgh proclaim Charles II, son of Charles I, king.
  • Sept. Cromwell suppresses royalist forces in Scotland.
  • 27 Apr. Montrose, who has returned to Scotland to lead a royalist army, is defeated at Corbiesdale. He is captured and executed at Edinburgh on 21 May.
  • 24 June Landing in Scotland, Charles II takes the Covenant and is again proclaimed king.
  • 3 Sept. The Scots are utterly defeated by Cromwell at the Battle of Worcester. Charles II escapes to France.
  • Leviathan, by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, is published in London.
  • 9 Oct. Parliament passes the first of several Navigation Acts. The first, aimed at Dutch shippers, prohibits importing goods to England except in British ships or in vessels from the countries where the goods have been made.
  • 8 July The First Anglo-Dutch War breaks out over the Navigation Act of 1651. The conflict continues until 1654.
  • The Compleat Angler, a book on fishing by English clergyman Izaak Walton, is published in London.
  • Cardinal Mazarin of France crushes a three-year rebellion of nobles opposed to the king.
  • 20 Apr. Cromwell dismisses the Rump Parliament and abolishes the council of state.
  • 4 July Cromwell establishes a new council of state and a 140-member appointed Parliament, which becomes known as the “ Barebones ’ Parliament. ”
  • 16 Dec. After his supporters in Parliament surrender their powers to him, Cromwell sets up the Protectorate, with himself as lord protector, and a 460-member Parliament that will meet every three years and cannot be dissolved for five months after it is summoned.
  • Christina of Sweden abdicates her throne and is succeeded by her cousin Charles X Gustavus.
  • Russia and Poland begin a thirteen-year war over the Ukraine.
  • 5 Apr. Under the Treaty of Westminster, which ends the First Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch and English establish a defensive league.
  • 12 Sept. After a quarrel with Parliament, Cromwell orders the exclusion of some members.
  • 22 Jan. Cromwell dissolves Parliament after it votes to make the office of lord protector elective rather than hereditary.
  • May Catholic priests are ordered to leave England, and Anglican clergymen are prohibited from preaching or teaching.
  • Charles X Gustavus of Sweden invades Poland.
  • May England seizes Jamaica in the West Indies, provoking a war with Spain.
  • 17 Sept. Cromwell calls his third Parliament, which lasts until 4 February 1658. During its tenure it establishes a second house, deprives the lord protector of the power to exclude members, and establishes toleration for all Christians except Anglicans and Catholics.
  • The first London chocolate shop opens in Bishopsgate Street.
  • Charles X Gustavus of Sweden is driven out of Poland and then goes to war with Denmark, trying to expand his territories on the southern coast of the Baltic. The Dutch intervene to protect their fishing rights. The war continues until 1660.
  • The Dutch begin a four-year war with the Portuguese over their conflicting interests in Brazil.
  • 2 Apr. Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III dies and is succeeded by his sixteen-year-old son, Leopold I.
  • Charles X Gustavus of Sweden twice invades Denmark but fails to capture Copenhagen.
  • 4 June England and France defeat Spain at the Battle of the Dunes the English take Dunkirk.
  • 3 Sept. Oliver Cromwell dies and is succeeded as lord protector by his son Richard.
  • 22 Apr.Richard Cromwell dissolves Parliament, which has been meeting since 27 January, after a dispute over the army.
  • 7 May The Rump Parliament comes together and convinces Cromwell to resign.
  • Oct. The army expels the Rump Parliament but, after public outcry, restores it on 26 December.
  • 7 Nov. The Treaty of the Pyrenees gives Flanders, Luxembourg, and other Spanish possessions in the Low Countries to France gives Dunkirk to England and arranges the marriage of Louis XIV of France to Maria Teresa, eldest daughter of Philip IV of Spain.
  • Parliament passes a second Navigation Act, listing articles that the colonies can ship only to England. The list includes tobacco, sugar, wool, indigo, and apples. (Molasses and rice are added later.) Tobacco prices in Virginia drop sharply.
  • The Lords of Trade are given authority to oversee the American colonies under the authority of the King ’ s Privy Council.
  • 3 Feb. Gen. George Monk leads an army from Scotland to London and reestablishes the Long Parliament, which is finally dissolved on 16 March.
  • 12 Feb. Charles X Gustavus of Sweden dies and is succeeded by his four-year-old son, Charles XI. The Treaty of Copenhagen ends the war between Sweden and Denmark.
  • 14 Apr. Charles II issues the Declaration of Breda, promising amnesty to his opponents and freedom of conscience to all.
  • 3 May The Treaty of Oliva ends the war between Sweden and Poland.
  • 8 May A Convention Parliament, chosen in April without restriction, proclaims Charles II king. He restores the Anglican bishops to their sees and to the House of Lords, grants amnesty to all but the judges who condemned Charles I, and declares in force all the acts of the Long Parliament to which he assented.
  • 29 Dec. The Convention Parliament is dissolved.
  • Cardinal Mazarin of France dies.
  • The royalist Scottish Parliament abolishes the Covenant.
  • 8 May Charles II calls his first Parliament, which becomes known as the “ Cavalier Parliament, ” in part because it repeals the Puritans ’ bans on theater, gaming, and dancing.
  • 20 Nov. Parliament passes the Corporation Act, which includes a provision requiring all magistrates to be Anglicans. This act is the first of four repressive measures that become known as the Clarendon Code.
  • The Royal Society for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge is founded in London.
  • England sells Dunkirk to France.
  • Holland and France form an alliance against attack by England.
  • 20 May Charles II marries Catherine Braganza, daughter of John IV of Portugal.
  • 24 Aug. The second act of the Clarendon Code, the Act of Uniformity, requires all clergymen, college fellows, and teachers to accept everything in the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. Those who refuse become known as Nonconformists.
  • Part one of Hudibras, a long satiric poem by Englishman Samuel Butler, is published in London. Part two is published in 1664, and part three appears in 1678.
  • The Black Death (bubonic plague) kills some ten thousand people in Amsterdam.
  • The Rival Ladies, a play by English poet John Dryden, is published in London.
  • May The third act of the Clarendon Code, the Conventicle Act, forbids Nonconformist meetings of more than five people, except in private homes.
  • 27 Aug. The English take New Amsterdam from the Dutch. Charles II grants New Netherland to his brother, James, Duke of York, who in turn gives part of it to John Berkeley, first Baron Berkeley, and Sir George Carteret.
  • Apr. The Black Death strikes London, killing at least 68,596 people as some two-thirds of the 460,000 inhabitants flee to the countryside.
  • 3 June In the Second Anglo-Dutch War the English fleet defeats the Dutch off Lowestoft.
  • 17 Sept. Philip IV of Spain dies and is succeeded by his four-year-old son, Charles II.
  • Oct.The Five Mile Act, the fourth act in the Clarendon Code, requires Nonconformists to swear nonresistance toward the established church and state and forbids those who refuse to sign to be within five miles of any incorporated town.
  • Sir Isaac Newton invents calculus and establishes the laws of gravity.
  • Louis XIV founds the French Academy of Science in Paris.
  • France enters the Second Anglo-Dutch War on the side of Holland.
  • 2 Sept. The Great Fire of London destroys four-fifths of the city within the walls and sixty-three acres outside them. The Gothic Cathedral of Saint Paul ’ s, eighty-six other churches, the Guildhall, the Custom House, the Royal Exchange, and many other buildings, including more than thirteen thousand houses, are destroyed. In part because many of the old buildings that harbored rats have been burned, deaths from the plague are reduced to two thousand.
  • 28 Nov. Scottish Covenanters revolting against the restrictions of the Clarendon Code are crushed in the Battle of Portland Hills.
  • Paradise Lost, an epic poem by English poet John Milton, is published in London.
  • Though there are no formal political parties in the English Parliament, it is beginning to split into court and country factions that later evolve into the Tories (court) and Whigs (country).
  • Louis XIV of France claims the Spanish possessions in the Belgian provinces on the grounds that on the death of his father-in-law, Philip IV of Spain, these lands passed by right to Louis ’ s wife. France invades the Spanish Netherlands, taking Flanders and Hainault.
  • 20 Jan. The Treaty of Andrussovo ends the thirteen-year war between Russia and Poland, which cedes Kiev, Smolensk, and the eastern Ukraine to Russia.
  • 21 July The Treaties of Breda end the Second Anglo-Dutch War. England gets Antigua, Montserrat, and St. Kitts from France and is allowed to keep New Netherland. France gets Acadia (Nova Scotia), and Holland gets Surinam in South America.
  • 23 Jan. England, Holland, and Spain form a Triple Alliance as a check on Louis XIV of France
  • 2 May The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the war between France and Spain. France gets twelve fortified towns on the border of the Spanish Netherlands.
  • Without the knowledge of Parliament Charles II signs the Treaty of Dover with Louis XIV. In secret provisions he and James, Duke of York, agree to become Catholics and to support France against Spain and Holland. James openly declares his Catholicism immediately.
  • Paradise Regain ’ d, an epic poem by English poet John Milton, is published in London.
  • Parliament passes the Test Act, requiring all officeholders to take oaths of allegiance and supremacy and to take the sacrament in the Church of England.
    publishes his “ New Theory about Light and Colors, ” demonstrating that white light can be broken down into a spectrum of colors.
  • England and France go to war against Holland. Sweden enters the war on the side of England and France. Spain enters on the side of Holland.
  • Marriage a-La-Mode, a play by English poet John Dryden, is published in London.
  • The Dutch retake New York and Delaware from England.
  • 21 Nov. James, Duke of York, takes as his second wife, the Catholic Maria d ’ Este of Modena.
  • 9 Feb. The Treaty of Westminster ends the war between England and Holland. The Dutch return New York and Delaware to England.
  • 8 Feb. Czar Alexis of Russia dies and is succeeded by his son Fedor III.
  • 21 June Architect Sir Christopher Wren lays the cornerstone on the new Saint Paul ’ s Cathedral in London, one of many churches he designs to replace those destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666.
  • 4 Nov. Mary (daughter of the duke of York by his first wife, Anne Hyde) marries the Dutch prince William of Orange.
  • 10 Aug. A series of treaties signed between this date and 26 September 1679 ends the war between Holland and France and their allies. All its territory is returned to Holland on the condition that it remain neutral.
  • Sept. Titus Oakes alleges a “ popish plot ” in which Catholics have planned to massacre Protestants, burn London, and kill Charles II. As a result several Catholics are executed, including the confessor of Maria, Duchess of York, and Parliament passes an act excluding Catholics from both its houses.
  • 24 Jan. The Cavalier Parliament is dissolved.
  • 6 Mar. Charles II calls his third Parliament, which unsuccessfully attempts to exclude the Catholic duke of York from the line of succession the the throne. After much controversy with the king, this Parliament is dissolved on 27 May 1680.
  • 1 June The Covenanters of Scotland rise up again and are put down at the Battle of Bothwell Brigg on 22 June.
  • 21 Oct Charles II calls his fourth Parliament. The bill to exclude the duke of York passes in the Commons but fails in the House of Lords. This Parliament is dissolved on 18 January 1681.
  • Absalom and Achitophel, an allegorical poem on the exclusion crisis written by English poet John Dryden, is published in London.
  • 21 Mar. Charles II calls his fifth Parliament but dissolves it on 28 March, after the exclusion bill is introduced again.
  • Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, claims the Mississippi River valley for France.
  • 27 Apr. Czar Fedor III of Russia dies and is succeeded by his nine-year-old brother Peter, but after a palace revolt Fedor ’ s fifteen-year-old physically and mentally defective brother, Ivan, becomes an associate ruler, beginning a seven-year reign in which his sister Sophia is his regent and holds all real power.
  • France invades the Spanish Netherlands. Carlos II of Spain forms the League of the Hague with Emperor Leopold of the Holy Roman Empire, joining a Dutch-Swedish alliance against Louis XIV.
  • June Two separate conspiracies to kill Charles II are uncovered in London.
  • The English East India Company builds a trading station in Canton, China.
  • French architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart completes the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles.
  • France takes Lorraine. Louis XIV signs a twenty-year truce at Regensburg, which gives France Strasbourg and Lorraine.
  • Elector Charles of the Palatine dies with no male heir. His lands are claimed by Louis XIV, whose brother is married to the elector ’ s sister.
  • 6 Feb. Charles II dies and is succeeded by the duke of York as James II. He alienates both Tories and Whigs by his attempts to secure freedom of worship for his fellow Catholics.
  • 19 May The Parliament of James II convenes. It is dissolved on 2 July 1687.
  • 6 July Another Scottish uprising ends with their defeat at the Battle of Sedgemoor.
  • 18 Oct. France revokes the Edict of Nantes (1598), which gave French Huguenots (Protestants) equal political rights with French Catholics. Forbidden to practice their religion and required to educate their children in the Catholic faith, many Huguenots immigrate to Holland, England, Brandenburg, British North America, and South Africa.
  • France annexes Madagascar.
  • 9 July The Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Saxony, and the Palatine form the League of Augsburg in opposition to France.
    ’ s Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (Principles of Natural Philosophy) is published.
  • The University of Bologna is founded.
  • Apr. James II issues his first Declaration of Liberty of Conscience, granting freedom of worship to all denominations in England and Scotland.
  • Apr. The archbishop of Canterbury and six other bishops are sent to the Tower of London for asking the king to excuse them from the requirement that his Declaration of Liberty of Conscience be read in all churches. They are tried on 29-30 June for seditious libel and acquitted.
  • 30 June After the birth of a son and heir to James II on 10 June, seven eminent Englishmen invite William of Orange, James ’ s son-in-law, to save England from Catholicism. Hoping for English help for Holland against France, William accepts their offer in late September.
  • Oct. France invades the Palatine, beginning the War of the League of Augsburg. In North America it becomes known as King William ’ s War.
  • 5 Nov. William of Orange lands in England, setting in motion the so-called Glorious Revolution.
  • 11 Dec. James II flees London, is captured and brought back, but on 22 December he escapes to France, where Louis XIV sets the exiled Stuarts at the Court of St. Germaine.
  • 12 Dec. Amid rioting in London, the peers set up the Interregnum, or provisional government.
  • 19 Dec. William of Orange enters London.
  • Regent and Czarina Sophia is deposed, and her brother Peter becomes sole ruler of Russia. He becomes known as Peter the Great.
  • 22 Jan. On the advice of the peers a Convention Parliament is called. It is dissolved on 27 January 1690, after transforming itself into a regular Parliament on 22 February 1689.
  • 28 Jan. Parliament declares that James II is no longer king and offers the throne to William of Orange. He refuses the crown but then agrees to rule jointly with his wife, Mary, daughter of James II.
  • 13 Feb. William III and Mary II are proclaimed the rulers of England, with chief responsibility for administering the government going to William.
  • Parliament issues the Declaration of Rights, asserting its powers to govern, along with free elections, freedom of debate, the right to trial by jury, and other rights of British subjects.
  • 22 Feb. Parliament and the clergy take the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy to the new monarchs. Six bishops and some four hundred clergymen, who become known as Nonjurors, refuse and establish a separate and private Church of England, which continues to exist until the nineteenth century.
  • 14 Mar. James II lands in Ireland and besieges Protestant Londonderry on 20 April. The siege is lifted by British troops on 30 July.
  • 7 May Scots Highlanders rise up in support of James II, but after victory at the Battle of Killiecankie on 17 July, the rebels gradually lose force.
  • 12 May England and Holland enter the War of the League of Augsburg against France. The primary focus of the war shifts to the Netherlands.
  • 16 Dec. The English Bill of Rights, a parliamentary enactment of the Declaration of Rights, is passed.
  • An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, by English philosopher John Locke, is published in London.
  • 20 Mar. William III ’ s second Parliament convenes. It is dissolved on 3 May 1695.
  • 30 June The French defeat the English fleet in the Battle of Beachy Head.
  • 1 July William III defeats James II at the Battle of the Boyne in Ireland, and James flees to France.
  • 12 July The English defeat Irish and French forces at the Battle of Aughrim in Ireland.
  • 3 Oct. An English victory over Irish and French troops at Limerick results in the Pacification of Limerick, ending James II ’ s military attempt to regain the English throne.
  • 19 May The English achieve a naval victory over the French at Cap de la Hogue, but William III ’ s land campaigns on the Continent are unsuccessful.
  • 27 July The Bank of England is chartered after its founders lend to government £ 1.2 million to help cover its soaring war debts.
  • 22 Dec. The Triennial Bill, requiring Parliament to meet every three years, becomes law.
  • 28 Dec. Mary II of England dies.
  • 22 Nov. William III ’ s third Parliament, the First Triennial Parliament, convenes. It is dissolved on 5 July 1698.
  • Parliament passes the Trials for Treason Act, requiring two witnesses to prove the commission of treason.
  • A plot to kill William III is uncovered.
  • The Board of Trade replaces the Lords of Trade as overseers of the colonies.
  • 10 Apr. Parliament passes a Navigation Act prohibiting the American colonies from exporting goods directly to Scotland or Ireland.
    (Peter the Great) of Russia visits Holland, France, and England incognito to learn about Western civilization. He returns home determined to modernize Russia.
  • The Board of Trade establishes Vice-Admiralty Courts whose jurisdiction covers colonial maritime cases. These courts have no juries.
  • 5 Apr. Charles XI of Sweden dies and is succeeded by his fourteen-year-old son, Charles XII.
  • 20 Sept. The Treaty of Ryswick among France, England, Spain, and Holland ends the War of the League of Augsburg and acknowledges William III as king of England and Anne of Denmark, the second daughter of James II, as his successor. Louis XIV of France agrees not to help James II and his son, James Edward, who are in exile in France. Spain cedes the western third of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola (Haiti) to France.
  • 30 Oct. In a separate treaty with the Holy Roman Empire, France is allowed to keep Alsace and Strasbourg, but it gives up Lorraine.
  • 2 Dec. Saint Paul ’ s Cathedral is completed in London.
  • The first modern stock exchange is formed in London.
  • Parliament opens the slave trade to British merchants, allowing their ships to carry sugar and molasses from the West Indies to New England rum distilleries, rum from New England to African slave traders, and slaves from Africa to the West Indies.
  • In London a fire destroys all of Whitehall Palace except for the Banqueting Hall built by Inigo Jones in 1622.
  • 6 Dec. The fourth Parliament of William III convenes, passing further anti-Catholic measures. It is dissolved on 11 April 1700.
  • Parliament passes the Woolen Act, forbidding the American colonies from exporting wool, wool yarn, and wool cloth.
  • The Great Northern War, a state of general warfare that lasts twenty-one years, erupts as Russia, Poland, and Denmark oppose Swedish attempts to maintain and extend its supremacy in the Baltic region.
  • 1 Nov. The last Hapsburg monarch of Spain, Charles II dies, having just named Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV of France, as his heir, Philip V.
  • The Anglican Church creates a missionary arm, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (S.P.G.), sending ministers to the English colonies.
  • The War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Anne ’ s War in North America) breaks out, as other Hapsburg rulers claim precedence and territory. Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, a German Hapsburg, moves to take over Spain ’ s possessions in the Low Countries and Italy.
  • 7 Sept.Great Britain and Holland, fearing that France will ally itself with Spain, join in a Grand Alliance with Leopold I and Eugene, Prince of Savoy. Eugene invades Italy.
  • 16 Sept. James II dies in exile in France, where Louis XIV proclaims James ’ s son James Edward king of England and Ireland. He becomes known as the Old Pretender.
  • 8 Mar. William III of England dies. He is succeeded by his sister-in-law Anne, second daughter of James II and wife of Prince George of Denmark.
  • 14 May The Grand Alliance declares war on France.
  • 14 Dec. After Gen. John Churchill, Earl of Marlborough ’ s major victories in the Spanish Netherlands, Queen Anne makes him duke of Marlborough.
  • The Grand Alliance proclaims Archduke Charles of Austria king of Spain. He invades Catalonia and establishes himself as Charles III.
  • The Southern Department replaces the Board of Trade as the body that appoints governors to British Crown colonies.
  • 4 Aug. The English take Gibraltar from Spain.
  • 13 Aug. Marlborough achieves a major victory over troops of the French and their Bavarian and Prussian allies at the Battle of Blenheim.
  • Queen Anne commissions architect John Vanbrugh to build Blenhiem Palace in Oxfordshire for the duke of Marlborough.
  • 5 May Leopold I dies and is succeeded as Holy Roman emperor by his twenty-six-year-old son, Josef I.
  • 23 May Marlborough ’ s triumph at the Battle of Ramilles is followed by the surrender of Antwerp, Ghent, Ostend, and other major cities in the Spanish Netherlands.
  • June With the help of Portuguese forces Leszczynska takes Madrid but holds it only briefly.
  • 1 MayGreat Britain is established through the union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland. The Scottish parliament is abolished, with Scotland sending sixteen elected peers and forty-five members of commons to Parliament in England. The Union Jack, combining the English cross of Saint George and the Scottish cross of Saint Andrew, becomes the new national flag.
  • Mar. James Edward (the Old Pretender) lands in Scotland but soon returns to France after the French fleet sent to support him is beaten by the British.
  • 11 July The victory of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy at Ooudenarde results in unsuccessful peace negotiations. The War of the Spanish Succession continues.
  • 9 Apr.Joseph Addison and Richard Steele begin publishing their magazine The Tatler in London. It continues until 2 January 1711.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, by Irish philosopher George Berkeley, is published in Dublin.
  • Parliament passes the Landed Property Qualification Act, an attempt by Tory landowners to keep merchants, financiers, and industrialists out of the House of Commons. It also passes the Occasional Conformity Bill, aimed at dissenters who regularly attend Nonconformist religious services but qualify to hold office because they have once taken communion in an Anglican Church.
  • Parliament charters the South Sea Company for investment in overseas enterprises and allows it to take over part of the national debt, issuing £ 1 worth of stock for every £ 1 of debt it assumes.
  • 1 Mar.Joseph Addison and Richard Steele begin publishing their magazine The Spectator in London, continuing until 6 December 1712.
  • 17 Apr. Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I dies and is succeeded by his brother Charles VI, claimant to the Spanish throne as Charles III.
  • Joseph Addison ’ s tragedy Cato is published in London.
  • 11 Apr. The Treaty of Utrecht recognizes Philip V as king of Spain. Great Britain gets Newfoundland, Acadia (Nova Scotia), and the Hudson Bay territory from France and Gibraltar and Minorca from Spain. The Spanish Netherlands are turned over to the Republic of Holland with the agreement that they will be given to Austria in a separate treaty. Savoy gets Sicily. Charles VI and the Holy Roman Empire continue the war.
  • German physicist Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit introduces the Fahrenheit mercury thermometer.
  • The Treaty of Rastatt and Baden gives the Spanish Netherlands to Austria, ending the War of the Spanish Succession, but the Holy Roman Empire refuses to recognize Philip V and his heirs as the rulers of Spain.
  • Anne of England dies. She is succeeded by a great-grandson of James I, Prince George Louis of Hanover, who becomes George I of England. His sympathy to the Whigs results in a shift in power from the Tories to the Whigs.
  • 18 June Joseph Addison revives The Spectator in London, publishing it until 20 December 1714.
  • Gil Blas, a picaresque novel by Alain Ren é Lesage, is published in Paris.
  • Jacobites, supporters of James Edward, pretender to the British throne, riot in London.
  • Sept. A Jacobite uprising begins in Scotland.
  • 1 Sept. Louis XIV of France dies and is succeeded by his five-year-old grandson, Louis XV. Philippe, Due d ’ Orl é ans, serves as regent.
  • Dec. Calling himself James III, James Edward arrives in Scotland from France.
  • Spain seizes Sardinia.
  • 4 Jan.Britain, Holland, and France form a Triple Alliance, forcing James Edward, who has been intriguing with Charles XII and the prime minister of Spain, to leave France.
  • Jan. Parliament repeals the Occasional Conformity Act.
  • July Spain takes Sicily.
  • 2 Aug. The Holy Roman Empire joins the Triple Alliance, making it the Quadruple Alliance.
  • 11 Dec. Charles XII of Sweden is killed during a military expedition in Norway. He is succeeded by his sister, Ulrika Eleanora, who attempts to end the Great Northern War.
  • Robinson Crusoe, the first novel by Englishman Daniel Defoe, is published in London.
  • Spain launches an abortive mission to Scotland in support of the pretender.
  • 20 Nov. The Treaty of Stockholm ends hostilities between England and Sweden.
  • Ulrika Eleanora of Sweden abdicates in favor of her husband, Frederick I. The Treaties of Stockholm, signed in 1720 and 1721, end the Great Northern War, restoring the status quo, as before the war, among Sweden, Saxony, and Poland. Denmark restores all its conquests.
  • Jan. The “ South Sea Bubble ” bursts in London as the collapse of the South Sea Company causes a financial panic.
  • 17 Feb. In the Treaty of the Hague Philip V gives up his claims in Italy, and Emperor Charles VI renounces his claims on the Spanish throne. Austria gets Sicily, and Savoy gets Sardinia.
  • June Spain makes peace with Great Britain and joins in an alliance with Britain and France.
  • Moll Flanders, a novel by Daniel Defoe, is published in London.
  • Lettres persanes (Persian Letters), a satire of life in Paris by French philosopher Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, is published in Paris.
  • Chancellor of the Exchequer John Aislabie is sent to the Tower of London on charges of fraud connected to the collapse of the South Sea Company.
  • Apr. Sir Robert Walpole, who has profited in South Sea Company speculation, becomes prime minister and chancellor of the exchequer, encouraging trade by reducing import and export duties and avoiding further panic by amalgamating stock in the South Sea Company with the stock of the Bank of England. He also slackens enforcement of the Navigation Acts.
  • 30 Aug. In the Treaty of Nystadt Sweden cedes Livonia, Estonia, Ingermanland, and several islands to Russia, which restores Finland to Sweden. As a result of this treaty Russia emerges as an important European power, and Sweden loses its dominance in the Baltic region.
  • Peter the Great takes the Bosporus and the Dardanelles from Constantinople, giving Russia an outlet to the Mediterranean.
  • Great Britain and Prussia sign the Treaty of Charlottenburg, agreeing that George I ’ s grandson will marry a Prussian princess and Prince Frederick of Prussia will marry the daughter of the Prince of Wales.
  • Great Britain exiles Bishop Francis Atterbury for his involvement in a Jacobite plot.
    of France marries Marie Leszczynska, daughter of Stanislas Leszczynski, who was deposed from the throne of Poland in 1709.
  • Peter the Great establishes the Russian Academy of Sciences.
  • 28 Jan. Peter the Great of Russia dies and is succeeded by his consort, Catherine I.
  • 3 Sept. Britain, France, and Prussia sign the Treaty of Hanover.
  • Spain lays siege to Gibraltar, beginning a war with England. France enters on the side of Britain.
  • 16 May Catherine I of Russia dies and is succeeded by her twelve-year-old son, Peter II.
  • 10 June George I of Great Britain dies and is succeeded by his forty-four-year-old son, George II. Prime Minister Walpole remains in office.
  • 9 Nov. The Treaty of Seville ends the war between Spain and the allied nations of Great Britain and France.
  • 30 Jan. Peter II of Russia dies. On 8 March his cousin Anna Ivanovna and her supporters overthrow the supreme privy council, making her czarina.
  • English mathematician John Hadley invents a reflecting quadrant, which allows mariners to determine longitude at night.
  • 16 Mar. England and the Holy Roman Empire sign the Treaty of Vienna, in which Emperor Charles VI agrees to dissolve the Ostend East India Company set up by the Empire to rival the Dutch and English East India Companies.
  • English agriculturalist Jethro Tull publishes New Horse-Hoeing Husbandry, which calls for using a plow to keep lands fertile.
  • Englishman John Kay patents the flying shuttle, the first of several inventions that transform the textile industry and usher in the Industrial Revolution.
  • 1 Feb.Augustus II of Poland dies. Austria and Russia want the throne to go to Augustus ’ s only legitimate son, Frederick Augustus, Elector of Saxony. Louis XV of France, however, wants to reinstate his father-in-law, Stanislas Leszczynski, thus beginning the War of the Polish Succession, involving Russia and the Holy Roman Empire against France, Spain, and Sardinia.
  • In his Lettres philosophiques Voltaire (Fran ç ois-Marie Arouet) praises the Quakers and English government, philosophy, science, and literature. Sensing the implied criticism of authoritarianism in France, the French government orders the burning of the book.
  • A Defence of Free-Thinking in Mathematics, by Irish philosopher George Berkeley, is published in Dublin.
  • Hostilities end in the War of the Polish Succession, but no treaty is signed until 1738.
  • Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus publishes his system for classifying plants.
  • British inventor John Harrison introduces the ship ’ s chronometer, an improved means of determining longitude.
  • 18 Nov. The Treaty of Vienna formally ends the War of the Polish Succession. Stanislas Leszczynski renounces the Polish throne in return for the duchies of Lorraine and Bar, which will go to France on his death. Austria cedes Naples, Sicily, and Elba to Spain.
  • Oct. After learning that a Spanish captain cut off one of British seaman Robert Jenkins ’ s ears in Havana in 1731, Parliament decides to make an issue of Spain ’ s alleged mistreatment of British manners and orders British naval squadrons to intercept Spanish galleons, beginning the War of Jenkins ’ Ear between Britain and Spain, which continues until 1748.
  • 31 MayFrederick William I dies, having made Prussia a formidable military power. He is succeeded by his twenty-eight-year-old son, Frederick II (Frederick the Great), who occupies part of Silesia, claiming it belongs to Prussia, thus bringing about a drawn conflict with Austria. The First Silesian War lasts until 1742.
  • 17 Oct. Czarina Anna Ivanovna of Russia dies and is succeeded by her infant nephew Ivan VI.
  • 20 Oct. Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI dies, having named his daughter Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, as his successor. Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria Augustus III of Saxony and Philip V of Spain each claim the throne and challenge Maria Theresa ’ s right to it, starting the War of the Austrian Succession, which continues until 1748.
  • May France, Bavaria, and Spain conclude a secret alliance against Austria, which is supported by Great Britain. Saxony and Prussia later join the alliance against Austria.
  • Joseph Andrews, a novel by Englishman Henry Fielding, is published in London.
  • June-July In the Treaties of Breslau and Berlin, Prussia agrees to withdraw from the alliance against Maria Theresa in return for a large portion of Silesia. Austria proceeds to drive the allies out of Bohemia.
  • Austria drives the allies out of Bavaria.
  • The Whigs retain control of Parliament after the fall of Walpole ’ s government in February 1742. Whig Henry Pelham becomes prime minister, but his party is breaking up into rival factions.
  • 27 June An army of British, Hanoverian, and Hessian troops led by George II of England defeats the French at the Battle of Dettingen. After this success Holland joins Britain in support of Maria Theresa, who makes an alliance with Saxony.
  • 7 Aug. In the Treaty of Abo, ending a war between Sweden and Russia that began in 1741, Sweden cedes part of Finland to Russia.
  • Anxious about the increasing power of Austria, Frederick the Great of Prussia concludes another alliance with France and starts the Second Silesian War, marching through Saxony, invading Bohemia, and reaching Prague before Maria Theresa ’ s forces drive him back to Saxony. The war ends in 1745.
  • King George ’ s War breaks out in North America as an offshoot of the War of the Austrian Succession.
  • The anthem “ God Save the King ” is published in London.
  • Dutch scientist Pieter van Musschenbroek invents the Leyden Jar, which artificially generates an electric current. of Bavaria withdraws his claim to be Holy Roman Emperor and promises to support Maria Theresa ’ s husband, Francis Stephen, who becomes Emperor Francis I.
  • 11 May The French begin their conquest of the Austrian Netherlands.
  • 25 JulyCharles Edward Stuart ( “ Bonnie Prince Charlie, ” or the Young Pretender) lands in the Hebrides to lead Scottish Highlanders in a Jacobite rebellion, proclaiming his father James Edward (the Old Pretender) James VIII of Scotland and James III of England.
  • Sept. The Jacobites enter Edinburgh on the eleventh and win the Battle of Prestonpans on the twenty-first.
  • 4 Dec. The Jacobites reach Derby in England.
  • The French complete their conquest of the Austrian Netherlands.
  • 16 Apr. The defeat of the Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden Moor ends efforts to restore the Stuarts to the British throne.
  • 29 June “ Bonnie Prince Charlie ” escapes to the Isle of Skye disguised as a woman and remains hidden there until he is able to get away to France in September. As a result of this uprising Scotsmen are forbidden by law to wear any tartan. The ban is not lifted until 1782.
  • 9 July Philip V of Spain dies and is succeeded by his thirty-three-year-old son, Ferdinand VI.
  • After severe defeats by the French in European land battles, the British achieve major naval victories against them in the Caribbean.
  • De l ’ Esprit des lois (The Spirit of Laws), Montesquieu ’ s essay about the relationship between human and natural law, is published in Paris.
  • The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the War of the Austrian Succession, affirming the election of Francis I as Holy Roman Emperor and the succession of George II and his descendants (the House of Hanover) in Great Britain and their German states and giving Silesia to Frederick the Great. France gets Louisburg in Nova Scotia from Great Britain but returns the Austrian Netherlands to Austria. Prussia emerges as a world power. Great Britain comes away a defeated nation, except in North America.
  • In his Discours sur les sciences et les arts (Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts) French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau charges that so-called progress in the arts and sciences have corrupted humankind.
  • Parliament passes the Iron Act, prohibiting the North American colonies from making iron products. Colonists are permitted to smelt iron ore into bar iron and pig iron and ship it to England, exchanging it for manufactured items. The Iron Act is generally ignored in America.
  • The Westminster Bridge is completed in London. It is the first new bridge across the Thames since the London Bridge opened in the tenth century.
  • French writer Denis Diderot publishes the first volume of his Encyclopedia. The final, twenty-eighth, volume appears in 1771.
  • Frederick I of Sweden dies and is succeeded by Adophus Frederick of Oldenberg-Holstein-Gottorp, brother-in-law of Frederick the Great of Prussia.
  • Great Britain and her colonies adopt the modern, or Gregorian, calendar that has been in use on the Continent for some time. Because the difference between this calendar and the old, Julian calendar has grown to eleven days, 2-14 September are omitted from the 1752 British calendar.
  • The library and collections of the late Sir Hans Sloane form the basis for the foundation of the British Museum.
  • In his Discours sur l ’ origine et les fondements de l ’ in é galit é parmi les hommes (Discourse on the Origin and Bases of Inequality among Men) Rousseau celebrates the “ natural man ” and calls private property and politics causes of inequality and oppression.
  • Mar. Prime Minister Henry Pelham dies. He is succeeded by his brother Thomas Pelham-Holles, first Duke of Newcastle.

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Anglo-Dutch Wars

The Anglo-Dutch Wars (Dutch: Engels–Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were a series of wars fought between the Dutch Republic and first the Kingdom of England and then the United Kingdom of Great Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries. The nations fought for control over trade routes on the seas. All of the wars were mostly fought by naval warfare.

The First War (1652–1654) took place during the Interregnum in England, the period after the Civil War when England did not have a king or queen. The war was fought between the navies of England and the Dutch Republic (also known as the United Provinces). It mainly took place in the English Channel and the North Sea. It ended with the Royal Navy of England gaining control of these seas and a monopoly over trade with the English colonies. [1]

The second (1665–1667) and third (1672–1674) wars happened after the English Restoration of the monarchy. England tried to end the Dutch monopoly over world trade. Most of the fighting in both wars was done in the North Sea. In the Third War, England fought alongside France. Both of these wars ended in strong victories for the Dutch. They confirmed the Dutch Republic's position as the leading maritime power of the 17th century. The English took New Netherland and the Dutch let them keep it in return for Suriname.

The Fourth War (1780–1784) took place after the Acts of Union 1707 in Great Britain, and involved the Dutch Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain. It mainly started because Britain disagreed with the Dutch trading with the United States during the American Revolutionary War. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris (1784). It ended with a very bad defeat for the Dutch. [2] They lost parts of their Dutch Empire.


Outbreak of war

French support for the English royalists had led the Commonwealth to issue Barbados in contravention of an embargo imposed by the Commonwealth. Over a hundred other Dutch ships were captured by English privateers between October 1651 and July 1652. Moreover, the death of Dutch stadtholder William II, who had favoured an expansion of the army at the expense of the navy, had led to a change in the defence policy of the United Provinces towards protecting the great trading concerns of Amsterdam and Rotterdam. Accordingly, the States General decided on 3 March 1652 to expand the fleet by hiring and equipping 150 merchant ships as ships of war to allow effective convoying against hostile English actions.

The news of this decision reached London on 12 March 1652 and the Commonwealth too began to prepare for war, but as both nations were unready, war might have been delayed if not for an unfortunate encounter between the fleets of Dutch Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp and General at Sea Robert Blake in the English Channel near Dover on 29 May 1652. An ordinance of Cromwell required all foreign fleets in the North Sea or the Channel to dip their flag in salute, reviving an ancient right the English had long insisted on, but when Tromp was tardy to comply, Blake opened fire, starting the brief Battle of Goodwin Sands. Tromp lost two ships but escorted his convoy to safety.


Conduct of the war

The States of Holland sent their highest official, the Grand Pensionary Adriaan Pauw, to London in a last desperate attempt to prevent war, but in vain: English demands had become so extreme that no self-respecting state could meet them. War was declared by the English Parliament on 10 July 1652. The Dutch diplomats realised what was at stake: one of the departing ambassadors said, "The English are about to attack a mountain of gold we are about to attack a mountain of iron." The Dutch Orangists were jubilant however they expected that either victory or defeat would bring them to power.

The first months of the war saw English attacks against the Dutch convoys. Blake was sent with 60 ships to disrupt Dutch fishing in the North Sea and Dutch trade with the Baltic, leaving Ayscue with a small force to guard the Channel. On 12 July 1652, Ayscue intercepted a Dutch convoy returning from Portugal, capturing seven merchantmen and destroying three. Tromp gathered a fleet of 96 ships to attack Ayscue, but southerly winds kept him in the North Sea. Turning north to pursue Blake, Tromp caught up with the English fleet off the Shetland Islands, but a storm scattered his ships and there was no battle. On 26 August 1652, an outward-bound Dutch convoy with an escort of director's ships from Zeeland commanded by Michiel de Ruyter, who held the rank of commandeur, broadly equivalent to commodore was sighted by Ayscue, with a more numerous squadron of warships and armed merchant ships. Ayscue attempted to attack the convoy with around nine of his strongest and fastest warships, but De Ruyter counter-attacked and, in the Battle of Plymouth, surrounded the English warships which were not supported by their armed merchant ships. The convoy escaped, Ayscue was relieved of his command and de Ruyter gained prestige in his first independent command. [70] [71]

Tromp had also been suspended after the failure in Shetland, and Vice-Admiral Witte de With was given command. The Dutch convoys being at the time safe from English attack, De With saw an opportunity to concentrate his forces and gain control of the seas. At the Battle of the Kentish Knock on 8 October 1652 the Dutch attacked the English fleet near the mouth of the River Thames, but were beaten back with many casualties. [72] [73] The English Parliament, believing the Dutch to be near defeat, sent away twenty ships to strengthen the position in the Mediterranean. This division of forces left Blake with only 42 men of war by November, while the Dutch were making every effort to reinforce their fleet. This division led to an English defeat by Tromp in the Battle of Dungeness in December, while it failed to save the English Mediterranean fleet, largely destroyed at the Battle of Leghorn in March 1653. [74]

The Dutch had effective control of the Channel, the North Sea, and the Mediterranean, with English ships blockaded in port. As a result, Cromwell convinced Parliament to begin secret peace negotiations with the Dutch. In February 1653, Adriaan Pauw responded favourably, sending a letter from the States of Holland indicating their sincere desire to reach a peace agreement. However, these discussions, which were only supported by a bare majority of members of the Rump parliament, dragged on without much progress for almost a year. [75] [76]

Despite its successes, the Dutch Republic was unable to sustain a prolonged naval war as English privateers inflicted serious damage on Dutch shipping. It is estimated that the Dutch lost between 1,000 and 1,700 vessels of all sizes to privateers in this war, up to four times as many as the English lost, and more than the total Dutch losses for the other two Anglo-Dutch war. [77] In addition, as press-ganging was forbidden, enormous sums had to be paid to attract enough sailors to man the fleet. [78] The Dutch were unable to defend all of their colonies and it had too few colonists or troops in Dutch Brazil to prevent the more numerous Portuguese, dissatisfied by Dutch rule, from reconquest. [79]

Though the politicians were close to ending the conflict, the naval war continued and, over the winter of 1652–53, the English fleet repaired its ships and considered its tactics. All of the sea battles fought in 1652 were chaotic, with boarding and capturing enemy ships a favoured tactic, particularly of the Dutch. Squadrons or even individual ships fought without regard to the rest of the fleet, although the English fleet instructions of 1650 emphasised the importance of supporting other ships of the same squadron, particularly the flagship. [80] In the first major battle of 1653, the English fleet challenged the Dutch in the three-day Battle of Portland, which began in 28 February. They captured at least 20 Dutch merchant ships, captured or destroyed at least eight and possibly twelve warships and drove the Dutch from the Channel. [81] Like the battles of 1652, this was chaotic, but the most notable tactical events happened in the first day, when Tromp led the whole Dutch fleet against about two dozen English ships at the rear of the fleet, hoping to overpower them before the bulk of the English fleet could come to their aid. However, the outnumbered English ships extemporised a line ahead formation and managed to keep the Dutch at bay through coordinated heavy gunfire. [82]

Whether as a direct result of the Battle of Portland or the accumulation of experience gained over some years, in March 1653, Robert Blake wrote the Sailing and Fighting Instructions, a major overhaul of English naval tactics, containing the first formal description of the line of battle. [83] The success of this new formation was evident in the Battle of the Gabbard in June 1653, when the English fleet not only defeated the Dutch in a long-range artillery duel but suffered so little damage that it could maintain a blockade rather than sending many ships to port for repairs. [84] The Dutch, in contrast, relied less on linear tactics, preferring to close with English ships to board and capture then as late as the Battle of Lowestoft in 1665, and they also retained numbers of slow and badly armed hired merchant ships in their fleet as late as that battle, when the English fleet was already questioning their use. [85]

In mid-March 1653, the States of Holland sent a detailed peace proposal to the English Rump Parliament, where it generated a fierce debate and a slim majority for a response to be made. The response made first to the States of Holland and then to the States General in April was critical of the Dutch proposals, but at least allowed discussions to start. [86] Little was achieved until both the Rump Parliament and its short-lived successor the Nominated Parliament had been dissolved, the latter in December 1653. [86] On 30 April 1654, the States General asked for negotiations to be restarted and in May Cromwell agreed to receive Dutch envoys in London. [87] In mid June, Johan de Witt persuaded the States General to send commissioners to London to negotiate peace terms and Cromwell was receptive, although he was insistent that the Dutch republic must ensure the House of Orange would not become dominant again, and declined to repeal the Navigation Act. [88]

Cromwell again put forward his plan for a political union between the two nations to the four Dutch envoys who had arrived in London in late June, but they emphatically rejected this. [89] He then proposed a military alliance against Spain, promising to repeal the Navigation Act in return for Dutch assistance in the conquest of Spanish America: this too was rejected. [90] Cromwell then fell back on a proposal of 27 articles, two of which were unacceptable to the Dutch: that all Royalists had to be expelled, and that Denmark, the ally of the Republic, should be abandoned in its war against Sweden. [91] In the end Cromwell accepted that the 25 agreed articles would form the basis for peace. Hostilities largely ended until the conclusion of peace.

Meanwhile, the English navy tried to gain control over the North Sea, and in the two-day Battle of the Gabbard in June drove the Dutch back to their home ports with the loss of 17 warships captured or destroyed, starting a blockade of the Dutch coast, which led to a crippling of the Dutch economy. [92] [93] The Dutch were unable to feed their dense urban population without a regular supply of Baltic wheat and rye prices of these commodities soared and the poor were soon unable to buy food, and starvation ensued.

The final battle of the war was the hard-fought and bloody Battle of Scheveningen in August, fought because the Dutch were desperate to break the English blockade. This was a tactical victory for the English fleet, which captured or destroyed at least a dozen and possibly 27 Dutch warships for the loss of two or three English ones, and captured or killed some 2,000 men including Tromp, who was killed early in the battle, for a loss of 500 English dead. [93] However, despite their heavy losses of men and ships, the Dutch fleet was able to retreat to the Texel, and the English had to abandon their blockade, so the Dutch achieved their aim. [94] The death of Tromp was a blow to Dutch morale, which increased the Dutch desire to end the war: similar feelings arose in England. "The Dutch fleet in the late C17th was between 3000 to 4000 ships in total with half over 100 tons" [95] trade as a whole had suffered.

However, after Scheveningen, the Dutch turned to using smaller warships and privateering with the result that, by November Cromwell was anxious to make peace as the Dutch were capturing numerous English merchant ships. [96]

As a result, the English made no significant gains out of the peace treaty: not Cromwell's original political aim of a union that would subordinate the Dutch and certainly no commercial ones, as there was massive economic damage to the English maritime economy. [97] The Commonwealth government of Oliver Cromwell wished to avoid further conflict with the Dutch Republic, as it was planning war with Spain, which began as the Anglo-Spanish War of 1654–1660 after the Treaty of Westminster was signed. [98]


Aftermath

Cromwell again put forward his plan for a political union between the two nations, but this was rejected by the States General on 21 October, so emphatically that Cromwell finally realised that the Dutch had not the slightest inclination to join the Commonwealth. Then, repeating the line of argument the English delegation had made two years previously, he proposed a military alliance against Spain, promising to repeal the Navigation Act in return for Dutch assistance in the conquest of Spanish America. This too was rejected. As a result, Cromwell, more than a little annoyed, made a proposal of 27 articles, two of which were utterly unacceptable to the Dutch: that all Royalists had to be expelled and that Denmark, the ally of the Republic, should be abandoned in its war against Sweden. In the end Cromwell gave in. The peace was declared on 15 April 1654 with the signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ratified by the States General on 22 April and Cromwell on 29 April. The treaty had a secret annex, the Act of Seclusion, forbidding the Dutch ever to appoint the son of the late stadtholder, the later William III of England, to the position of his father. This clause, overtly a demand by Cromwell fearing the Orangists, was perhaps inserted on the covert wishes of the leading Dutch States party politicians, the new Grand Pensionary, the young Johan de Witt, and his uncle Cornelis de Graeff.

However, the commercial rivalry between the two nations was not resolved. Especially in their vast overseas empires, hostilities continued between Dutch and English trading companies, which had warships and troops of their own. The Dutch had started on a major shipbuilding programme to remedy the lack of ships of the line evident at the battles of the Kentish Knock, the Gabbard, and Scheveningen. The admiralties were now forbidden by law to sell off these 60 new ships. The Second Anglo-Dutch War was distantly in the making.


Military conflicts similar to or like First Anglo-Dutch War

The naval Battle of Dungeness took place on 30 November 1652 (10 December Gregorian calendar), during the First Anglo-Dutch War near the cape of Dungeness in Kent. In September 1652 the government of the Commonwealth of England, the Council of State, mistakenly believing that the United Provinces after their defeat at the Battle of the Kentish Knock would desist from bringing out a fleet so late in the season, sent away ships to the Mediterranean and the Baltic. Wikipedia

The naval Battle of the Gabbard, also known as the Battle of Gabbard Bank, the Battle of the North Foreland or the Second Battle of Nieuwpoort took place on 2–3 June 1653 (12–13 June 1653 Gregorian calendar). during the First Anglo-Dutch War near the Gabbard shoal off the coast of Suffolk, England between fleets of the Commonwealth of England and the United Provinces. Wikipedia

The first engagement of the First Anglo-Dutch War between the navies of the Commonwealth of England and the United Provinces of the Netherlands. The English Parliament had passed the first of the Navigation Acts in October 1651, aimed at hampering the shipping of the highly trade-dependent Dutch. Wikipedia

Naval battle between the fleets of the Dutch Republic and England, fought on 28 September 1652 (8 October Gregorian calendar), during the First Anglo-Dutch War near the shoal called the Kentish Knock in the North Sea about thirty kilometres east of the mouth of the river Thames. Soon forced to withdraw, losing two ships and many casualties. Wikipedia

Conflict between England and the Dutch Republic partly for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry, but also as a result of political tensions. After initial English successes, the war ended in a Dutch victory. Wikipedia

The naval Battle of Leghorn took place on 4 March 1653 (14 March Gregorian calendar), during the First Anglo-Dutch War, near Leghorn (Livorno), Italy. Wikipedia


Fortress Builder

important during the course of the three Anglo - Dutch Wars ( 165274 ) . The
value and vulnerability of . By 1564 , twenty - three of the largest ships of the
Queen ' s fleet were moored below Rochester Bridge . Upnor Castle was
remodelled .

Publisher: Liverpool University Press

ISBN: UOM:39015059287014

Despite the fact that the Civil War finished off many of Britain's medieval castles once and for all, the second half of the 17th century saw a revival in fortress building across north-western Europe.


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